Case Study 3: Responses

Part 2 Directions: React to your group mates’ responses from parts 1 and 2 by commenting on their posts. In reading the responses from part 2, how is your suggested approach similar to or different from those of your group mates? Do you feel as though one of the frames/approaches would be more effective than the others? Your responses to these questions are due


Sunday, 4/2 by 11:59pm.

Deborah M Compton

Mar 23, 2023Mar 23 at 4:56pm

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Jan is trying to implement a change in both operations and organizational culture regarding the Consolidated Application. In what way (if any) is she applying Kotter’s model of change management. In what ways does she need to supplement her actions?

Jan used several factors from Kotter’s model of change management. She had developed a sense of urgency with the State’s deadline, even though she successfully got an extension. She also had plans to form a powerful coalition of principals and teachers by persuading them that the Coalition Application had meaning and reflected what they do. She had a vision of success in her first district-level administrative level position, which included a Consolidation Application being turned in on time.

There are other factors that she needs to supplement her actions. First, she should communicate the vision to all the principals and teachers through all activities. She should walk the talk as well. Secondly, she needs to remove obstacles. There may be principals or teachers who will not buy into her plan. She refuses to use force or coercion, so she needs to use her persuasive abilities to sway opinions or move them to an area of lesser influence. Thirdly, she needs to intentionally plan short- and long-term wins to build cohesion among the staff. Finally, she should not declare victory too soon in the process.

As we think about the transition from planning to execution, how might (or does) Jan incorporate Bossidy, Charan, and Burke’s three key points into implementing this change in operations?

The first key point is that execution is a discipline. Execution must be part of the strategy. Execution must include discussions about the how and what questions and diligently following through to enable accountability. Execution is the ability to act in reality. To execute well, there are three core processes: people, strategy, and operations. Jan needs to focus on these three processes to be successful. She needs to know which people will work on the Coalition Application and how they will be held accountable for results. She must know the technical, human, and financial resources needed to complete this project. She needs to get agreement from everyone on what they are responsible for and get their commitment to completing their tasks. All the processes are intertwined, with the leader engaged in all three. Jan must be the project owner.

The second key point is that execution is the business leader’s job. Jan must be responsible for picking the other leaders, setting the strategic direction, and conducting operations. Leading the organization does not mean being a micro-manager, but Jan must be able to ask the tough questions of everyone to find solutions. Dialogue must be open and free. Stilted conversations within the organizations will sabotage the successful execution of a strategy.

The third key point is that execution needs to be part of the culture. Everyone in the organization should understand and execute. Execution should be part of the reward system. Jan should approach this similarly to a Six Sigma process for continual improvement. Deviations from desired tolerances are looked for and immediately corrected to correct the problem.


Using your dominant frame, how would Jan approach the situation?

Using the structural framework, Jan would ensure that the process has rules, processes, procedures, and technologies that channel resources to individuals responsible for the successful outcome. She would assign people to tasks to increase efficiency.

Jan will also assume that any problems she encounters are due to a broken link in the organization’s structures and will use the Six Sigma process to find it and correct it immediately. Jan will have clear lines of authority within the groups, and everyone will focus on the task, not on personalities or emotions.

Is this approach adequate as a standalone. If so, why? If not, explain what other frames might be helpful in addressing the situation.

Jan will need to use a combination of other frames to be successful with this project. It was stated that the principals and teachers all looked at the Coalition Application as a waste of time. Some teachers never looked at it before it was turned in. Jan will have to use the Human Resources frame to gain commitment. Jan needs to listen and communicate with openness to understand the current situation. HR leaders work to have a supportive environment necessary for the situation.

Jan will also have to use the Political Framework. Politics are the reality of all organizations, and Jan must learn how to deal with them. She needs to provide space for expressing differences and methods to compromise. She will need to get the group with the most power on her side to attract the others.

Jan could also use the Symbolic Framework. She needs to be visible and excited about the project. This will help to make the group more cohesive around this project. Stating what the loss of $10 million in grant money will do to their schools and pupils can become symbols of their mission.

It is important to note that leaders can use any framework and may also use a combination simultaneously in a day. Jan will be more successful if she uses all four frameworks during the process at appropriate times.


Sarah Alhudaithi

SundayMar 26 at 11:12pm

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Part 1a Directions: 

1. Jan is attempting to implement a change in both the operations and organizational culture of the school district regarding the Consolidated Application. Kotter’s model of change management can be applied to Jan’s efforts in several ways. First, Jan has identified the need for change and created a sense of urgency by informing the principals and teachers that the school plans must be submitted appropriately, or their grants will be suspended for the year. Second, she is building a guiding coalition by working with state-level education officials and negotiating a six-week extension for the submission of the school plans. Third, she is creating a vision for the change and communicating it to the principals and teachers by persuading them that the Consolidated Application is more than busy work, that it has meaning, and that it is a reflection of what they are doing. Fourth, she is empowering others to act by encouraging the principals and teachers to participate in the development of the school plans and providing them with the resources they need to complete them.

However, Jan needs to supplement her actions in several ways. First, she needs to develop a detailed plan for the change, including specific action steps, timelines, and metrics for evaluating progress. Second, she needs to involve the teachers and administrators in the change process, soliciting their feedback and ideas for improvement. Third, she needs to address the cultural barriers to change, such as the belief among teachers and administrators that the Consolidated Application is a waste of time.

2. To implement the change in operations regarding the Consolidated Application, Jan can incorporate Bossidy, Charan, and Burck’s three key points. First, Jan needs to focus on the execution of the change by developing a detailed plan that includes specific action steps, timelines, and metrics for evaluating progress. A well-defined plan with specific timelines and metrics will help Jan to monitor progress and take corrective actions if necessary. It will also help her to keep the stakeholders informed about the progress and manage their expectations.

 Secondly, Jan needs to ensure that the change is aligned with the school district’s goals and objectives, as well as state and federal laws. She can involve the teachers and administrators in the development of the school plans to ensure that they align with their instructional practices. This will help the stakeholders to understand the importance of the change and its impact on achieving the district’s goals and objectives. Moreover, aligning the change with state and federal laws will ensure that the district remains compliant with regulatory requirements.

 Lastly, Jan needs to create a culture of accountability by establishing clear roles and responsibilities, monitoring progress, and holding individuals and teams accountable for achieving their goals. This can be done by providing regular feedback and recognition for good performance and addressing performance issues as they arise. A culture of accountability will motivate the stakeholders to perform at their best and ensure that the change is implemented successfully.

Part 1b Directions:

1. Based on the Bolman and Deal’s Four Frames, I seem to operate mainly within the Structural Framework.

As a person with a dominant structural frame, Jan would approach the situation by analyzing the organizational structure of the organization and identifying areas of improvement. She would focus on the procedures, policies, and systems in place to determine where inefficiencies lie and how they can be addressed. This could involve a review of the roles and responsibilities of different departments and individuals within the organization, as well as an analysis of communication channels and decision-making processes. Jan’s goal would be to identify areas of overlap, redundancy, or confusion, and to develop strategies for streamlining and optimizing these areas.

 Jan would likely seek input from employees at all levels to gain a comprehensive understanding of the current state of affairs. This could involve conducting surveys, focus groups, or one-on-one interviews to gather feedback on current policies and procedures, as well as suggestions for improvement. By involving employees in the change process, Jan could build buy-in and ownership for the proposed changes and help to ensure that the new processes are implemented successfully. Through this process, Jan could gain valuable insights into the organization’s strengths and weaknesses and use this information to develop a plan to optimize the organization’s structure and processes.

2. While the structural frame provides a systematic approach to problem-solving, it has its limitations. Organizations are made up of people, and their needs and motivations cannot be fully understood through the lens of structure and processes alone. The human resources frame provides a complementary approach by emphasizing the importance of employee well-being, motivation, and engagement. By considering the human element of the organization, Jan can better understand the root causes of employee resistance to the new technology and develop strategies to address these issues.

 Additionally, the political and symbolic frames can provide valuable insights into the organization’s power dynamics and cultural norms, respectively. By examining the political landscape, Jan can identify potential obstacles to the successful implementation of the new technology, such as resistance from influential stakeholders. By considering the symbolic aspects of the organization, Jan can identify the underlying cultural norms and values that may be impacting employee reactions to the new technology. Incorporating insights from each of the frames will allow Jan to develop a comprehensive plan that addresses the full range of issues impacting the organization.

Joanna Elizabeth Blankenship

SundayMar 26 at 11:19pm

Manage Discussion Entry

Part 1a: Directions: 

Jan is trying to implement a change in both operations and organizational culture regarding the Consolidated Application. In what way (if any) is she applying Kotter’s model of change management? In what ways does she need to supplement her actions?

Jan is applying Kotter’s model of change management by creating a sense of urgency. Jan has identified the importance of the Consolidated Application and acknowledges the urgency of completing the application within the six-week extension. Jan can further supplement her sense of urgency by making both the principals and the teachers aware of the consequences of not completing the application. Consequences include the suspension of grants for a year totaling roughly $10 million.

Additionally, Jan can further supplement her actions by creating a powerful coalition which is also part of Kotter’s model of change management. This powerful coalition should include both administrators and teachers so that input and direction is gathered from both set of groups. To create a powerful coalition, Jan must find strong leaders who are informed of the process, familiar with the application, and motivated to create change. These leaders will serve as motivators for the rest of the group encouraging them to participate and guiding them through the process.

Furthermore, to supplement her actions, Jan can apply Kotter’s step of developing a vision. Jan can communicate her vision with the team, setting clear goals and strategies to reach those goals. Lastly, Jan can apply Kotter’s step of removing obstacles. One obstacle that Jan can work on removing is the negative attitudes that administrators and teachers have toward the application. Removing the negative attitudes will help decrease resistance to change among the group.

As we think about the transition from planning to executing, how might (or does?!) Jan incorporate Bossidy, Charan, and Burck’s three key points into implementing this change in operations?

When thinking of executing a plan, Jan can incorporate Bossidy, Charan, and Burck’s key point of “execution is the major job of the business leader” by ensuring that she as District Director of Special Projects, leads the team in getting things done. Jan can achieve this by developing key strategies and then selecting leaders to implement those strategies.

Additionally, Jan can incorporate Bossidy, Charan, and Burck’s key point of “execution is a discipline”.  In other words, execution is not just something that happens once, execution requires that Jan be fully engaged in the process. Jan must be actively involved throughout the entire process ensuring that she is holding others accountable.

Lastly, Jan can incorporate Bossidy, Charan, and Burck’s key point of “execution must be a core element of an organizations culture” by ensuring that everyone understands the importance of execution and the outcome and impact it can have on the organization. Jan must also work on changing the attitudes and behaviors so that everyone is on the same page working toward the same goal.


Part 1b:

Using your dominant frame (again, as identified during Module 3), how would Jan approach the situation?

According Bolman and Deal’s Four Frames assessment, my primary/dominant frame is that of the Human Resource. As a Human Resource dominant frame, Jan’s main focus would be the people of the organization and their needs and goals. Jan’s first step in addressing this situation would be to bring everyone together as a group with one vision and one goal. Part of this step would be ensuring that both administrators and teachers understand the reason for the Consolidated Application, its importance, and the ramifications of not completing the application on time.  

Additionally, as a Human Resource dominant frame Jan’s approach to this situation would be to create and encourage an open line of communication with both administrators and teachers. With an open line of communication Jan can establish an environment where administrators and teachers feel comfortable voicing their concerns, an environment where they feel like their needs are being heard. With an open line of communication Jan can also establish an environment where administrators and teachers feel comfortable providing feedback, input, and ideas. Jan can achieve this by providing one-on-one discussions or group discussions, brainstorming with both administrators and teachers on ideas and ways to improve the process and application so that is doesn’t seem very complex or very long. This approach will help create a culture where both administrators and teachers feel respected, valued, involved, and supported.

Furthermore, as a Human Resource dominant frame Jan’s approach to this situation would be that of empowerment and encouragement. Instead of writing most of the documents as the previous woman who oversaw this area in the district typically did, Jan would encourage participation from both administrators and teachers. Jan would also provide support by coaching them through the process and providing guidance. Aside from guidance, Jan can also provide administrators and teachers with tools and resources on how to complete the application. For example, Jan could provide a sample application to administrators and teachers, giving them an example or guide to follow.  

Is this approach / using this frame adequate as a standalone? If so, why? If not, explain what other frames might be helpful in addressing this situation.

It is not sufficient enough to only use the Human Resource leader framework when addressing this situation, but rather it would be helpful to use other frames including the structural and symbolic frameworks. As noted by Bolman and Deal, the structural leader focuses on structure and goals. Using the structural framework, Jan can ensure that she is clearly communicating with administrators and teachers the goals of the organization. Furthermore, Jan can delegate specific task and responsibilities to certain individuals based on individual strengths and weakness to ensure that each person contributes to the completion of the application. Assigning task and separating sections of the application will help alleviate the workload so that administrators and teachers don’t feel overwhelmed.

As noted by Bolman and Deal, the symbolic leader focuses on vision and inspiration. Using the symbolic framework, Jan can share her vision with the team, explaining how the consolidated application can help the elementary schools. Furthermore, Jan can inspire her team by giving them a sense of purpose. With a sense of purpose, others understand the meaning of their work and how their work impacts the organization.

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