Final Proposal

The proposal will include the

introduction/literature review with a testable hypothesis, method section (participants, materials, and procedure), projected results, and discussion of what these results mean. A title page, reference page, abstract, and IRB application
must also be included.

The paper must be written in APA format and the proposed study must be feasible

(i.e., could be used for your Capstone). The paper will be submitted in sections to allow

feedback prior to the submission of the final research proposal.

a)
Introduction/Literature Review and Hypothesis (10% of Grade) – The literature

review serves as the introduction to your paper. The final literature review should include a thorough review of 8-10 articles related to the chosen topic. The hypothesis should flow from the literature review and add to the current research on the chosen topic.


Note that your final literature review (due week 8) should include 8-10


references, minimum

b) Method Section (10% of Grade) – The method section will include three sections:

Participants, Measures, and Procedure. If proposing survey research, you must select\ reliable/valid measures and these measures must be attached to your submission.

c) Projected Results and Discussion (10% of Grade) – The project results section should

include a description of which statistics you will use to test your hypothesis. The discussion section should include possible outcomes as well as possible limitations that you might encounter

d) Final Proposal including IRB application (10% of Grade) – The final paper will include

all sections of the paper including the
title page, abstract, literature review with

hypothesis, method section, project results, discussion, references, IRB application, and any measures that you plan to include. The final proposal should include application of the core value- Respect.

1

The Influence of Social Media on Mental Health

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Research Method II: PSY 535

Instructor Andrea Goldstein

November 6, 2022

Introduction

When discussing the influence of social media on mental health, first, it is pivotal to understand what social media is and the different dimensions of mental health. On the one hand, social media refers to how people can share information on various issues. Information can be shared in video, image, and audio, among other formats. The information shared via these platforms can benefit the users or have damaging consequences, such as mental issues and radicalization. Some popular social media platforms are Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, and Flickr. According to the Pew Research Center, over 84% of Americans will use social media in 2022, compared to 5% in 2002 (
Pew Research Center, 2022). The most used platforms in the United States are Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Pinterest.

Mental health is pivotal because it influences the decisions people make ad their participation in daily routines. Issues like trauma, abuse, child neglect, unemployment, and divorce can lead to mental health problems affecting individual functioning. Some dominant mental health issues include depression, sleeping disorders, stress, aggression, and self-denial. On the other hand, mental health incorporates three dimensions: physiological, social, and emotional well-being.

It has been argued that social media can affect users’ mental health negatively or positively. One of the highly cited benefits of social media is that the platforms offer users a high sense of privacy. With privacy guaranteed, individuals can openly discuss their woeful experiences without having too woeful experiences. In other words, social media provides a better platform for self-expression, which is not guaranteed through physical encounters. Social media also has the potential to help individuals network with others and build healthy relationships, which is crucial in reducing exposure to mental wellness. Besides connecting with individuals, social media can enable people to connect with other agencies created to deal with mental issues (Robinson & Smith, 2022). On the downside, one of the repercussions of social media on mental health is that it increases the state of loneliness because users may find themselves spending more time on social media applications than interacting with other people. Social media can also lead to body image issues, depression, stress, and cyberbullying (Robinson & Smith, 2022). This research aims to delve deeper into the effects of mental health by focusing on literature and additional research.

Research Questions

1. How can the benefits derived from social media use be augmented to suppress the risks?

2. What are the triggers of mental health issues among social media users?

3. What strategies can be implemented to reduce social media use among adolescents?

Hypothesis

Social media users are at increased risk of depressive symptoms and anxiety.

Literature Review

Numerous studies on the influence of social media and mental health exist. This section focuses on some of the outstanding peer-reviewed articles on the issue. The review aims to broaden understanding of the issue while identifying new focus areas. The keyword used to identify these articles is social media and mental health. The articles were obtained from Google Scholar and PubMed electronic databases. All the articles were published between 2017 and the present.

Many attempts have been aimed to promote an understanding of the relationship between mental health and social media. Naslund et al. (2020) focus on the benefits and risks of using social media and propose new methods to overcome the risks. One of the benefits of social media is improving social interaction among different people in the community. Social media offers readily available and accessible forms of access for different individuals than in person-conversation. The second benefit is that social media facilitate access to peer support networks (Naslund et al., 2020; O’Reilly, 2020). These connections aim to establish meaningful relationships with different people and help to connect with agencies and groups that provide mental health services. A similar perspective emerged in the study by (Bucci et al., 2019). In the study, Bucci et al. (2019) note that social media provides digital platforms that allow people to self-monitor and self-manage in a way that face-to-face approaches have, up until now, not allowed.

One of the mental health risks associated with social media use is that it affects offline relationships. (Naslund et al., 2020) Assert that the way people use social media and their time on these platforms have far-reaching consequences on their daily lives. Other authors have also found the same in their studies. In particular, (Twenge et al., 2019) found that the use of social media among peers resulted in declining in-person social interaction. As adolescents’ use of social media increased, their in-person social interactions declined. The study was nationally representative and had 82 participants aged between thirteen and eighteen. Using social media has resulted in a sharp increase in loneliness since 2011 (Twenge et al., 2019). These findings show that social media can affect individual mental well-being.

Another risk of using social media is that it can lead to hostile interactions that trigger mental health problems. In the past, many social media users have become victims of social media use. One of the widespread phenomena on social media is cyberbullying, where specific groups are targeted by hateful messages (Naslund et al., 2020). Studies show that cyberbullying disproportionately affects females more than males (Naslund et al., 2020). Cyber-bulling has the potential to cause depressive symptoms among victims. Further, cyberbullying can potentially worsen anxiety symptoms for young users and females (Naslund et al., 2020). Hence, social media use can trigger mental health problems.

While the effects of mental illness are well-elaborated, as seen in the literature, other studies found no connection between social media use and mental health problems. (Coyne et al., 2020) studied the effect of spending time on social media platforms on the mental wellness of participants. The study was longitudinal and was conducted for eight years. There were 500 participants in the study, and data were collected annually through a questionnaire. The participants were aged between 13 and 20 years. The results showed that increasing time spent on social media did not affect an individual’s mental wellness. Consequently, the authors recommended further studies on the same subject.

Summary

The literature on social media and mental health is inconclusive. On the one hand, some studies have found numerous benefits associated with social media use. These benefits include facilitating social interaction and supporting peer networks (Naslund et al., 2020). However, there are also demerits associated with social media use, including risks of loneliness, worsening anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, other studies do not find a correlation between time spent on social media and mental health (Coyne et al., 2020). Hence, there is a need for more research on the issue.

Research Methodology

This study will use an experimental research method to further the study on the influence of social media on mental health. The choice of this method is partly informed by the literature conducted. The primary study methods used in the existing studies are longitudinal, cross-sectional, systematic reviews, and commentaries. Among the reviewed studies, none use the experimental method to find the correlation between social media and mental health.

An experimental study is quantitative and contains a set of variables that can be kept constant during research. The study is usually conducted in a controlled environment to obtain accurate results. Subsequently, this study will be conducted in a controlled environment. Participants will be adolescents aged between thirteen and nineteen years. The individuals will be divided into two groups (25 participants each). Before participating in the research, anxiety and depressive symptoms will be determined. The aim of assessing depressive and anxiety symptoms before participation is to account for any external factors affecting study findings. The two groups will be experimental and control. In control groups, individuals will not be allowed to use social media applications throughout the study period. In the experimental group, participants must spend at least four hours daily on social media. The research period will be two months. After two months, the researcher will reassess depressive and anxiety symptoms for participants in both groups. Depressive symptoms will be determined using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), while anxiety symptoms will be measured using Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7).

Analysis and Findings

The depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms scores, as measured by the respective tools, will be compared. The data will be analyzed using a t-test to find the significant values and make conclusions on the influence of social media on mental health. Suppose there is no significant difference in depressive and anxiety symptoms in control and experimental groups; the researcher will conclude that social media does not influence mental health. However, if there is a significant difference between the control and experimental groups, the authors will conclude that social media influences mental health. The researcher will offer recommendations on dealing with the issue from these findings.

References

Bucci, S., Schwannauer, M., & Berry, N. (2019). The Digital Revolution and its impact on Mental Health Care.
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice,
92(2), 277–297.

https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12222

Coyne, S. M., Rogers, A. A., Zurcher, J. D., Stockdale, L., & Booth, M. C. (2020). Does time spent using social media impact mental health?: An eight year longitudinal study.
Computers in Human Behavior,
104, 106160.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.106160

Naslund, J. A., Bondre, A., Torous, J., & Aschbrenner, K. A. (2020). Social Media and Mental Health: Benefits, risks, and opportunities for research and Practice.
Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science,
5(3), 245–257.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s41347-020-00134-x

O’Reilly, M. (2020). Social Media and Adolescent Mental Health: The good, the bad and the ugly.
Journal of Mental Health,
29(2), 200–206.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2020.1714007

Pew Research Center. (2022, October 7).
Social Media Fact sheet. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. Retrieved November 1, 2022, from

https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/fact-sheet/social-media/

Robinson, L., & Smith, M. (2022).
Social Media and Mental Health. HelpGuide.org. Retrieved November 1, 2022, from

Social Media and Mental Health

Twenge, J. M., Spitzberg, B. H., & Campbell, W. K. (2019). Less in-person social interaction with peers among U.S. adolescents in the 21st century and links to loneliness.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,
36(6), 1892–1913.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407519836170

2

The Influence of Social Media on Mental Health

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Research Method: PSY 535

Instructor Andrea Goldstein

November 12, 2022

The Influence of Social Media on Mental Health

Introduction

Social media has become a major part of people’s lives in the modern world. Since its existence, it has been used for various purposes in everyday life. The initial purpose of social media was for easier and faster personal communication. However, it has gradually been incorporated into different fields, such as the business world, schools, and hospitals, as a communication and marketing tool, making it easier to reach more customers and potential clients within a short time. Nevertheless, social media has also had its downside, which can also be detrimental to the health and well-being of its users. Studies conducted recently have identified the development of mental health issues as one of the negative effects of social media. Increased use of social media has been shown to cause various mental health disorders such as stress and anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder. This proposal will analyze an experimental study to identify the influence of social media on mental health. It will study selected participants, measures to address the variables of interest, and the data collection procedure (Bashir & Bhat, 2017).

Participants

Social media can affect any of its users. Therefore, there is no particular population that is only affected by the overuse of social media. However, various studies have shown that teenagers and young adults aged 12- 30 are more prone to developing mental health issues than older adults (Berryman, Ferguson & Negy, 2018). This can be attributed to the more screen time consumed by this set of individuals compared to people above this age bracket. Therefore, the participants in this experiment will include high school and college students since they face higher risks of developing mental health disorders.

According to different research studies and analyses, students who spend much time on social media are more likely to develop sleeping disorders, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem due to peer pressure on social platforms. This experiment will study different variables and factors that influence students’ use of social media and how it leads to the development of mental health issues.

Measures

This experiment will study different variables and factors that lead to the development of mental health issues from too much use of social media by high school and college students. One of the most important factors to consider in the experiment will be the daily amount of time spent on social media by the average number of students. This will help to distinguish between the average time that can be deemed healthy and detrimental to a student’s mental health.

The experiment will also measure the commonly used social media platforms and their effect on students’ mental health. Various social platforms have been proven to have chances of accelerating mental discomfort, such as low self-esteem, which is one of the initial stages of developing mental health disorders. Platforms such as YouTube, Instagram, and Snapchat are some of the most used apps by students in that age bracket.

Data Collection Procedure

In this experiment, data and information will be collected efficiently to ensure the effectiveness of this experiment. Selected students will fill out questionnaires concerning their social media use, such as their feelings and attitudes before, during, and after using the social platforms. Answers collected from the questionnaires will be analyzed to identify the various triggers and underlying factors that make the students develop negative emotions, ultimately leading to mental issues. This will be the most crucial stage since it will discuss the effect of factors such as average time spent on social media, content consumed, and interactions they may face on social platforms.

References

Bashir, H., & Bhat, S. A. (2017). Effects of social media on mental health: A review. 
International Journal of Indian Psychology, 
4(3), 125–131.

Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J., & Negy, C. (2018). Social media use and mental health among young adults. 
Psychiatric quarterly, 
89(2), 307–314.

1

The Influence of Social Media on Mental Health

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Research Method: PSY 535

Instructor Andrea Goldstein

November 21, 2022

Results and Discussion

The section on the results aims to provide a narrative of the results without attempting to analyze or evaluate them. It also serves as a guide for the discussion section of the research proposal. Both the results and the interpretation are stated (Graham, 2018). The researcher will describe the actions taken with the information found in this section. A clear understanding of the analysis’s components is required to write the paragraph on the study, but this does not imply that the analysis’s data must be present. It is necessary to have finished the research before writing the findings section.

The results chapter of the proposal will be the most crucial section because it will show the reader the outcomes of the quantitative data. A straightforward narrative will present the gathered data, along with tables, graphs, and charts (Graham, 2018). Doing this will also highlight any potential issues that might have been noticed generally, such as anomalies or strange discoveries.

In the chapter devoted to the results, a plot will be included to show how survey and questionnaire respondents responded and how many respondents fell into each group. A p-value from a statistical test will be used to determine whether or not such evidence supports a hypothesis when presented (Kiger & Varpio, 2020). After the analysis, there would be a sizable amount of data that was not necessary for the findings but was still present. There will probably be a ton of SPSS data, and the study will determine which data elements are most crucial. The researcher will sift through unimportant information and focus on the essential data (Kiger & Varpio, 2020). Due to this, it is unlikely that the time spent performing those analyses will be wasted; instead, doing so will ensure that the researcher understands the dataset and how to interpret it.

Making sure that the results are consistent with and reflective of the research’s objective will continue to be of utmost importance. Therefore, to assess whether the subject is still pertinent, the researcher will review the study goals, objectives, and research questions (Kiger & Varpio, 2020). A statistical method called correlation analysis will be used to measure the strength of the linear relationship between the social media-related variables and mental health and to calculate the link between them. Another way to put it is that correlation analysis will show how much a change in one variable affects a difference in the other (Kiger & Varpio, 2020). While a low correlation would suggest that there is only a weak association between the two variables, a high correlation would indicate a strong link between the two variables.

One of the statistical concepts that will have the strongest correlation to the type of study being conducted is the correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient will take into account the unit of measurement used to evaluate the strength of the linear relationship between the social media and mental health variables involved in a correlation study (Kiger & Varpio, 2020). It will be easy to identify a value like this because the symbol r will represent it, and in most cases, it will be a value without any units located between -1 and 1.

References

Graham, S. (2018). A revised writer(s)-within-Community model of writing. 
Educational Psychologist, 
53(4), 258-279. 

https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2018.1481406

Kiger, M. E., & Varpio, L. (2020). Thematic analysis of qualitative data: AMEE guide No. 131. 
Medical Teacher, 
42(8), 846-854. 

https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159x.2020.1755030

The Influence of Social Media on Mental Health

Martha Ramsey

Saint Leo University

Research Method II: PSY 535

Instructor Andrea Goldstein

November 3, 2022

1

Final draft: The Influence of social media on Mental Health

Abstract

It is essential to define social media and mental health to have a meaningful conversation on the impact technology has on people’s emotional well-being. One definition of social media is how individuals may discuss and learn more about a range of topics with one another. Video, still images, and sound are just some of the many ways data may be sent. The material provided on these sites has the potential to help people or to cause harm, such as mental health problems or radicalization. YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Flickr are all examples of well-known social networking sites. Pew predicts that by 2022, 84 percent of U.S. adults will be active on at least one social networking site, up from 5 percentage points in 2002.   In the United States, people mainly utilize the social media sites Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, and Twitter.

Introduction

One cannot imagine current life without the ubiquitous presence of social media. Since it was first created, people have found several ways to put it to use. Social media were designed to facilitate quick one-on-one contact. However, it has steadily been implemented in several industries, including schools, the business world, and hospitals, as a tool for marketing, making it simpler to contact more consumers and prospective clients in a short period. However, social media’s negative aspects may harm people’s health and well-being. Among the harmful impacts of social media is the rise of mental health problems, according to recent studies. Anxiety, sadness, and mania are just some of the mental health problems that have been linked to excessive social media usage.

People’s mental well-being is crucial since it determines how actively they engage in everyday life. Mental health issues may impair an individual’s ability to operate and can be triggered by various traumatic experiences, abusive relationships, child maltreatment, unemployment, and failed marriages. Common mental health difficulties include melancholy, inability to sleep, tension, hostility, and suppression of feelings (Coyne et al.,2020). However, mental health encompasses not only physical health but also social and emotional well-being.

Some have suggested that media positively and negatively affect users’ mental health. One of social media’s most frequently cited advantages is the increased privacy it provides its users. Individuals can feel safe sharing their traumatic experiences, knowing their privacy will be protected. In other words, face-to-face interactions don’t necessarily guarantee the same level of openness that can be found on social media. Reducing the stigma associated with mental health issues requires people to connect with others, and social media can facilitate this. It’s not just people you can talk to on social media; there are also organizations whose sole purpose is to aid those with mental health problems. One negative effect of social media on mental health is that it can lead people to spend more time alone and less interacting with others, leading to increased loneliness. Cyberbullying, low mood, and other mental health problems are all possible outcomes of extensive social media use (Robinson and Smith, 2022). This study aims to delve more deeply into the effects of mental health by concentrating on literature and further studies. In this proposal, we will discuss the results of an experiment designed to determine the impact of social media on individuals’ psychological well-being. Specifically, it will examine the study’s sample, the methods used to gather data, and the variables of interest.

Method

Participants

The adverse effects of excessive social media usage are seen across all demographics. Nonetheless, several studies have indicated that people between the ages of 12 and 30 are more likely than older persons to have mental health problems (Berryman, Ferguson, and Nagy, 2018). People under the age of 30 spend disproportionately more time than those over the age of 30 consuming media on electronic devices, which may explain this pattern. Students from high schools and universities will make up the bulk of this experiment’s subjects because of the increased vulnerability of these age groups to mental health problems. Different studies and analyses have shown that students who spend much time on social media are at a higher risk of developing insomnia, anxiety, despair, and poor self-esteem. This research aims to examine the relationship between students’ usage of social media and the emergence of mental health problems by controlling for various factors.

Measures

This study will employ a controlled research design to investigate factors for mental health problems among high school and college students who spend too much time on social media. The average number of learners on average time spent on social media will be a crucial variable to account for in the experiment. This will assist in differentiating between the typical amounts of time that are good for and bad for a student’s mental health.

The survey will also assess the impact of popular social media sites on students’ mental health. Multiple social media sites have been shown to increase the likelihood of mental distress, such as poor self-esteem, which is one of the first symptoms of mental health issues. YouTube, Instagram, and Snapchat are among the most popular applications among students in that age range.

Procedure

The success of this experiment depends on the thoroughness with which we gather data and other information. Selected students will be asked to complete surveys on their experiences with social media, including how they felt before, during, and after utilizing various sites. The gathered data from the surveys will be used to determine what causes pupils to touch down in the dumps and what contributes to the development of long-term emotional and psychological difficulties (Berryman, Ferguson, and Negy, 2018). This is the most crucial phase since it will address the influence of variables like typical social media use, content intake, and possible interactions.

References

Bashir, H., & Bhat, S. A. (2017). Effects of social media on mental health: A review. 
International Journal of Indian Psychology, 
4(3), 125–131.

Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J., & Negy, C. (2018). Social media use and mental health among young adults. 
Psychiatric quarterly, 
89(2), 307–314.

Bucci, S., Schwannauer, M., & Berry, N. (2019). The Digital Revolution and its impact on Mental Health Care.
Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice,
92(2), 277–297.

https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12222

Coyne, S. M., Rogers, A. A., Zurcher, J. D., Stockdale, L., & Booth, M. C. (2020). Does time spent using social media impact mental health?: An eight year longitudinal study.
Computers in Human Behavior,
104, 106160.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.106160

Graham, S. (2018). A revised writer(s)-within-Community model of writing. 
Educational Psychologist, 
53(4), 258-279. 

https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2018.1481406

Kiger, M. E., & Varpio, L. (2020). Thematic analysis of qualitative data: AMEE guide No. 131. 
Medical Teacher, 
42(8), 846-854. 

https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159x.2020.1755030

Naslund, J. A., Bondre, A., Torous, J., & Aschbrenner, K. A. (2020). Social Media and Mental Health: Benefits, risks, and opportunities for research and Practice.
Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science,
5(3), 245–257.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s41347-020-00134-x

O’Reilly, M. (2020). Social Media and Adolescent Mental Health: The good, the bad and the ugly.
Journal of Mental Health,
29(2), 200–206.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2020.1714007

Pew Research Center. (2022, October 7).
Social Media Fact sheet. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. Retrieved November 1, 2022, from

https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/fact-sheet/social-media/

Robinson, L., & Smith, M. (2022).
Social Media and Mental Health. HelpGuide.org. Retrieved November 1, 2022, from

Social Media and Mental Health

Twenge, J. M., Spitzberg, B. H., & Campbell, W. K. (2019). Less in-person social interaction with peers among U.S. adolescents in the 21st century and links to loneliness.
Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,
36(6), 1892–1913.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407519836170

Rubric for Final Paper

Criteria and Qualities

Low

Middle

High

Introducing the idea:
Problem statement

(10%)

(0-69 pts)

Neither implicit nor explicit reference is made to the topic or purpose of the article.

(70-89 pts)

Readers are aware of the overall problem, challenge, or topic of the article

(90-100 pts)

The topic is introduced, and groundwork is laid as to the direction of the article.

Body:
Flow of the review

(10%)

The summary appears to have no direction, with subtopics appearing disjointed.

There is a basic flow from one section to the next, but not all sections or paragraphs follow in a natural or logical order.

The summary goes from general ideas to specific conclusions. Transitions tie sections together, as well as adjacent paragraphs.

Coverage of content

(20%)

Major sections of pertinent content have been omitted or greatly run-on. The topic is of little significance to the course.

All major sections of the pertinent content are included, but not covered in as much depth, or as explicit, as expected. Significance to the course is evident.

The appropriate content in consideration is covered in depth without being redundant. Sources are cited when specific statements are made. Significance to the course is unquestionable.

Clarity of writing and writing technique

(10%)

It is hard to know what the writer is trying to express. Writing is convoluted. Misspelled words, incorrect grammar, and improper punctuation are evident.

Writing is generally clear, but unnecessary words are occasionally used. Meaning is sometimes hidden. Paragraph or sentence structure is too repetitive. Few (3) spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors are made.

Writing is crisp, clear, and succinct. The writer incorporates the active voice when appropriate and supports ideas with examples. No spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors are made.

Conclusion:
A synthesis of ideas and hypothesis or research question

(10%)

There is no indication the author tried to synthesize the information or make a conclusion based on the literature under review. No hypothesis or research question is stated.

The author provides concluding remarks that show an analysis and synthesis of ideas occurred. Some of the conclusions, however, were not supported in the body of the report. The hypothesis or research question is stated.

The author was able to make succinct and precise conclusions based on the review. Insights into the problem are appropriate. Conclusions and the hypothesis are strongly supported in the review.

Methodology

(20%)

Insufficient detailed description of design, measures, participants, or procedures

Accurately describes the design, measures, participants, and procedures, but is vague and leaves out some important details

Appropriately describes the design, measures, participants, and procedures in exceptional detail such that the study could be replicated by an outside researcher

Expected Results and Discussion

(10%)

No, or vague, or inaccurate mention of analysis type and expected outcome of hypothesis test(s) and does not mention implications

Accurately describes planned analysis and expected outcome of hypothesis tests, and mentions implications of results, but leaves out important details

Accurately and in detail describes planned analysis or analyses and expected outcome of hypothesis tests. Discusses specifically what the results would mean if hypothesis supported

Citations/References:
Proper APA format

(10%)

Citation for the article did not follow
APA format and was missing essential information.

Citation for the article did follow
APA format; however; a few (2) errors in essential information were evident.

Citation for the article did follow
APA format. Essential information was accurate and complete.

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  • Is there a possibility of plagiarism in my completed order?

    We complete each paper from scratch, and in order to make you feel safe regarding its authenticity, we check our content for plagiarism before its delivery. To do that, we use our in-house software, which can find not only copy-pasted fragments, but even paraphrased pieces of text. Unlike popular plagiarism-detection systems, which are used by most universities (e.g. Turnitin.com), we do not report to any public databases—therefore, such checking is safe.

    We provide a plagiarism-free guarantee that ensures your paper is always checked for its uniqueness. Please note that it is possible for a writing company to guarantee an absence of plagiarism against open Internet sources and a number of certain databases, but there is no technology (except for turnitin.com itself) that could guarantee no plagiarism against all sources that are indexed by turnitin. If you want to be 100% sure of your paper’s originality, we suggest you check it using the WriteCheck service from turnitin.com and send us the report.

  • I received some comments from my teacher. Can you help me with them?

    Yes. You can have a free revision during 7 days after you’ve approved the paper. To apply for a free revision, please press the revision request button on your personal order page. You can also apply for another writer to make a revision of your paper, but in such a case, we can ask you for an additional 12 hours, as we might need some time to find another writer to work on your order.

    After the 7-day period, free revisions become unavailable, and we will be able to propose only the paid option of a minor or major revision of your paper. These options are mentioned on your personal order page.

  • How will I receive a completed paper?

    You will get the first version of your paper in a non-editable PDF format within the deadline. You are welcome to check it and inform us if any changes are needed. If everything is okay, and no amendments are necessary, you can approve the order and download the .doc file. If there are any issues you want to change, you can apply for a free revision and the writer will amend the paper according to your instructions. If there happen to be any problems with downloading your paper, please contact our support team.
  • Where do I upload files?

    When you submit your first order, you get a personal account where you can track all your orders, their statuses, your payments, and discounts. Among other options, you will have a possibility to communicate with your writer via a special messenger. You will be able to upload all information and additional materials on your paper using the “Files” tab on your personal page. Please consider uploading everything you find necessary for our writer to perform at the highest standard.
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