Human Anatomy Discussion Post 3

Reply to least 5 posts from your peers. Provide substantial information (if you pull directly from a source put it in quotations and cite the author) and pose insightful questions. We are living in an historic time right now.

Check your spelling and watch your language please (no inflammatory or political opinions, per the Netiquette rules for the College).

I look forward to your posts!

Please reply to the attached responses 5 in total with a minimum of 100 words each totaling 500 words.

Discussion Posts

Sarah’s Post:

Today we’re going to compare the different types of pandemics that we’ve
experienced over the years in our world. We may be able to learn and
understand how we react and cope with these types of emergencies in our

The first pandemic we experienced was the Spanish Flu, the CDC website
states it was “the most severe pandemic in recent history”. There is no
legitimate documentation of when the virus first began to spread but it
became a worldwide epidemic during 1918-1919. Unlike other viruses that
we experience now that mainly target children under 5 years old and adults
over 65 years old, this virus also targeted people in the 20-40 years old age
group. There were believed to be 500 million people infected with the virus
and 50 million passed away from the infection. At the time, they did not have
a way to provide a vaccine or antibiotics to help prevent the virus from
spreading, they used tactics such as isolation and disinfectants to help
control the virus from spreading.

Source: www.cdc.govLinks to an external site.

The next pandemic is the 1976 Swine Flu epidemic. The origin of this flu is a
strange one as Swine Flu is commonly found in pigs, so how did it become
such a large problem with humans? In early 1976, the CDC was called to
look at an illness that was spreading in a military fort in New Jersey, after
many tests, they determined it was the H1N1 Flu virus. The virus had
mutated to infect humans and was easily transferred from human to human,
which was a big warning to the CDC. The epidemic lasted from January
1976-March 1977 as a vaccine for this virus was quickly produced and
available nationwide. There were hardly any deaths from this flu, but many
deaths from the vaccine. There were 41 people who supposedly died from
the vaccine while only one person died from the virus. I believe this was the
first type of epidemic of the United States being ready to fight back and not
let it become a worldwide pandemic.

Source: www.cdc.govLinks to an external site. , www.ncbi.nlm.nih.govLinks
to an external site.

The third pandemic is the SARS-Cov-1 pandemic, which stands for severe
acute respiratory syndrome associated with coronavirus.


was first
reported in Asia in early 2003 and continued to spread worldwide throughout
the year. SARS is a viral infection that is spread by an airborne virus similar
to a common cold or flu spread. By March 2004, there were no more active
cases of SARS-Cov-1. The treatment for this pandemic was the same as we
have always used in these types of sicknesses, isolation, disinfecting and
good surveillance of highly trafficked areas.

Source; www.cdc.govLinks to an external site. , www.who.intLinks to an
external site.

And our last pandemic is the Covid-19 Pandemic, which is still an ongoing
problem. WHO states, “Coronavirus disease is an infectious disease caused
by the SARS-Cov-2 virus”. This virus is very versatile as it could be a simple
illness like the flu, and you could recover in no time while some can become
seriously ill and require extensive medical treatment. The first case of Covid-
19 was reported on December 31 of 2019 and is still happening today. At
this current moment, there have been 675 million people infected and 6.87
million people have died from the virus. There have been multiple vaccines
to help prevent the spread but there seems to be no halt in the spread of
Covid-19. There has been a decline in the number of cases as the years go
on and we seem to be on a good downward slope but not sure when it will
officially end.

Source: www.cdc.govLinks to an external site. , www.who.intLinks to an
external site.

Amayrani’s Post:

The Spanish Flu was the most severe pandemic according to the CDC. It
was caused by an H1N1 virus that started in a bird host. It became a
worldwide issue during 1918-1919. In the United States it was first
discovered within military personnel in the spring of 1918. Some sources put
the end of this flu in 1920 but is not for certain. The symptoms were similar to
flu symptoms but more severe, they included a sudden, and sometimes very
high, fever, dry cough, headache and body aches, sore throat, chills, runny
nose, loss of appetite, extreme tiredness (fatigue). It is estimated that 500
million people were infected globally and over 50 million people died from the
Spanish Flu but 675,000 were in the U.S. An interesting fact is that the
Spanish flu is responsible for more deaths compared to the deaths from the
WWI,WWII, the Korean War, and the Vietnam war combined. There was no
medication that was found to be effective against the flu or even antibiotics
to treat the infections that people have as a result of. A lesson we could
learn from this event would be regarding prevention methods such as
isolation, washing our hands, wearing protection gear etc. We can also learn
that certain pandemics can affect younger healthier people, not just toddlers
and elderly people.

The Swine flu happened during January 1976 and it was first identified at
the Fort Dix Army Base in New Jersey. It was found to be a strain commonly
found in pigs that mutated to infect humans. Symptoms of the Swine flu were
fever, chills, cough, sore throat, runny/stuffy nose, watery red eyes, body
aches, headache, fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These are now
very similar to symptoms of a seasonal flu. This virus was detected in one
single military installation and it seemed as though it did not spread
elsewhere. This flu infected over 200 recruits and caused one death. There
is no cure, but the government came out with a vaccine for the swine flu.
There are antiviral drugs that work against the swine flu and a vaccine was
also developed to teach your immune system to attack the virus. However,
this vaccine caused Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) which can cause
paralysis, respiratory arrest, and death. . A major lesson to be learned from
this pandemic is vaccine effectiveness. There was a rush to vaccinate as
many people as possible, but that left many with neurological problems like
GBS. Effective vaccines require time and it is important to weigh the risks
before attempting a nationwide vaccine program. . A lesson that we learned
was that viruses can mutate and resurface many years later and we can
better track the evolution of viruses more effectively and quickly.

The Swine flu of 2009 occurred in the spring, April, and it was first detected
in the U.S. In June of 2009, WHO declared it a pandemic because it was
spreading quickly around the world. However, the origin was eventually
traced to Mexico. The symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or
stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue, vomiting and diarrhea.
SOme people had respiratory symptoms without a fever. The CDC estimated
that there were 60 million infected and over 12,000 deaths in the U.S. This
virus primarily affected children, young adults, and middle-aged adults.
There are antiviral drugs that work against the swine flu and a vaccine was
also developed to teach your immune system to attack the virus. A lesson
that we learned was that viruses can mutate and resurface many years later
and we can better track the evolution of viruses more effectively and quickly.

SARS was first identified at the end of February 2003. It emerged in China
and spread to other countries. It was a global outbreak in 2003 and since
2004 there have not been any known cases.The symptoms are similar to the
flu: fever, cough, chills, fatigue, shortness of breath, headache, and diarrhea.
There were 8,000 cases of SARS in 29 countries and 29 cases in the U.S.
No deaths were reported for the U.S, but 774 deaths in other countries.
There is no cure, and antibiotics drugs do not work against this virus, and
there is not really any benefit from antivirals. From this event, we learned
that sharing information and being vigorous with containing a virus is key.
Unlike China who did not prioritize their response to SARS, the U.S was able
to diminish it within our borders.

Covid became a worry in January 2020 in Wuhan, China when people
suspected that the 2002-2004 SARS was back. In January 10,2020 WHO
declared the outbreak was SARS-COVID. The symptoms are similar to other
flu symptoms such as fever, chills, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, body
aches, headache, loss of taste or smell, sore throat, runny nose or
congestion, nausea or vomiting, and diarrhea. There have been an
estimated total of 103 million infected and 1.13 million deaths. There are
antiviral medications to treat mild to moderate symptoms as well as vaccines
and boosters to keep up with different strains. One lesson we learned from
this event is that government policy matters and works however if people are
not taking the rules seriously then it is not as effective in preventing
transmission. For example, lockdowns and mask mandates were not always
respected and resulted in spreading of the infection. Covid has affected me
personally because I had become sick with it twice and was out of work for
two weeks each time. I had to learn how to navigate school ( all online ) and
work around covid mandates. Currently at my job we still wear masks

because health care workers are at a higher risk. My family, in particular my
mother, was severely affected because she has a poor immune system and
she had to stay home and miss work due to us being afraid that she would
get sick which could result in long term health problems or even worse,
death. However, this pandemic taught me to be more careful with my health,
making sure to keep up with my vaccines and also keep up with cleanliness.
pandemic-history.htmLinks to an external site.
1918 Links to an external site. Links to an
external site.
causes/syc-20378103Links to an external site. to an external
site. Links to an external site.
%2C%20SARS,of%20breath%2C%20headache%20and%20diarrhea. Links
to an external site.
treatment/drc-20351771Links to an external site.

Rosemary’s Post:

Spanish Flu
The Spanish flu was established in February 1918-1920, and it occurred in
the U.S. Signs & symptoms of the Spanish flu are sore throat, headache &
runny nose. The Spanish flu globally infected 500 million people which is
33% of the population of world. Unfortunately, there aren’t any cures for this
particular flu. Reading about the Spanish flu made me realize that there was
nothing that those people in the 1920s could do but try their best to be safe
and healthy.

Swine Flu 1976 & 2009
The Swine Flu was established in the 1970s in an Army Base at Fort Dix,
New Jersey. It has affected 60.8 million people & 34,000-100,000 died. It
only really affected the people who were 65 and up. The Americans made a
called the H1N1 where they give you a shot on your arm it’s supposed to be
a little dose of the virus so if you were to get it your body would know what to
do & fight it. The lesson learned was that people be more cautious and stay
healthy. The symptoms are fever, body aches, chills & fatigue. Swine Flu
2009 was established in Central Mexico. Treatments for the swine flu 2009
are Zanamivir & Baloxavir.

SARS was established in Asia on Feb 2003. The illness spread to more
than two dozen countries. Symptoms include chills & rigors, muscle pains.
After a couple of days it can result in dry coughing. There is no cure. Ive
never had SARS but I know any flu will completely be horrible.

It was established in china 2019. There was hundreds of death & illnesses.
Symptoms are fever & chills, fatigue. The lesson learned is to keep yourself
protected. It affected my family because I have a daughter & I try my hardest
to keep her from getting sick.
diseases/coronavirus/diagnosed-with-covid-19-what-to-expectLinks to an
external site. to an
external site. to an external site.

Peggy’s Post:

Spanish flu:

The Spanish Flu occurred between 1918-1919 and was a global pandemic
that infected an estimated 500 million people worldwide. It is believed to
have originated in the United States, then spread throughout Europe and

1976 swine flu:

The Swine Flu outbreak of 1976 occurred in the United States, with the first
cases reported among military recruits in Fort Dix, New Jersey.

2009 swine flu:

The 2009 Swine Flu (H1N1) pandemic occurred globally, with the first cases
reported in Mexico in April 2009. The virus quickly spread to the United
States and other countries.


The outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that occurred
between 2002-2003. It notes that the disease was first reported in
Guangdong Province, China, and quickly spread to other countries in Asia,
Europe, and North America. The information is presented in a clear and
concise manner, providing a basic understanding of the origin and global
spread of SARS during its outbreak. However, the paragraph does not
provide any information on the symptoms or impact of SARS, which would
be valuable in fully understanding the significance of the outbreak.
Nonetheless, the paragraph highlights the importance of global cooperation
in responding to outbreaks of infectious diseases that can quickly spread
across borders.


Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and quickly
became a global pandemic. It has since spread to nearly every country in the


Spanish flu symptoms:

The symptoms of the Spanish flu were similar to those of the seasonal flu,
but they were often more severe. Symptoms included fever, chills, cough,
muscle aches, and extreme fatigue. In severe cases, the Spanish flu could
also cause pneumonia and death.

1976 swine flu symptoms:

Symptoms of the 1976 swine flu were similar to seasonal flu and included
fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and fatigue. However, most cases were

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019).

2009 swine flu symptoms:

the symptoms of the 2009 swine flu, indicating that they were similar to those
of seasonal flu, including fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, and
fatigue. Additionally, some patients with swine flu also experienced
gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea. The information is
clear and concise, providing a basic understanding of the symptoms
associated with the disease. However, it should be noted that while the
symptoms of the 2009 swine flu were generally mild, the disease did lead to
a significant number of hospitalizations and deaths worldwide. Therefore, it is
important to take any flu-like symptoms seriously and seek medical attention
if necessary.

SARS symptoms:

SARS is an acute respiratory illness that manifests with fever, cough,
difficulty breathing and muscle aches. In severe cases, it can lead to
pneumonia, respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, and death.

Symptoms of COVID-19:

The symptoms of Covid-19 include fever, cough, shortness of breath, loss of
taste or smell, fatigue, body aches, headache, sore throat, and
gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

During the pandemic, my family had to work from home and some of them
lost their jobs. The pandemic has brought challenges for businesses and
workers, but the pandemic has also opened up new opportunities for remote
work and e-learning. People had to learn to adapt to a different way of life
and to use new technological tools to communicate and work.

Importantly, the pandemic has also revealed inequalities in health and
access to healthcare. The most vulnerable groups, such as the elderly,
people with chronic illnesses and marginalized communities, have been the
most affected by the disease. This highlighted the need to improve access to
health care for all.

Ultimately, Covid-19 was a difficult experience for many people, but it also
showed humanity’s ability to adapt and work together to fight a global threat.
The pandemic has highlighted the need to prepare health systems for future
outbreaks and strengthen international collaboration to address global health


1. World Health Organization. (2022). Weekly epidemiological update
on COVID-19 – 22 February
epidemiological-update-on-covid-19—22-february-2022Links to an
external site.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). 2009 H1N1
Pandemic (H1N1pdm09 virus).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). The 1918 Influenza

Afriania’s Post:

The Spanish Flu 1918-1919
The Spanish Flu was a pandemic that originated in the United States in
1918-1919. The overcrowded and unsanitary conditions created a breeding
ground for the virus, but the virus originated in a bird host. The symptoms
were High fever, dry cough, headache, body aches, sore throat, chills, runny
nose loss of appetite and extreme tiredness. 500 million people were
infected. There were 50 million deaths world wide and 675,000 deaths in the
U.S. There were no effective treatments to cure the Spanish flu. The lesson
that we can learn from this event is to be thankful for how far we have come
as a world. Also to continue to use per cautions whenever your around a
person who maybe sick with any kind of sickness.

The Swine Flu 1976
The swine flu outbreak was a virus that sickened many this happened in 1976.
The first case of the swine flu was in Fort Dix New Jersey on a army base In the
United States. The symptoms were fever, chills, coughing, sore throat, stuffy
nose, Watery red eyes, body aches, headache, fatigue, diarrhea, nausea. 200
people became ill initially when it first started to happen. Overtime The virus
killed 500,000 people in the US. The antibodies in the vaccine were effective at
neutralizing the seasonal H1N1 virus in 68.1% of people. The lessons that we
can learn from this event would be always wash your hands and pay attention
to your body if you feel sick and are unsure what is going on seek medical
attention ASAP.

The Swine Flu 2009

The swine flu was a virus that spreader very quickly around the U.S where it
originated at.The symptoms of the swine flu were chills, headache, cough, fever,
sore throat, runny nose, watery eyes etc. This virus was caused by the H1N1
influenza virus. There were 12,469 deaths due to the Swine flu in 2009 and 60.8
million cases. The cure for having the swine flu was to get plenty of rest, drink
fluids, eat a light diet, stay home.The lesson that needs to be learned is for
people to continue to put hygiene first.


SARS Is a infectious condition that can cause serious respiratory illness and
death. This infectious condition originated in China in 2003. This is when an
outbreak began China worldwide causing a global epidemic. The symptoms of
this virus are headache, general feeling of discomfort, bodyaches and diarrhea.
A total of 8098 people became sick worldwide with SARS yes 774 of them
died. The cure was two different antibiotics being combined to take together
they are called Ribavirin and Corticosteroids. The lesson we can take from this
event is to always be prepared and get checked out.

Covid 19

COVID-19 originated in Wuhan China in 2019.The symptoms of COVID-19
shortness of breath, muscle aches, chills, sore throat, runny nose, headache,
chest pain, pink, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, fever, cough & tiredness.
There were a total of 146.6 million estimated infections and a total of 921,000
estimated total deaths. COVID 19 was cured by the vaccine. The vaccine did not
stop you from getting Covid but it made your symptoms mild. The lesson we
can learn from this is that pandemics really can change people and make people
go crazy from having to quarantine and not socialize. COVID-19 really affected
me and my family even though none of us lost our lives like so many that my
heart goes out to it was a rough time for us.

Covid 19 VS ME

COVID-19 really affected me and my family. Even though none of us lost our
lives, like so many have that my heart goes out to it was a rough time for us.
When I had COVID-19 I literally felt like I was going to die. I couldn’t eat I
couldn’t sleep I could barely breathe my face had a rash in it so big that it
looked like my skin was pealing off. The rash took months after I had got
through covid to go away. This really affected my daily life. I didn’t wanna go
anywhere because my face looked so bad. It’s like I couldn’t catch a break as
soon as my skin started to clear up a little. I decided to go to a dermatologist to
see why it wasn’t completely going back to normal where I was told I have
Seborrheic dermatitis. Right after I got over Covid I took the vaccination series
1 and 2. I didn’t have the problem with my scalp breaking out and being
inflamed into after so my thoughts were that I developed seborrheic dermatitis
from the vaccine that I took. The whole experience was very traumatizing and I

do not wish that on anyone. I have nothing good to say about COVID-19 or the
experience I’ve had with it.

Many of these illnesses were very similar from the way that they contracted it
to the way that it affects you signs and symptoms. It is very important for
people to learn how to prevent spreading germs that causes people to
contract illnesses. I don’t know how many times that I have been in a store
and seen people leave the restroom without washing their hands. Something
that only takes 30 seconds could prevent a long time illness. Handwashing is
so important so that we keep down the germs. Coughing in your elbow
instead of the air is also something that needs to be talked about also there
are so many airborne sicknesses it’s ridiculous to not use precautions
whenever you are when it’s necessary.

flu-1918Links to an external site.
commemoration/1918-pandemic-history.htmLinks to an external site.
syndromeLinks to an external site.
causes/syc-20378103Links to an external site.
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external site.

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