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Unit 1 Assignment
Due Jan. 26 at 5 pm (Canvas)

For this assignment, you will answer questions based on what you learned from a selection of
short videos, primary sources, and secondary sources about New Spain and the world in the
sixteenth century. This assignment has three parts, and you should use only your lecture notes
and the primary and secondary sources listed below. Using sources other than these will be
penalized.

Please submit your answers as separate Word or Files document and draw on the information
and terminology you learned in lectures to complete the assignment. Be sure to refer to the
information on the syllabus for further guidance, especially “Formatting and Editorial
Guidelines.”

By now, you should have read or watched the following primary and secondary sources:

• Unsettling Journeys, “Defining Mestizaje and the Nature of History,”

• “Screen with the Siege of Belgrade,” https://smarthistory.org/screen-with-the-siege-of-
belgrade-and-hunting-scene-or-brooklyn-biombo/

• “Aztec Historian Describes First Japanese in Mexico (1610)”

• Chimalpahin, Annals of his Time, pgs. 3-7, 17-22, and 273-277. (On Canvas)

• Unsettling Journeys, “Columbus’s Landing and Erasing Native History,”

• “The Medici Collect the Americas,” https://smarthistory.org/medici-americas/

• Unsettling Journeys, “Indigenous People BEFORE the Conquest,”

• Dana Leibsohn & Meha Priyadarshini, “Transpacific: Beyond Silk and Silver,” Colonial
Latin American Review 25, no. 1 (2016): 1-15. (On Canvas)

• “Images of Africans in the Codex Telleriano Remensis and Codex Azcatitlan,”
https://smarthistory.org/images-of-africans-in-the-codex-telleriano-remensis-and-
codex-azcatitlan/

I. Define the following terms/names in 1-2 complete sentences, and be sure to cite your sources.

Example: In Annals of his Time, the translators define “macehualli” as “commoner,” although they
indicate it could also refer to “the people” broadly (Lockhart et al. 2006, 17).

1. altepetl
2. Manila galleon
3. biombo

4. historiography
5. codex
6. Chimalpahin
7. Tenochtitlan
8. cabinet of curiosity
9. Boxer Codex
10. Viceroyalty of New Spain

II. In 1-3 sentences, please explain the following concepts, use examples, and be sure to cite your
sources.

Example: What was a missionary?
Missionaries were members of religious orders like the Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians, and
Jesuits who went to New Spain intending to convert the Native peoples to Christianity (lecture).

1. What was the main idea of unit 1?

2. How would you describe mestizaje?

3. How would you describe the impact of the Manila galleon on trade and cross-cultural
interaction in New Spain?

4. How would you describe the reception of objects and images from New Spain in
Europe?

5. How would you describe the impact of the arrival of Europeans to New Spain on the
history and culture of Native peoples?

6. What criteria would you use to assess a primary or secondary source? How did you
know the information was accurate? Did you detect any biases or different versions?

7. Describe something you learned that you found surprising or changed your
understanding of art and history in New Spain in the sixteenth century.

III. Please answer the following questions in one paragraph, and be sure to cite your sources.

1. Please write 1 paragraph (4-8 sentences) that compares and contrasts a biombo with a
cabinet of curiosity. Use examples to explain what the collecting and displaying of
objects and images teach us about global trade, cross-cultural interaction, and the
visual/material prosperities of art in the sixteenth century. Be sure to cite your sources.
(Pro tip: start your paragraph by stating what the comparison reveals about the

collecting and display of objects from New Spain).

2. Please write 1 paragraph (4-8 sentences) explaining how silences and stereotypes
originating in the sixteenth century have shaped our understanding of the history of
Mexico and its inhabitants today. Be sure to cite your sources. (Pro tip: review the
Unsettling Journeys videos).

Series Chimalpahin

Susan Schroeder, Series Editor

‘;

‘ ‘·
ii

·j
i.

Annals of His Time

Don Domingo de San Anton Mufi6n
Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin

Edited and translated by

James Lockhart, Susan Schroeder,
and Doris N amala

Stanford University Press
Stanford, California

2006

The present book belongs to an ongoing informal Series Chimalpahin organized by Susan
Schroeder as general or series editor to publish the entire extant output of Chimalpahin in
critical editions in English and the original language. Further volumes, whose venue,
editorship, and even content are still not fully determined, are to be expected in due course.
In the name of flexibility, the items in the series will not bear volume numbers, The two­
volume Codex Chimalpahin, edited by Arthur AnderSon and Schroeder, should be counted
as part of this effort.

Stanford University Press
Stanford, California

© 2006 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. All rights
reserved.

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or in any information
storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Stanford University
Press.

Printed in the United States of America on acid-free, archival-quality paper

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, Domingo Francisco de San Ant6n Mufi6n, 1579-1660.

Annals of his time : don Domingo de San Ant6n Mufi6n Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin /

edited and translated by James Lockhart, Susan Schroeder, and Doris Namala.

p. cm.-(Series Chimalpahin)

Introduction in English; English and Nahuatl on opposite pages.

Includes bibliographical references and index,

ISBN 0-8047-5454-3 (cloth : alk. paper)

1. Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, Domingo Francisco de San Ant6n Mufi6n, 1579-

1660, 2. Manuscripts, Nahuatl-Mexico-Mexico City, 3. Aztecs-History. 4. Aztecs­

Politics and government. 5. Aztecs-Social life and customs. L Lockhart, James. II.

Schroeder, Susan. III. Namala, Doris. IV. Title, V. Series.

F1219.54.A98C45 2006

972’.018-dc22

Original Printing 2006

2005028443

Last figure below indicates year of this printing:
15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06

Contents
Some Major Blocks of Text

Figure I. First page of the Paris manuscript
Figure 2. Annals entry for the beginning of the year 5 Rabbit, 1614

Map l. Mexico City in Chimalpahin’s time

Introduction
Annals of His Time
The Manuscript and its History
Some Aspects of the Edition
Acknowledgments

Transcription and Translation
1577-1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608 (with parts from 1609)
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

vi

vii
viii

ix

3

10
14
22

26
35
36
40
46
52
54
58
62
64
66
70
74
76
78
84
88
94

106
154
160
172
194
232
270
294

308

311

315

li\lERSl1Y Of-UTAH IJ3RAR1ES

Some major blocks of text

Flood of 1604
Flooding and excavation, 1607
World, Mexica, and Spanish Mexican history
Arrival of the Japanese, 1610
Eclipse, 1611
Earthquake, 1611
Fray Geronimo de Zarate, 1612
Funeral of Archbishop Guerra, 1612
Suspected rebellion of blacks, 1612
Two female opponents of crosses, 1613
The vicinity of San Antonio Abad, 1613
A new archbishop, 1613
The pallium, 1613
More Japanese affairs, 1614
The order of San Antonio, 1614
More on the order of San Antonio, 1614

78-85
96-107
114-55
170-73
176-85
186-93

194–201
200-11
214–25
250-57
256-59
260-65
266-69
272-77
278-83
290-93

,.

Figure l, First page of the Paris manuscript. Fonds Mexicain 220, p. I. Reproduced with the
permission of the Bibliotheque Nationale de France.

Figure 2. Annals entry for the beginning of the year 5 tochtli, I 6 I 4, with standard information
about the election of the cabildo officials of Tenochtitlan. Fonds Mexicain 220, p. 238.
Reproduced with the permission of the Bibliotheque Nationale de France.

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i

□ 0

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7

SANTIAGO ” :I’ELOLCO —\—-~ San!aCruzde
Santiago

~\ It ‘sanflilgo
~ Tlalelolco

c Coleglo
H Hospital ~

• Site or Building w-
Drafted by Robin IL Gary, 2004
Ada tecl li’nm a ma b ·Richard.Bo ·ct’ 1980

Map 1. Mexico City in Chimalpahin’s time.

Annals of His Time

1
I

Introduction
yn ipampa ye nican nictlallia nicmachiyotia yn imiquilitzin ynin omoteneuh­
tzino huey teopixqui omoyetzticatca yniqu iuhqui yxiptlatzin omochiuhtzinoti­
catca nican Sancto Padre ynic huel omohuelitiltiaya yniqu icatzinco ypampa­
tzinco miec Jubileos oquimotemaquillitia yn iuh otiquittaque auh monequi no
quimatizque oncan in quittazque ytocatenehuallocatzin yn aquique i;atepan ye
nemiquihui yn amo quimottilique yn amo quimiximachilique ynin ye huey teo­
pixqui ocatca ypampa yuh ninomati caocac yuhqui nican Mexico oc ce teopixqui
yttoz yn oc ompa ye tonitztihui ypan cahuitl

The reason that I set down and record here the death of this said late great re­
ligious is that he became like the representative of the holy Father here because
he was fully authorized to go along issuing many jubilees in his name and on
his behalf, as we saw. And also those who will live later, who didn’t see and
know how great a religious he was, need to know of him and see his name men­
tioned, because I think that in future times another religious like him will not be
seen again here in Mexico.

(From Chimalpahin’s entry for September 7, 1614.)

Annals of His Time
The premier practitioner of the genre of Nahuatl annals in the form they took after the

conquest was born in 1579 in Amaquemecan (Amecameca), baptized apparently as Do­
mingo Francisco, then went very young to Mexico City, and eventually came to be
known there as don Domingo de San Anton after the church where he worked, sometimes
referring to himself in magnificent fashion as don Domingo de San Ant6n Muii6n Chi­
malpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin. Scholars somehow settled on calling him Chimalpahin,
one of two names of earlier lords of Amaquemecan that he appropriated to himself, and
though that convention is not well founded, it is too late to protest, and we will call him
Chimalpahin too. 1

The item we publish here is devoted overwhelmingly (despite one abbreviated resume
of Mexica history from the beginning) to events occurring in the time after Chimalpahin
was born, and indeed the momentum accumulates as he reaches the years of his early
prime. After very brief annual entries for the 1570s and 80s, clearly set down after the
fact, for the 1590s and early 1600s we find usually from two to four pages. For 1604 to
1608 we see an increase to five to nine pages a year, and then a further large and rapid
increase in the first years of the second decade of the seventeenth century, when Chimal­
pahin was in his thirties, reaching a maximum of 41 pages for 1613 before the series as
we know it halts in 1615. A reader cannot avoid the impression that the material certainly
from about 1608 to the end, and possibly from considerably earlier, was first written pri­
marily at the time of the events, and it deals for the most part with things the author saw
or heard about as they happened. No wonder that from as early as the eighteenth century

I. We even retain the practice, originating with the author himself, of writing the
name with an h, though by standard orthography it is not justified, The second element of
the name appears to be a preterit agentive form of the verb paina, “to run, hasten,” in
which a glottal stop is not otherwise attested.

– 3 –

4 INIRODUC110N

the work was being called the Diario, diary or journal. The word “Diario” by now has a
tradition as strong as it is lasting, but there can be no doubt that it did not originate with
Chimalpahin, and we consider it to be highly misleading.

For a century and more after his rediscovery in the late nineteenth century, translators
and commentators gave their attention above all to his massive effort to tell the
precontact history of central Mexico (principally Amaquemecan and Mexico Tenoch­
titlan),2 but recently his extensive and equally impressive writing on postcontact times
has also drawn attention,3 and the present publication is part of that trend.

The texts published here belong in the clearest and fullest way to the tradition of
Nahuatl annals, a genre concerned primarily with events of interest to the public, and
indeed to the public of the author’s own local sociopolitical entity. They are no diary;
Chimalpahin’s own activities are barely mentioned, his feelings fully and openly ex-­
pressed only on rare occasions. And indeed it would have been against the annals tradition
to give the work a title at all, or even perhaps to conceive it as a separate entity as op­
posed to other texts Chimalpahin wrote or compiled.4 We publish this set of annals sep­
arately, respecting its character as an independent corpus and sequence in the original, but
in a sense it belongs together with a large number of similar entries scattered through
Chimalpahin’ s other manuscripts despite their often preponderantly precontact subject
matter, and we hope that in due course all this material can be subjected to a common
analysis.

2. The Paris annals that have come to be called the “Relaciones” constitute the bulk of
Ch.’ s writings about the precontact era. Dating to the time that the materials seem first to
have become available in Paris, Remi Simeon published the sixth and seventh Relaciones
in French in 1889. The Germans followed after an interval, with several scholars trans­
lating and publishing different Relaciones; Ernst Mengin published the fifth Relacion in
German (1944, 1949, 1950), followed by a handsome series of volumes with facsimiles
of all the Paris Relaciones. In 1958 Walter Lehmann and Gerdt Kutscher published more
selections from the same sources. Gtinter Zimmermann, the most accomplished member
of this school, published portions of the second, third, and eighth Relaciones in 1960, and
in 1963-65 he brought out his invaluable transcription of both the corpus of Relaciones
and Ch.’s contemporary annals (the so-called “Diario,” the text edited here). A set of ana­
lytical notes to the edition conveyed many ofZimmermann’s insights, but a planned full
translation of the texts never came to pass. In the edition Zimmermann reorganized all of
the Relaciones into chronological order by individual entry. On the one hand he for the
first time brought out the scope of Ch.’ s work and made research in it more feasible,
while on the other hand he obscured the integrity of the individual texts and caused
considerable confusion regarding the nature of annals and of Ch.’ s oeuvre. A recent publi­
cation by Elke Ruhnau (Chimalpahin 2001A) with all of the Relaciones sums up the
accomplishments of the German school.

In the time after World War II Mexican scholars also began publishing portions of the
Relaciones in Spanish translation, often without transcriptions; most of this work is
mentioned in Schroeder 1991, pp. 26-30. Far the best of these efforts, by Rafael Tena
(Chimalpahin 1998), embraces the entire Relaciones, containing both a full transcription
and an excellent translation.

3. As in Chimalpahin 2001 (the Tena edition) and Namala 2002.
4. See the passage on pp. 238-39, at n. 4, which could be construed as including

Ch.’s contemporary annals within the same framework or as a later patt of the same work
as preconquest portions.

ANNALS OF ms TIME 5

Although the original strong pictorial component of postconquest annals has virtually
disappeared in Chimalpahin ( only in some of the later years do we find even any pictorial
representation of the Nahuatl year signs),5 in every other way the work published here has
the characteristics of a classic set of annals, in addition to some transformations and
developments of those characteristics that are rarely seen elsewhere. In the annals tradi­
tion, the present work is organized into year units, giving both the Spanish calendar year
and what is taken for its Nahuatl preconquest-style equivalent. Within each year every
entry is separate from every other, connected only by a strictly chronological sequence of
months and days.

The content is broadly speaking ultra-typical of Nahuatl annals both before and after
the conquest: the celebration of the local sociopolitical entity by detailing its officers and
public functions and in other ways; a record of the installation and removal of local high
officials; reports of plagues, storms, and earthquakes, and of scandalous and other locally
newsworthy events. Its main anomaly is its breadth. Almost any set of annals one can
point to will concentrate overwhelmingly on and have as its focal point the author’s
home entity, where he invariably writes. The same principle obtains in Chimalpahin, but
his migration gave him two homes. The primary focus in his contemporary annals is on
the place of his residence as an adult, when he was doing the writing of the present text,
on the indigenous Mexico Tenochtitlan and the Spanish Mexico City, including the
amorphous single overall entity that they were becoming; the double nature of that entity
explains much that seems quite unique in Chimalpahin’ s work here. But the reader will
also find many traces of his roots in Amaquemecan and even specifically in Tzaqualtitlan
Tenanco within it.

Chimalpahin’s contemporary writings have many possible uses. It appears to us that
they illuminate in the first instance the author’s mentality and conceptual equipment, and
to an extent Nahua mentality and concepts in his time more generally. They are surely the
best developed of known annals material with a postconquest range, not forgetting the
Tlaxcalan don Juan Buenaventura Zapata y Mendoza, whose writings can be considered at
least in the same class. 6 Although the Nahua annalists may report facts mentioned no­
where else, especially on matters purely inside the indigenous context, the annals should
not be taken for objective reporting, nor is their main value a contribution of facts.
Chimalpahin, exceptional though he is in many ways, is the same as the others in this
respect. The most obvious use of Chimalpahin’ s writing on his own time is in intel­
lectual and cultural studies dealing with Nahua attitudes and concepts in the urban centers
of central Mexico in the first half of the seventeenth century. The picture that emerges is
one of persistence, if in a modified form, of Nahua concepts, structures, and values at the
very core of Nahua-Spanish contact.

With his well developed writings, his repeated use of the same terms in many slight­
ly varying contexts, Chimalpahin offers a rich opportunity for the study of Nahua cate­
gories of various kinds. Studies based primarily on his writings with precontact content,
though ranging over the whole corpus, have already illuminated his sociopolitical

5. Although Ch. is a rather extreme example, the gradual diminishing of the pictorial
element is a fact of the evolution of the genre; also, from early on there were annals with­
out a pictorial element, such as the “Annals of Juan Bautista” (Reyes Garcia 2001).

6. See Lockhart 1992, pp. 391-92.

6

categories. 7 In his contemporary writings Chimalpahin makes copious use of Nahua
social categories. 8 He demonstrates how Nahuatl responded to the need to talk about
indigenous people as a single ethnic group by expanding the semantic range of existing
terms as well as mining the language’s great potential for new formations. The most all­
embracing of these terms, the related macehualli and nican tlaca, will be discussed in
greater detail below under matters of translation (p. 17), in which they figure so strongly.
Both used native vocabulary and built on while extending native meanings. They even
both appeared at first above all in the first person plural, with the prefix ti-, “we,” which
had been used in preconquest times to indicate ethnic or gender solidarity. This form
proved transitional, since as the new meanings became established the ti- was increasingly
dropped, as we see happening in the very texts published here.

Despite these large ethnic terms, the use of already established references to smaller
groups of indigenous continued to predominate. Chimalpahin’s writings demonstrate that
the altepetl and tlaxi/acalli (i.e., the Nahua etlmic state and its constituent parts; see the
discussion below, pp. 17-18) still functioned as the Nahuas’ primary source of ethnic
identity, since individuals and groups are identified by altepetl and tlaxilacalli names, and
the terms altepehuaque and tlaxi/acaleque (“people of the altepetl and tlaxilacalli”) abound.
At the same time, however, altepehuaque undergoes some semantic change, as its mean­
ing extends to embrace the non-indigenous population too. Chaneque (“possessors of
homes, residents, citizens”) also becomes an ethnically open term, as it refers to people of
any ethnicity who reside within the limits of an altepetl or tlaxilacalli. The term tlaca­
nechico/tin (“people gathered from various places”) in reference to the non-Nahua indig­
enous residents of Mexico Tenochtitlan is a Nahuatl construction but apparently not part
of the basic traditional vocabulary and may have been influenced by Spanish designations
of outsiders.

Regarding Chimalpahin’ s categories for non-indigenous people we find a very different
scenario. Here well established Spanish loanwords prevail, suggesting that by Chimal­
pahin’s time people of non- or partially indigenous descent had long been accepted as part
of the Nahuas’ daily lives. Much as with the relatively fewer occurrences of the archaic
nican tlaca in reference to the indigenous, Chimalpahin rarely calls the Spaniards cristia­
nos, “Christians,” which tended to be the preferred term in the early postconquest years.
Instead, the hybrid word castilteca and Spanish espailo/es, as well as forms with double
plurals, one from each language, espaii.olestin and espafi.olesme, far outnumber the earlier
term. A careful analysis of these contemporary annals even suggests that casti/teca too
was declining during the time of Chimalpahin’s literary activity. Whereas casti/teca and
the double plurals of espafio/es dominate in the earlier entries, after 1613 they disappear
entirely. During the same time period, between 1613 and 1615, simple espaiioles with­
out the double plural appears 50 times. Thus we learn in Chimalpahin not only about
Nahuatl social categorization but something about the chronology of its evolution.

In the context of all other ethnic groups, Chimalpahin uses Spanish loanwords from
the beginning. Whether it be other Europeans, blacks, Japanese, or people of mixed
descent, Chimalpahin calls these groups exactly as the Spaniards did. Even Nahuatl

7. Schroeder 1991, pp, 119-97; Lockhart 1992, pp. 14–44, passim.
8. For more on the categories and topics of Ch. as discussed in the following several

paragraphs, see Namala 2002.

ANNALS OF HIS TIME 7

tliltique, literally “blacks,” in reference to people of African descent represents a direct
translation of Spanish negros. Perhaps the use of criollo is a bit of an exception, as
Chimalpahin always pairs it with the Nahuatl circumscription nican tepiltzin, “a child of
people here,” implying his relative unfamiliarity with the word, and after all it was only
at that time beginning to come into use in Spanish to refer to ethnic Spaniards, and that
usually in the restricted realm of officeholding.

Chimalpahin’s gender categories partake of some of the same trends observed with
ethnic categories. As with the evolution of Nahuatl words that came to designate indig­
enous people as a group in the postconquest years, the basic Nahuatl gender terms cihuatl,
“woman, female” and oquichtli, “man, male,” also took on a distinct ethnic dimension by
referring not merely to women and men but specifically to indigenous women and
indigenous men. With men, the form using ti-, “we,” also appears with ethnic meaning,
extending its preconquest use to indicate the solidarity of males as a group.9 Regarding
Spanish women and men, Chimalpahin consistently uses Spanish loanwords, if not
always in exactly the same way as in Spanish texts. 10 Chimalpahin’s vocabulary dem­
onstrates that Spanish gender terms were subjected to the same gendered rules as their
Nahuatl counterparts, for the male and female terms were generally borrowed separately.

In his reporting in general, so close to traditional annals fare, Chimalpahin documents
a thriving indigenous culture despite or perhaps because of the interconnectedness of the
indigenous and Spanish worlds. For example, Chimalpahin’s often repeated respect for the
ruling authorities, indigenous and Spanish alike, speaks to the annalist’s deeply felt re­
sponsibility to portray the greatness of his altepetl, and it is both Spanish and indigenous
officials, both secular and ecclesiastic, who more than anyone else represent this great­
ness. Altepetl reportage and magnification is thus Chimalpahin’s basic thrust, and a quite
noncommittal but approving stance is his main mode, both of these things fully within
the Nahua annals tradition. If we look at the text as a whole, we will soon grasp that
demographic decline, economic woes, and other scourges of the indigenous population are
not major themes, and not much space is devoted to them. When Chimalpahin does turn
to such a topic, it is usually to speak of something that was of great public concern in
Mexico City, often among high civil and ecclesiastical officials, as in his reporting of
great loss of indigenous life in connection with the vast project of draining the Valley
of Mexico, the Desagiie. Likewise, negative comments on officials are rare, and when we
see them, the reason is often, apparently, that the majority confonsus in Spanish official­
dom, especially in the ecclesiastical sector, was also negative, as with the criticism of
the Franciscan fray Ger6nimo de Zarate, chaplain at the central Franciscan establishment
for indigenous people, San Jose, or of Archbishop Guerra for his continued frivolities
after a major earthquake had struck and devastated the city.11 At times, it is true, we seem
to detect a more personal note, as when Chimalpahin deplores the denuding of the slopes
of Chapultepec, which he had thought so beautiful, as the result of a Spanish effort to
locate some entirely illusory deposits of gold, with the wood of the formerly glorious

9. I.e., in precontact and even postcontact usage any group of men was called “we
men” if a man was speaking; the same expression now took on an ethnic coloration as
well. For a subtlety of this usage see pp. 182-83, n. 7,

10. See below, p. 20, for the meaning of senora in Nahuatl.
II. Pp. 194-201, 212-13, 250-51 (Zarate), pp. 188-93 (Guerra).

8 INIRODUCTION

felled trees going for cooking. 12 Even here in a sense the greatness of the altepetl is at
issue.

In Chimalpahin’ s portrayal of natural phenomena and in particular natural disasters his
split personality in terms of upholding indigenous traditions versus embracing modernity
sometimes comes to the fore. On the one hand, he fully accepts and eagerly passes on to
his readers modern scientific explanations of, for example, a solar eclipse, clearly rejecting
his ancestors’ non-Christian religious interpretation of such an event. On the other hand,

and again mirroring his own times, Chimalpahin is not immune to superstitious beliefs
regarding this matter, either, and not merely indigenous beliefs, for the Spaniards had their
own superstitions, not clearly distinguished from scientific findings, on such matters.
Ultimately, church processions replace ancient Mexica rituals as a means of coping with
natural disasters in the annalist’s accounts. They also become symbols of unity, joining
together the altepetl’s Spanish and indigenous citizens in their plea to a common deity for
help, as well as in the display of altepetl magnificence. Yet processions by cofradfas and
various other kinds of organizations are also a way in which a series of sociopolitical,
corporate, and religious entities and subentities, Spanish and indigenous, expressed them­
selves within a framework of rivalry, and Chimalpahin reports the processions with a
sharp sense of their significance within the politics of entities.

It becomes clear that Chimalpahin’s notion of the altepetl was in the process of
changing, as the Spanish city that was developing within its boundaries became more and
more integrated with the indigenous entity and into Chimalpahin’s writing. This tendency
is seen in other annals t90 but is more pronounced in Chimalpahin’ s work, in part be­

cause of the nature of the capital city, in part because Chimalpahin was himself so em­
bedded in the Spanish ecclesiastical world. While ethnicity remains an important factor in
the definition and acceptance of localized identities, spectacles and scandals illustrate the
ever-changing boundaries of rivalry and unity, as they cut across ethnic lines. For exam­
ple, Chimalpahin’s entries show that localized identities continue to reflect the original
Nahua arrangement of Mexico Tenochtitlan’s four separate and separately functioning
parts, each of them displaying a strong sense of microethnic identity and pride; moreover,
his often condescending remarks regarding Tlatelolco not only reinforce his Tenochca
perspective, but also acknowledge the separate, if clearly inferior, status of that altepetl,
even though from the Spanish point of view it was becoming just another part of the
colonial City of Mexico. And Chimalpahin gives us examples of pride and separatist
tendencies among Mexica entities far smaller than the four great districts.

In his few explicit statements about his motives for writing his contemporary annals,
Chimalpahin tends to stress the need to convey to future generations how things in the
altepetl were in his day. He wants future citizens to know and be amazed that the area
around the church of San Ant6n, by their time well developed, had in his been almost a
lake; he thinks they will need to know that there had been such a figure as a particular
Jesuit savant whom Chimalpahin and many others admired. 13 If we look at his writing
itself as mute evidence on this point, over and above the traditional annalist’s stance we
can detect a reporter’s urge to portray unusual events vividly, as with the great earthquake
or the arrival of the Japanese. 14 We also find him intent on explaining to indigenous

12. Pp. 300-03.
13. Pp. 258-59 (San Anton), 284-87 (Jesuit).

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ANNALS OF HIS TIME 9

people and even to himself new Spanish or European lore that has just been relayed to
him by some Spaniard, generally an ecclesiastic, as in his discussion of the mechanics of
the solar eclipses just alluded to, or in his treatise on the order of San Antonio Abad. 15

In the long run the serious reader of this large portion of Chimalpahin’ s work will
learn how his qualities are reflected, if sometimes subtly, in virtually all parts of it. At
first the reader may get an ultimately false impression of an endless series of short,
trivial, uncommunicative entries. Until one acquires the background and then develops the
sensitivities needed to appreciate such material fully, it can be helpful to concentrate on
some of the more spectacular passages in the work, where Chimalpahin’s qualities are
more immediately evident. Some of the outstanding examples are the already mentioned
earthquake account (pp. 186-93) and the descriptions of the Japanese (pp. 170-73, 272-
77);16 others include the funeral procession of Archbishop Guerra (pp. 200-11), the tales
related to an alleged uprising by those of African descent (214-25), and two accounts
about women who opposed the erection of crosses and were miraculously struck down
(pp. 250-57). First reactions may vary to the description of the solar eclipse (176-85) and
the accounts of water channeling projects (96-107, passim, and 292-95).

Processions and other public events in Mexico City play such a role in Chimalpahin
that one gains a better sense of things if one knows the general layout of the Mexico City
of his time, especially the location of churches and public buildings. With no ,attempt to
be exhaustive, we have provided a map which we hope will be of use to the reader.

We have done our best in the English translation to give the reader most of the content
and a good deal of the flavor of the Nahuatl original. Something that cannot easily be
conveyed in a translation is the way that Chimalpahin used Spanish loanwords in his
Nahuatl original; only a survey of the transcription of the original will give one a full
sense of how Chimalpahin on the one hand was very conversant with a large amount of
Spanish lore and concepts, and the corresponding Spanish luanwur,

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188 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION

atlatecochcaltechtli atl. auh yn ixquich tlacatl, cochia yncamapa. yn o yuh quimatque.
tlallolini yn cenca chicahuac. mochi tlacatl ye meuhtehuaque yn Icochian yn oncan

cochia, quiyahuac quiquiztehuaque. yn espaiiolcs. yhuan seiiorati. ,an moch iuh quiquiz­
tehuaque. y quenin cochia cequintin ,an tlacamisahuia. cequi petlauhtihuitze. yn ithualco

hualquizque. cequintin niman otlihpan. momanaco. yuhquin ma ,a ticepantlahuanque oto­

chiuhque. ynic titomauhtia. yn tiquitta calli. quemman in mochi ye pachi.1 yn tlaltitech
ye yauh yehica ceca miyec yn hualtepehuia tell. yn xamitl calticpac nohuian techachan,

tlalii tcpehuia. nohuian ytlacauh yn calli yn tepantli moch cuitlatzayan. yn mane! yacuic
calli yn quin moch omochiuh omoquetz. mochi oc cenca yehuatl, moch itlacauh tzatza­

yan, yhuan yn La compaiiia de Jesus. go!esio. teatinos. teopancalli yn icpac ye tetzopqui,
tlaco tzayan. auh yn S. Franco. teopancalli, yuh mihto. omapilli ynic tlallac. auh yn

S.tiago tlatilolco. teopancalli yancuic achi quezquican yn cuitlatzatzayan. yhuan teocal­

tepitzitzin ocean yn huetz teocaltepantli. ynic ceccan oncan yn S.ta catalina. ,acatenco.

pachiuh yn capilla. ynic ocean vmpa capoltitlan de los Reyes. auh yn calli. cenca

miyeccan yn pachiuh yn incal espaiioles. in ye huecahua huehuey calli ye netlapacholloc,
yhuan cequi tepantli miyeccan yn huetzico huel tlaltitech ya. no cequi tepan huetz. ye

micohuac cenca achi huel quezquican yn mexico. ye netlapacholoc calli ye micohuac, auh
ynic cenchinampa yn culhuacan yn cuitlahuac. oc cenca vmpa yn ciudad xochimilco yn
tlatlacauh tlaco yxtlapan yn teopancalli 2 yn huel tlaltitech. ahcico, yhuan yuh machiztico,

y nican Me[p. 154]Xico, yn ompa motlapachoque. matlactli tlacatl. yn inchachan yn incal
ynpan pachiuh yn oncan cochia. yn hue! niman micque. yn amo moyolcuititihui, yhuan
teocaltepitzitzin. achi quezquican, yn ompa xixitin yn pahpachiuh yea tlallolinaliztli,

cenca hue! temamauhti. ynic mochiuh yhuan tetlaocolti tlatzatziztlehua yniqu iuh topan

ye mochihua, ,a hue! yayatimani tlalli, aocmo hue! titoquetzaya. ,a tihuetztihuetzia yn
titoquetzaya. Imel yuh ypan ncmachoc ca ye ye tlami n cemanahuatl, mochi tlacatl. aocac
quilnamiquia yn tleyn cecenyaca cecentlacatl ychachan quimopiallia. yn teocuitlatl yn
tlatquitl. moch callitic mocauhtiquiz. aocac conittac. aocac conmocuitlahui. ynic chollolo­
huac. ynic necholtiloc quiyahuac. yn ohtlipan, yn ixquichcauh manca tlallolinaliztli,

yhuan miyec tlacatl mococo. ynic tlayohuayan chollohuaya. ynic hualquiztiquizque.
ynchachan espaiiolesme auh ,an tel hue! achitonca yn onmanca. tlallolinaliztli ca niman
quiz. yece ye omihto hue! temamauhti. ynic manca ynic onmochiuh, auh yn otlathuic yn

o hue! tlanez. ye niman moch nez. yttaloc. yhua moch machiztic yn ixquich tlamantli
oquitlaco. tlallolinaliztli. ynic nohuian nican yhtic ciudad Mexico, yhuan ,an ya yhui

nemauhtilotoc, ,a ticmahmaticate 3 yn iuh omochiuh tlallolinaliz. 4 yey tzilli yohuac.
yuhquin ipan titomati, ,a yayatimani n tlalli. yuhqul ma ye oc ceppa mochihuaz. yn iuh

nemachotoc, auh yn o yuh tlathuic yn ipan in omoteneuh cemilhuitl viernes. atle
conmotequipachilhui. yn tlahtohuani Don fray Garcia Guerra. ar,obispo Mexico. yhua
visurrey mochiuhtzinotica, atle conmitlahui, [p. 155] Yn ma tlatlatlauhtilo. yn ma no,o

tlayahuallolo ma mihto letania. yn ipampa yuh omochiuh cenca temamauhti tlallo­
linaliztli, yehica ca yuh yntech ca huey tenahuatili hue! yntequitzin yn maca ,a ychca-

1. For “pachihui.”
2. Possibly the reference is to the main church of Xochimilco only’. Indeed, it is un­

clear how much of the immediately following refers to Xochimilco specifically, how
much to the whole chinampa district.

3. The sense of mamati (presumably mahmati) in Molina has to do with various kinds

1611 189

sleeping in their beds. When they realized there was a very strong earthquake, they all got
up and ran out of the bedrooms where they were sleeping and hurriedly came out.side.

The Spanish men and women too all quickly came out just as they had been sleeping.
Some were just in shirts, some came out naked into the patios, some then came out into
the road. It was as though we had all gotten drunk, we were so afraid when we saw how
houses were all collapsing 1 and falling to the ground, for in people’s homes everywhere

much stone, adobe, and earth came falling in various directions from the tops of the
houses. The houses were damaged everywhere; the walls all ripped open even if they were

new houses just built; those especially were all damaged and cracked. And at the Theatine

college of the Company of Jesus, the stone vaulting above the church ripped in two, and
the Franciscan church, as was said, sank into the earth a distance of two inches; and the

new church in Santiago Tlatelolco cracked in quite a few places; and the walls of two

small churches fell; at the first one, Santa Catalina <;:acatenco, the chapel collapsed; the other one was at Capoltitlan de las Reyes. And in very many places houses of Spaniards, old and large houses, collapsed, covering people underneath. And some walls in many places came falling down all the way to the ground; some also fell on people, from which there were fatalities. In quite a few places in Mexico people were buried in houses and died from it. And in the whole chinampa district, in Colhuacan and Cuitlahuac and especially in the city of Xochimilco, there was damage. The churches 2 broke in half and fell right to the ground. And it came to be known here in Mexico [p. 154] that ten people were buried there, at their homes, when their houses collapsed on them where they were sleeping, who died right away without confession. And small churches in quite a few places there fell in and collapsed with the shaking of the earth. What happened was very frightening and pitiful; cries arose that such a thing should happen to us; the earth went this way and that and we could not stand, we would quickly fall down when we stood up, and people really thought that the world was ending. No one remembered what money and property each person had in his house, everything was left inside the house, no one looked at it or saw after it while fleeing; everyone fled outside into the road as long as the earthquake lasted, and many people were hurt running out into the night, as the Spaniards came rushing out of their homes. But the earthquake lasted for only a very little while. Right away it stopped, but as was said, it was very frightening when it happened and while it lasted. When dawn came and it got fully light, everything appeared and was seen, and all the different things that the earthquake had damaged everywhere here inside the city of Mexico became known. People were frightened, and we [feared?]3 that as the earthquake 4 happened at 3 o'clock at night and we thought the earth was going this way and that, it may happen again, as people think. And after dawn came on the said day of Friday, nothing worried the ruler don fray Garcia Guerra, who is appointed archbishop in Mexico and viceroy; he did not say [p. 155] that there should be prayers or processions or that a litany should be said because such a very frightening earthquake had taken place. For such is the great obligation incumbent upon [priests]. It is really their duty; they are not just of shame and embarrassment, but this form seems somewhat different. It is not clear which parts of this sentence refer to what happened the night before and which parts to the feared recurrence, but there is no doubt that people were worrying that the same thing would happen again. 4. For "tlallolinaliztli." ,1,: ·, ,,:' 1:,_1 \ I i ,' i I"' H '· 1· ·" ; r,' ''' 'I 1'i1 >1
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190
TRANSCRIPI10N AND TRANSLATION

pixque ca ychcapixque. 1 yn obisposme. yn arc;obisposme yn ihquac yuh tley tepan
mochihua yn. yn cenca temamauhti, tey,ahui yn oquic tzonteconti, moteyacanillia mote­
pachilhuia yn ipan Sancta iglesia. ca yehuantzitzin. achtopa tzatzizque. quiteylhuizque. ye
tenemachtizque. yn tleyn. yn catlehuatl huel monequi, yn tlatlatlauhtiliztli yn tlama­
cehualiztli yn tlayahualoliztli quichihuazque, yn imichcahuan, yn intlapacholhuan, yn
altepehuaque, achtopa yehuantin yntech hualpehuaz y tlahtoque yn tlamacehualiztli, ynic
yntech quittazque quintocatiqui,azque, yn incuitlapilhuan, yn imatlapalhuan, ynic tlama­
cehualiztica ynic choquiztica tlaocoyaliztica ne<;ahualiztica quimoyolcehuilizque, yn tt 0 . Dias. yn ipampa, ac;o totlacocol 2 ypapa, ac;o yquallanticatzinco, yn mochihua, yn tley tepan mochihua yn a,o cocoliztli yn ano<;o ytla oc centlamantli, yn c;a<;o quenami yn temamauhti, yn tey<;ahui yn c;ac;o campa yuh tepan mochihua, yn iuh axcan nican Me­ xico, o topan mochiuh, auh yn ipa pani. yn iuh nican o topan mochiuh axcan. atle ypa oquimottili, amo quimomauhtilli. yn tlahtohuani Don fr. Garcia Guerra. ar,oopo. visu­ rrey. ye motlanahuatilli ynic quaquamiminaloz. yxpantzinco. yn oncan tecpan palacio corral. yehica ca huel ipactzin, yn quaquanmiminaliztli, ynic oncan cenquixohuac netepan­ caltemaloc, in ye tlamiminalo. yn ipan in cemilhuitl viernes. oncan cenquizque yn tlahto­ que [p. 156] Yn audiencia real tlaca oncan ytlantzinco cepanpacticate. yn ar,oopo visurrey. yn quaquauhtlatlachia. ynic oncan oc ceppa ynpa omochiuh tlallolinaliztli, ye teotlac ypan yey tzillini. ynic oppa omochiuh ye mocuep. ye oquiz yn tlallolinaliztli. auh macihui yn chicahuac o no nicuel mochiuh aocmo cenca yxquich ye chicahuac yn iuh achto yohuac omochiuh, ca ,a onquiztiquiz. c;a quexquich ynic tlatlaco, yhquac cuitlatlacotzayan, yn iteopancaltzin S Juan bapta, Moyotlan, y motenehua S. Juan de La penitencia, yhuan no yhquac motlapacho. ypan calli actihuetz. ce senora yhuan ypilhuan amo micque ynic ypa callitic caltechpa ,an tlamach ynpa monacacicmantihuetzico yn calquahuitl ynic quimo­ palehuili tto. Dias. yhuan oncan ycatzinco tlamahuic;olli. quimochihuili yn itla,otzin Sefior. S. Niculas de tolentino yn ipan senora. yuh mihto, ynin senora yn ihquac oquimah ye tlallolini, yhua yn oquittac ycal ye ipan huitz. in ye ypa actihuetzi, yn aocmo huel momaquixtia oncan quimotzatzilili ynic quimopalehuiliz. yuh mochiuh quimopalehuili ynic amo mic. c;an tlaltitlan yn quiquixtique, ynin iuh mochiuh ye cenca oc hualca ye omahuic;ohuac yn S. Nicolas. nican mexico, auh·ynic oppa mochihu in tlallolinalizth teotlac. ye niman tlaocoltzillin nohuian in campanas. yn motenehua tzillin blecarias. yn izquican Monasterios. mexico ynic ye mochi nohuian tehteopan huel nohuian tlaocoltla­ tzilliniloc, yn ipampa tlallolinaliztli vnca achto peuh yn iglesia mayor. tzillin. campanas. auh yn ipampa yniqu iuh nohuian tlaocoltlatzilliniloc y Mexico. ye cenca tlacox. 3 motequipacho. yn quicac tlahtohuani arc;oopo. visurrey. ca na<;o huel pacticatca_ [p .. 1_57] Yntla. yn tlahtoque, yn quaquauhtlatlachia. cenca quitequipacho, yn tlaocoltlatz1lhmhzth quicac nohuia manioc, ynic tlaocoyalo netequipacholo. nemauhtillo yhua tlatl~uhtilo Y~ uo. Dias. ynic techmopalehuiliz. yehica yn ipan in ye oppa mochiuh tlallolmahzth, on~a caquiztic. yn tleyn caquiztic, mochi tlacatl yuh quicac. yuhquin ce carreda, chachalcatia. ynic motlallo, ynic caquiztic, yn campa hualcaquiztic. cuix tlillitic. 4 cuix noc;o ylhm­ cacpa, ca amo huel momati yece huel caquiztic, yn iuhqui ma ytla motlallo, ye no cuel 1. Though the two occurrences of ichcapixque, "sheph':rds," seem to clash with each other somewhat, the intention is clear: bishops are not ordmary shepherds but caretakers for their human flocks, widely responsible for them. 2. Apparently "totlacocol" is for "totlahtlacol" or the like, with the wrong syllable re- 1611 191 keepers of sheep. Bishops and archbishops are shepherds' when something like this happens to people, very frightening and shocking; as long as they are at the head lead and guide in the holy Church, they are the ones who should first cry out, give ins;ructions, warn people about things, what and what kind of thing is really needed: that their flock, thos~ guided by them, the citizens of the altepetl, should perform prayer, penitence, pro­ cessions. Pemtence should begin first with the rulers, so that their subjects will see it in them and follow them, so that by penitence, tears, sorrowing, fasting they will placate our lord God, because perhaps what is happening to people, disease or something else, or whatever it should be that is frightening and shocking, wherever such things happen to people as have happened to us here in Mexico now, happens because of our [sins],2 perha~s through his anger, and is fitting. And because the ruler don fray Garcia Guerra, archbishop and viceroy, thought nothing of what has happened to us here now and was not afraid of it, he gave orders that there should be bullfighting in his presence in the palace corral, because he is a great lover of bullfighting, so that everyone assembled and went into the corral, where there was bullfighting all day Friday; there the lords judges of the Royal Audiencia assembled. fp. 156] They were enjoying themselves there together with the archbishop and viceroy watching the bulls when an earthquake befell them again at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, the second time that it happened that the earthquake returned and broke out. And although it was strong again, it wasn't quite as strong as when it first took place at night, it just passed quickly and damaged only a few things. At that time the wall of the church of San Juan Bautista of Moyotlan, called San Juan de la Penitencia, cracked m two, and also at that time a Spanish woman and her children were buried in a house_ which fell in; they did not die because the beams of the house just fell gently on them ms1de the house, at the wall, so that the beams lay sideways, by which our lord God helped her. The beloved of our lord God the lord San Nicolas de Tolentino in his name performed a miracle for the Spanish woman. It was said that this woman, when she real­ ized the earth was shaking and saw that her house was coming down on her, was falling m on her and she could no longer be saved, cried out to him to help her. And it came to pass that he helped her, so that she did not die; they pulled her out from on the ground. Because this happened, San Nicolas was worshipped even more here in Mexico. Right after the second time there was an earthquake, in the afternoon, the bells pealed every­ where in mourning; they rang for what are called public prayers at all the monasteries in Mexico. In all the churches absolutely everywhere the bells pealed in mourning because of the earthquake; they began to ring first at the cathedral. And because of this mournful pealing of the bells everywhere in Mexico, the ruler, the archbishop and viceroy became very sad3 and worried when he heard it, for he was really enjoying himself [p. J 57] among the lords watching the bulls. He was greatly concerned by the pealing of the bells that he heard spread all around, showing sadness, worry, fear, and prayer to our lord God to aid us, because during this second time that there was an earthquake, there was a sound, and ev­ eryone heard what kind of sound it was; it sounded like a cart grating along; it sounded like running. Where the sound came from, whether from inside the earth4 or from the sky, could not be established, but it was heard clearly, as though something were running, so duplicated. But conceivably it is from cocoa and means "our harmful actions." 3. For "tlayocox." 4. For "tlallitic." I,, 1i :i·· I i, I ,' ! ! : ! I i ' i,r,I ,I ' 192 1RANSCRIPTION AND 1RANSLATION yehuatl ypampa yn cenca nemauhtiloc = auh yece in yehuatzin ar,;oopo visurrey. amo nima ye mocauhtzino. yn quaquauhtlatlachiaya. macihui n <;a tlaocoxticatca, yn quicaqui campanas tzillini amo ye tetlacahualti yn tlamiminallo, ,;an iuh yohuac, yn tlamiminaloc, yece yuh omihto, ,;a mococotiuh. cuel yn callac tecpan yn icochian, ynic tzonquiz qua­ quamiminaliztli oncan peuhtica yn, yn c;a mocotinemi1 arc;obispo, yn aocmo pactinemi yhuan yhquac oncan2 in miyec tlacatl espafioles. yhuan teopixq. ytech quallanque, ynic amo tle ye topan tlahtohua tlatlauhtiliztli, mochihuaz. yn ipampa yuhqui topan omochiuh axcan, ye oc ceca oquimonequilti yn pahpactinemiz. ynic quaquanminaloz. yn ipan in viemes. ye cenca oquimopinahuilique, oc cenca yehuantzitzin inquisidores. ynic c;atepan oquihualmotlacahualtilique. yn aocmo oncan tlamiminaloz. corral, ye oquixitinique mochi yn quauhtlatzatzaqualli oncan quimanca. moch oquiquixtique. [p. 158] y Yn ipan axcan ypehuayan metztli Setiembre de 1611 afios yhquac omachiztico. ohualla tlahtolli yn ompa espafia. omomiquilli yn liceciado Diego lanterns. ano<;o valderas de velasco,3 oydor del real consejo, de las indias, yehuatl yn visitador. omochiuhtzinoco, nican ypan nueua espafia. Mexico. / no ypan in. ytlamian y metztli omoteneuh Y nica mexico. ohuallaque omentin S. Franco de Paula teopixq. y motenehua Minimos. y Axcan Sabado. ye .10. mani metztli Setiembre de 1611. a0 s. yhquac pielli omochiuh yn ilhuitzin ye oquiz. seiior. S. Niculas de Tolentino. S. Augustin teopixqui, Patron omochiuhtzino. y nican ypan ciudad. Mexico, yn ipampa tlallolinaliztli, omochiuh chi­ cahuac, yn omoteneuh tlacpac. ypan metztli Agosto, mochiuh yn onca. quimochihuilli ce tlamahui,;olli. S. Niculas. yn ipan ce senora. motlapachoca. ca yehuatl ipampa yn yn iqu intepantlahtocatzin. oquimochihuillique espaiioles. yhua tehuantin timacehualti Mexico. oc cenca yehuatzin yn tlahtohuani ar,;obispo visurrey ySanctotepantlahtocatzin. oquimo­ chihuilli, yn ipampa ,a mococotzinotinemi, huell ipan motlahtolti. ynic pieloz. ytla­ ,;oylhuitzin, oc macuililhuitl tacizque. yn ilhuitzin yez. yntzontec. 4 oncan audiencia real, quimocepanhuilique. yn oydoresme ynic Patron mochiuhtzino, yehica amo qui,;aznequi, yn tlallolinaliztli, ,;an momoztlaye, yn tepitzin. ye tlallolini, ynic ompa hualpeuhtica yn omoteneuh cenca chicahuac ye tlallolin ynic axcan Sabado, ye matlacpan tlallolini, ,an moztlatica huiptlatica mochiuhtiuh - y Axcan Juebes. ye .17. mani metztli Nouiembre de 1611. [p. 159] Afios. hue! ypan ylhuitzin Sant. Gregorio. tamadorgo. obispo, Patron. yn nica ciudad Mexico. yhquac az­ capotzalco. quimacato. possion.5 Juan grande nahuatlahto. yn Don Antonio valeriano telpochtli, vmpa quicahuato. ynic Juez gouemador vmpa mochihuato, compatlato, D~n Balthasar mm. vmpa Juez gouernador catca. nican S. Pablo <;oquipan ychan auh ymn omoteneuh Don Antonio valeriano telpochtli fiscal catca. y nican S. Joseph. S. Franco. yn onca yehuac ye mohuicac azcapotzalco, ynin telpochtli, yxhuiuhtzin. yn tlacatl huehue Don Antonio valeriano ychantzinco azcapotzalco. in miyec xihuitl. nican omoJuezgouer­ nadortilico, Mexico tenochtitlan, ypiipa yn inamictzin cihuapilli Dofia isabel de aluarado, yn ichpochtzin catca tlacatl Don diego de aluarado. huanitzin tlahtohuani catca tenoch­ titlan. auh ,an tel ychan yn omohuicac azcapotzalco. telpochtli Don Antonio, vmpa cihuapilli, yn inantzin catca. yhuan yn omotocateneuh ycoltzin catca. vmpa chane. 1. For "mococotinemi." 2. Perhaps the meaning is "at that point," merely reinforcing "when." 1611 193 that everyone was very frightened again because of that. = But the archbishop and viceroy did not therefore stop watching the bulls then; even though he was sad when he heard the bells ringing, he did not therefore halt the bullfighting, but the bullfighting kept on until nightfall. But it was said that he began to get ill as soon as he entered his bedroom in the palace when the bullfighting ended; at that time it began that the archbishop was con­ stantly sick 1 and no longer healthy. And at that time many Spaniards and religious there2 got angry at him because he did not order prayers said for us because of what just hap­ pened to us, and especially he wanted to go about enjoying himself with bullfighting on this Friday, so that they heaped shame on him, especially the inquisitors, so that after­ ward they prohibited bullfighting in the corral any longer and tore down all the wooden enclosures he had set up there; they removed them all. [p. 158] y Today, at the beginning of the month of September of the year 1611, was when it became known and word came from Spain that licenciado Diego Landeras or Valderas de Velasco, 3 judge of the Royal Council of the Indies, had passed away. He had come here to New Spain and Mexico as inspector general. / Also, at the end of the said month two friars of the order of San Francisco de Paula, called Minimites, came here to Mexico. y Today, Saturday the 10th of the month of September of the year 1611, was when the feast day of the lord San Nicolas de Tolentino, an Augustinian friar, was observed and celebrated. He has become the patron in the city of Mexico here, because in the strong earthquake that as was mentioned above took place in the month of August, San Nicolas performed a miracle on a Spanish woman who had been buried [under rubble], and it was because of this that the Spaniards, along with us commoners, made him their intercessor. Especially the ruler, the archbishop and viceroy, made him his saintly intercessor, because he was constantly ill. He spoke strongly in favor of holding his precious feast day five days before the day was to come. It was by pronouneement4 of the Royal Audiencia, done by all the civil judges together, that he was made patron, because the earthquakes do not want to end, every day the earth shakes a little bit. Beginning with the said very strong earthquake until today, Saturday, the earth has shaken ten times; it happens every day or every other day. - Y. Today, Thursday the 17th of the month of November of the year 1611, [p. 159] right on the feast day of San Gregorio Taumaturgo, bishop, patron here in the city of Mexico, was when Juan Grande, interpreter, took don Antonio Valeriano the younger to Azca­ potzalco to give him possession 5 of office, he having been appointed judge-governor there. He replaced don Baltasar Martin, who was judge-governor there and is from San Pablo <;:oquipan here. This said don Antonio Valeriano the younger was fiscal here at San Josef at San Francisco, and he left there when he went to Azcapotzalco. This young man is the grandchild of the lord don Antonio Valeriano the elder, from Azcapotzalco, who served as judge-governor for many years here in Mexico Tenochtitlan, because his spouse was the lady dofia Isabel de Alvarado, who was the daughter of the lord don Diego de Alvarado Huanitzin, who was a ruler of Tenochtitlan. Thus don Antonio the younger was just going home to Azcapotzalco; his mother was a noblewoman there, and his grand­ father whose name was mentioned was from there. 3. See pp. 92-93 at n. 6. Here Ch. uses Velasco, apparently the preferred version. 4. It seems that "yntlatzontec" would be required. 5. For "possession" or the like. I ,, ,, ·'I 1,,I IJ , I 'i 1,1 I' ,,, :•I I /, >‘

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194 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION

y_ Axcan Martes. ye 29. mani metztli Nouiembre de 1611. afios. yhquac oceppa
1

omo­
cuepque, yn oyahque. yancuic Mexico. yn Padre fray isidro. yn inehuan franC0 faustino
quetzalma,atzin donado. amaquemecan ychan. yn quinmanillico oc cequintin S. Franco
teopixque. yn ompa quinmohuiquillia yancuic Mexico. vmpa motemachtilizque. auh ,an
omacuiltet!Metztico. y nican Mexico tenochtitlan. yn Padre fr. isidro. yn inehuan franc

0

faustino quetzalma,atzin.
y_ Axcan Junes. ye .19. mani metztli de diziembre de 1611. afios. yhuac opeuh yn omo­
man quiyahuitl cehualatl,2 ynic o[p. 160]ceppayauh. yn intech yztac tepetl. yhuan popo­
catepetl cenca ye moquimiloque, yn ceppayahuitl, yhuan ynic nohuiampa quauhtla, yn
intech tetepe, nohuian yntech huetz. yn ceppayahuitl. nahuilhuitl yn cenca cehuac ynic

quiyauh ypan Juebes. yn qui,aco cehualatl ynic ceppayauh3

‘l[ iii. tecpatl xihuitl, 1612. afios. nican motla11ique in alklesme Mexico. diego de S.
Franco ychan tequicaltitlan yhuan esteuan ___ ychan S. xpoual. xancopincan azta-

calco.4
y_ Axcan Sabado. ye 21. mani metztli henero. de 1612. afios yhquac notificacion, oqui­
chihuillito. S. Joseph, S. Franco yn fray Jeronimo de ,arate. capellan S. Joseph. yehuatl
oncan notificacion quichihuillico, yn sefior franc0 franco, escriuano audiencia real, yntla­
nahuatilticatzinco yn sefiores. oydoresme. yn iuh mochiuh ypampa quiteylhui yn Maria
lupez. chocolanamacac. 5 tetzcoco ycha yece nican Mexico tlatilco. omochantico. ye nican
moyotlan ponhui. auh ynic quiteylhui fra6 Jeronimo de ,arate, yn Maria lupez. ypampa
ynamic yn itoca Juan perez. quipinauhti ypan domingo yn 5ca catca ye ychicomeyoc S.
Joseph temimiltitech quiquetz. ,an petlauhticaca. auh achi cocoxqui. yn oncan ytlana­
huatiltica tothatzin. quimecahuitecque. yhquac quicauhque. yn ,a yuhqui micqui. yn
o,otlahuac. Mecatica, yhuan [p, 161] Yea temachti, quihto yn ipan bulpito ca oquipopo­
lo miec tomines, cofradia huentli yhuan ye niman teilpiloyan quihualtehuicalti quitza­
cuaco. ynic niman quixtlahualtiaya, auh yn icihuauh amo yxpan auh yn ihquac oylhuiloc
yn oquimatqui yn iuhqui ypan omochiuh ynamic ye cenca cuallan motequipacho yn
mecahuitecoc ynic niman ypampa audiencia real omoteylhuito, no yhuan mocepante­
ilhuito oc omentin ce Sachristian nemi ytoca Joseph Gomez. ynic ome cihuatzintli ytoca
Maria gostan9a. ,an no yuhqui ynpan quichiuh quinpinauhti teyxpan quinquetz. quin­
pepetlauh yn Joseph Gomez ye teyxpan quiquetz quipepetlauh quiteyttiti quimecahuitec
,an quinananquilli yea oncamatl tlahtolli, auh in Maria Gostan,a ynic teyxpan quiquetz
quiteyttiti quipepetlauh ychichihual pani catca ,an ipampa ychan canato yn ipan o­
moteneuh Domingo II quill amo missa quicaquito teopan S. Joseph. auh amo quin iyopa
inceltin yuh ynpan quichihu in yn ixquich ica nican ye hualca11ac Mexico. ca mochi
tlacatl yuh ypan quichihuaya. yn Mexica tenochca Moyoteca yehica in tleyn ,an tepiton
no,o huey ye contequipachohuaya quicuallaniaya fr. Jeronimo de ,arate ca niman quinpi­
nauhtiaya teyxpan quinquetzaya yhuan oc cequi miec tlamantli in quichihuaya in nica ye
tlatoliniaya. in cequi ca hue! tetlatlacoltica in tepinauhtiaya ynic teyxpan tequetzaya.

1. Presumably for “oc ceppa.”
2. Cehualatl momana is in Molina in the Spanish section, under “Bouer gran espacio

de tiempo,” but several other terms are also there, some of which have more connotations
than just length. By its roots and the context here cehualatl apparently also refers to a cold
or freezing rain. See also pp. 240-41 at n. 1.

1611-1612 195

Y Today, Tuesday the 29th of the month of November of the year 1611, was when father
fray Isidro, together with Francisco Faustino Quetzalma,atzin, lay brother from Ama­
quemecan, they having gone to New Mexico, returned again. 1 They came to get other
Franciscan friars to accompany them to New Mexico to preach there. Father fray Isidro
together with Francisco Faustino Quetzalma,atzin spent only five months here in Mexico
Tenochtitlan.
y_ Today, Monday the 19th of the month of December of the year 1611, was when a
persistent rain2 began to set in, and [p. 160] on Iztaccihuatl and Popocatepetl it snowed;
they were wrapped in a great deal of snow, and snow fell all around in the forests on the
mountains. For four days there was a very cold rain; on Thursday the cold rain came to an
end [and it snowed?].3

‘ll 3 Flint Year, 1612. Here were installed the alcaldes in Mexico, Diego de San Francisco
from Tequicaltitlan and Esteban ___ from San Cristobal Xancopincan Aztacalco,4

y_ Today, Saturday the 21st of the month of January of the year 1612, was when they
went t~ San Josef at San Francisco to make a notification to fray Geronimo de Zarate,
chaplam at San Josef; the one who came to notify him there was senor Francisco Franco,
notary of the Royal Audiencia. It was done at the order of the lords judges of the Audien­
cia because of a complaint against him made by Marfa L6pez, chocolate 5 seller, who is
from Tetzcoco but came here to .\1exico Tlatilco to make her home and now belongs to
Moyotlan. She complained of fray6 Ger6nimo de Zarate because he shamed her spouse
named Juan Perez on Sunday a week after [the feast day of] San Josef; he stood him up
against a stone pillar, naked and quite ill, where by the order of our father they gave him a
lashing. At that time they left him almost dead, having fainted from the lashing. And [p.
161] he preached about him, he said in the pulpit that he dissipated much money that had
been offered to the cofradfa, and then he had people take him to jail and lock him up, so
that he would pay it back. This happened when his wife was not present, and when she
was told and found out what had happened to her spouse, she got very angry and was
worried about his having been given a lashing, so that she went right away to the Royal
Audiencia to make a complaint about it. And also two others went jointly to make
complaint; one works as a sacristan, named Josef G6mez, and the second is a woman
named Marfa Constanza. He did the same thing to them, shamed them in public, standing
them up and stripping them. Josef Gomez he publicly stood up, stripped, displayed, and
gave a lashing just because he talked back with a few words. And Marfa Constanza he
publicly stood up, displayed, stripped; her breasts were exposed. The reason they went to
pick her up at her home on the said Sunday was just that // they say she didn’t go to hear
mass at the church of San Josef. This was not the first time, they were not the only ones
to whom he did such things in the time since he entered Mexico here, for he treated all the
Mexica Tenochca Moyoteca that way, because when they caused fray Ger6nimo de Zarate
concern or angered him about something whether little or big, he right away shamed

3. Or on Thursday the cold rain accompanied by snow ended?
4. Space was left for more.
5. The form chocola- is probably borrowed back into Nahuatl from Spanish.
6. For “fray.”

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196
1RANSCRll’fl0N AND TRANSLATION

porbito quihtohuaya ypan Sermon in tleyn tetlatlacol oquitemachili yn a,o pinahuiztic
yhuan yn mane! camo pinahuiztic mochi oncan quihtohuaya yn ipan porbito, quite­

caquitiaya yn ipan Sermon. yuhqui ma yehuatl Justicia mayor yhuan yuhquin quisidor

mochiuhticatca mochi quimotequitiaya in huehuey Justiciatequitl, yn amoyac oc ce teo­

pixqui yuhqui nican oquichihuaco yn izqui’tin ye quihualpia quihualmocuitlahuia capilla

S. Joseph. [p. 162] Yhuan tecalnamacaya yn miccacalli yn canin mani tlatlaxillacalpan
mochi quitemohuaya yea tlatlania yntla oquilhuito canin mani niman quitequixtiliaya qui­

namacaya intlanel camo teopan pouhqui. intlanel oncate nemaqueque yn huel tepilhuan
ahno,o teyxhuihuan atle ypan quimonpohuaya atle ypan quimittaya huel quincuiliaya yn

incal quinhualquixtiaya quinnamaquiliaya yn ipatiuh ,an mochi quicuiya fr. Jeronimo de
garate quihtohuaya missas ye niquinchihuiliz in mimicque auh ayac quittaya yhua ayac

quimatiaya in quenin quitechihuiliaya miccamissa. yhua anotle ytla oncan quinmacaya yn

axcahuaque tlatquihuaque. yhuan huel mochi quitemohuaya in testamentos quittaya yniqu
itech quimatia in tleyn cecenmimicque oquixexelotiaque auh yntla oquimah mopia tes­

tamento ytlacamo quititiznequi ytlacamo yhciuhca connextiaya yxpan ca ye teylpilloyan

tetzacuaya no ye tepinauhtiaya. ynic ,a no nepanol I onmoztlacahuiaya Mexica yn aquin

tleyn quitemachilia. conilhuitimani connextilia y fray Jeronimo de ,arate ynic huel
quitemoz ynic hue! quitechihualtiz pani motlaliz neciz quinextilizque yn ,ago tley ytech
quittaya testamentos yn miccatlatquitl in mane! cenca ye quezqui xihuitl omomiquilli
micqui, intlanel ye omoneltilili ytlahtol in tlein ytestamento ytech oquitlalitia yn imic­

canenahuatil oc ceppa moch quitemohuaya quiteyxtlahualtiaya. 0 ca yehuatl in ynic cenca
tlatoliniaya omoteneuh Padre fr. Jeronimo de ,arate ayac tle ypan quittaya in Mexica yhuii
cequi espafioles ayac tle ypan quittaya y mane! tley ye tepampa quitlatlauhtiaya. yhuan oc

cequi miec tlamatli yn oquichihuaya yn intolliniloca mexica. amo huel mochi nican
mihtoz motenehuaz ca cenca miec tlamantli [p. 163] Yn tepan quichihuaya amo moneqm
moch mihtoz. ago qualli ahno,o amo cualli. ma ,an icel ye quimomaquiliz cuenta in tt

0

Dios. macamo ytalhuillo ma ,an motelchihua quiyocolli 2 yehuatl quimati cane! teopixqui

ytetzinco pouhqui in u 0 . dios. ca tel yxpantzinco yxcoyan ye cuenta quimomaquiliz yn
ihquac momiquiliz. auh yniqu iuhqui yn ynpan quichihuaya Mexica. ynic quintoliniaya ye

cenca quitlahuelilocamatia auh macihui yn itechpa quallania tottatzin mexica. yn iqu iuh
quinchihuaya yece ,an quihiyohuiaya ,an intech quipachohuaya, ayac hue! motlapalohuaya

in quiteyxpanhuiz quiteilhuiz audiencia real, intlacamo ,an yehuatl huel omotlapalo yn
omoteneuh Maria Lopez. oquiteilhui ymixpantzinco in tlahtoque oydores. oquichiuh yn

iuh mochi omoteneuh ypeticion quicallaqui oncan acuerdo. onca ytech yn ipeticion

quimocaquiltique tlahtoq. mochi yn ixquich tlamantli oncan capilb S. Joseph. quichih~a

ynic tlatollinia moch quimocaquiltique quimomachiltique cenca qmmomauhcaytt1hque. m
tlahtoque ynic niman omotlanahuatilique oydores ynic notificacion ochihuililoto fr. Jero­
nimo de ,arate yn axcan ypan omoteneuh Sabado yn oncan capilla San Joseph. ynic a­
ocmo oncan ytequiuh yez capilla callaquiz callihtic motzacuaz conuento aocmo yehuatl

I. For “nepanotl.” .
2. The phrase ma motelchihua is usually an exhortation that a not10n or propo_sal

should be rejected in favor of another: We have speculative!~, translated t~e puzzhng
“quiyocolli” as though it were the reflexive yocoya (see Mohna, yocoya.mno ).

1612 197

them, stood them up in public, and did many other lhings here by which he mistreated

everyone. In some cases it was for real sins that he would shame people and stand them
up in public; he would say in the pulpit during the sermon what sins of people he had

found out about. Whether something was shameful or not shameful, he would say it all

in !he pulpit, he would announce it in the sermon, as though he had been appointed chief

justice or inquisitor. He took all the great duties of justice upon himself, as no other friar
of all those who came here to be in charge of and talce care of the chapel of San Josef did.

[p. 162] And he would sell people’s houses, the houses of the deceased that are in the
various tlaxilacalli; he sought it all out and asked about it. If they told him where it was,

he would right away take it from people and sell it, even if it did not belong to the
church, and even if there were heirs who were truly the children or grandchildren, he would

ignore them and consider them as nothing. He would actually take their houses from
them, remove them from them and sell them away from them. Fray Ger6nimo de Zarate

would take all the money they were sold for, saying, “With it I will perform masses for

the deceased.” But no one saw or found out !hat he was performing masses for the dead,

nor did he give anything to the property owners. He searched out absolutely all of the
testaments; he inspected them so that he found out from them what each of the deceased

distributed on dying. And ifhe found out that a testament was in people’s custody, if they
didn’t want to show it to him, if !hey didn’t quickly produce it in his presence, he would

lock them up in jail and also shame them for it, so that the Mexica would betray each
other; 1 whoever knew something about someone would tell and reveal it to fray
Geronimo de Zarate, so that he could seek it, could have people make it come to the

surface and appear and they would reveal it to him. Whatever he saw in testaments in the
way of property of the deceased, even though the deceased had passed away quite a few

years ago, even though his command had already been carried out, he sought out whatever
the testator had ordered in his testament and made people pay it a second time. This then
is how the said father fray Geronimo de Zarate greatly mistreated everyone; he thought

nothing of the Mexica, and he thought nothing of some Spaniards, even when they
implored him on someone’s behalf about something. All of the many other things that he
did to mistreat the Mexica cannot be said and told here, for there were a great many lhings
[p. 163] that he did to people. It is not necessary to say it all, whether good or bad; let
him alone give an accounting to our lord God. Let him not be talked about, forget about

that. He did it of his own accord; 2 he is responsible, for he is a friar, he is dedicated to our
lord God, and in his presence he will give an accounting to him himself when he dies.

Because he did such lhings to the Mexica and mistreated them, !hey thought him very

evil, but although the Mexica were angry about our father because he treated them like
this, they had patience with him, they kept it inside, no one dared to make it public and

make complaint to the Royal Audiencia, if it hadn’t been for the said Marfa Lopez, who
was so bold as to accuse him before the lords judges of the Audiencia. She did all the
things aforementioned; she entered a petition when the court was in deliberation, and in
her petition she announced to the judges all the different things that he did at the chapel

of San Josef to mistreat everyone. The lords heard and found out about all of it, and saw
it as a very frightful thing, so that right away the judges ordered that someone go and
notify fray Geronimo de Zarate today on the said Saturday at the chapel of San Josef that
his duty would no longer be at the chapel. He was to go inside the monastery, shut

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198
1RANSCRJPTION AND 1RANSLATION

quinmocuitlahuiz in Mexica. yhua ynic aocmo yuhqui quichihuaz tetolliniliztli tepinauh­
tiliztli yn temecahuitequiliztli yn iuh ynpan quichihuaya mexica yn necito tlacpac huel
yxquich tlamantli quicahualtique ynic aocmo tepinauhtiz ynic aocmo temecahuitequiz ynic
aocmo teyxpan tequetzaz, auh ye quipenatique ynic ,an tzauhtiaz callihtic conuento yhcuac
amo nican catca mexico yn commissario. quauhtemalan mohuicac, yhuan yn prouincial
amo no nican mexico moyetzticat[p. 164]ca nohuiyan altepetl ypan mohuicac visita qui­
mochihuilito. auh yece in yehuatl omoteneuh fr. Jeronimo de 9arate. ca ,an quexquichcauh
,an quezquilhuitl ynic huel onmocauhca yn. ynic aocmo tle ye quintollini mexica <;a mo­ cauhticatca yece amo no ye quicauh in capilla S. Joseph. i;an ya yehuatl oncan mocauh. yniqu itequiuh capillero mochiuhticatca -//- v Axcan Junes ye .30. mani Metztli henero de 1612. afios. yhcuac oncan Sancto Domingo ~eotlac otlayahualoloc ypampatzinco nemecahuitecoc in teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fr. Garcia Guerra ari;obispo visurrey. ynic cenca mococotzinoticatca momiquiliznequi, yn quimococolhuia postema ytzcaltzinco motlalli, auh yn omoteneuh ye tlayahualoloc ye­ huatzin oquimotlayahuallochtilique quimoquixtilique yn christo ymiquiliztzi in quimo­ temohuilitihui quimotoquilitihui mochipa ypan viernes Sancto. y monoltitiuh andasco quimonapalhuitiaque in Sancto Domingo teopixque. yn icatzinco tlatlatlauhtiloc ari;obis­ po visurrey ynic quimopahtiliz quimoquechiliz tt0 . dios. ynic amo quimotlatlatiliz quimo­ mictiliz. auh yn omoteneuh ye tlayahualoloc ynic hualquixohuac S: Dommgo teopan ye niman oncan hualhuilohuac yn iglesia mayor. quimoquixtilico yn inetoquiliz yxiptlatzin xpo. ye niman quimohuiquilique quimoquixtilito yn la casa professa. anoi;o_ S~n lgnaci~. nimann ic quimohuiquilique quimoquixtilito S. Franco. ye niman quimohmqmhque qm­ moquixtilito visitacion monjas ynic quimocuepilique ye niman huillohuac quimo~ quixtilito concepcion monjas. ayoticpac, ye niman quimohuiquilique quixohuato S. Juren 9 o monjas. ye niman oc ceppa vmpa quimocallaquillito quimocahuilito yn teopan S. Domingo, auh no yhui yn izquican teopa monasterios yn oncan moyetzticate teopixque frayles [p. 165] hue! yzquican no ypampatzinco tlatlatlauhtiloc, yn omoteneuhtzmo t~o­ yotica tlahtohuani ari;obispo, auh i;a no yhui yn izquican teopan mona_stenos mon~as tlatlatlauhtiloc huel ce semana yn izquican mixtlapohuiltiticatca Sanct!sstmo Sacrameto cecemilhuitl ynic amo momiquiliz. i;an quimochicahuiliz in tt0 • Dios. II auh niman yn ichicomeyoc yn ipan Domingo ynic .5. mani metztli febrero, ye yohua yn oquimotla­ polhuilique postema yn omoteneuh motlalli ytzcaltzinco ar9obispo. in quimococolhuia temalli yn oncan hualquiz. yevatl ynic momiquiliznequi - y Axcan Domingo ye .12. mani metztli febrero de 1612 afios. yhcuac ye otzonquiz mis'.a huey yn oncan capilla S. Joseph S. Franco. oc achto tetzacualloc amoyac huel hualqmz quiyahuac, auh yn ihcuac ye otzacualloc ye nima callihticpa yn hualquiz fr. Jeronim_o de i;arate, omopepetlauh mecatl yn iquechtlan oquitlalli ye oquihualtititztia yn oncan fiscal ye niman altar mayor omotlancuaquetzato yn tottatzin chocatia, quihtotia m~camo ximotequipachocan yn anMexica. cane! aocmo anquimottitillani yn tell yn quahmtl, ma nehua nictzacua ynic niman oncan ayah in temimiltitech yn oncan otequetzaya yn otepinauhtiaya huel quinahuatequito yn temimilli oncan ye mohuitequi quilhuia fiscal 1612 199 himself up there, and no longer take care of the Mexica. No longer was he to perform such mistreatment, shaming, and lashings as he had been inflicting on the Mexica, which appeared above. They stopped him from doing absolutely all the different things, so that he would no longer shame people, give them lashings, or stand them up in public. And they set a fine for him so that he would stay closed up inside the monastery. The commissary was not here in Mexico at that time, having gone to Guatemala, and the provincial head was not here in Mexico either; [p. 164] be had gone to the various altepetl all around, carrying out an inspection. But it was only for a little while, a few days, that the said fray Geronimo de Zarate really stopped mistreating the Mexica in some way. He was stopped for the time being, but he did not therefore leave the chapel of San Josef, he was only prevented from holding the post of chaplain that he had been appointed to. -fl- y Today, Monday the 30th of the month of January of the year 1612, was when there was a procession at Santo Domingo in the afternoon; there was flagellation on account of the spiritual ruler don fray Garcia Guerra, archbishop and viceroy, since he was very sick and on the point of death. An abscess that settled in his right side was hurting him. And for the said procession they took around and brought out the Death of Christ, which they always take down and follow on Good Friday, which lies on a carrying platform. The Dominican friars bore it; they were asked to in the name of the archbishop and viceroy, so that our lord God would heal him and raise him up, so he would not efface him and cause his death. And as to how the said procession went, when they came out of the church of Santo Domingo, they came and passed by the cathedral with the image of the burial of Christ; then they took it and passed by the Casa Profesa, or San Ignacio; then they took it and passed by San Francisco; then they took it and passed by the nunnery of the Visitacion, where they turned it around, then went and passed by the nunnery of the Concepcion at Ayoticpac with it; then they took it and passed by the nunnery of San L~ren~o; then they once again delivered it to and put it in the church of Santo Domingo. L1kew1se m all the monastery churches, where the friars are, [p. 165] in each one there were also prayers on behalf of the said spiritual ruler, the archbishop, and likewise there were prayers in all the nunnery churches. For a whole week the most Holy Sacrament was open to view every day so that he would not die, but rather our lord God would give him health.// Then on the seventh day [after the procession], on Sunday the 5th of the month of February, at night, they opened the abscess which as mentioned had settled in the archbishop's right side and was hurting him; pus came out of it; for that reason he was at the point of death. - Y Today, Sunday the 12th of the month of February of the year 1612, was when, the high mass at the chapel of San Josef at San Francisco having finished, people were shut in for a while; no one could come outside. And when people were closed in, then fray Geronimo de Zarate came out from inside the building, stripped, with a rope placed at his neck, by which the fiscal there went pulling him until he knelt at the main altar. Our father went weeping, saying, "Do not worry, Mexica, for you will no longer be shown castigation; let me pay for it." Then he went next to the stone column where he used to stand people up and shame them and put his arms all the way around the column where people were : i 'Ii,. 'i I { :.·'1' :1 I ·I, '" '!! I; I .'I!': ''i i' :, ' I I I 1, 200 TRANSCRil'TION AND TRANSLATION xinechhuitequi. auh yn fiscal amo tlapalohuaya 1 in quihuitequiz. ynic c;an iyoma yehuatl ya mohuitequi tottatzin ye cenca ycahuacaque in Mexica yn quittaij. c;an ic micahuique 2 quihtoque tleyca yn iuh quimochihuilia yn tottatzin auh c;an quitlacahualtique yn tottatzin fr. Jeronimo de c;arate ynic amo yuhqui quichihuaz c;a caantiaque in callihtic quicallaquique yn ihcuac yn yuhqui quichiuh cenca mochicahua quiteylhuia audiencia real yn Maria Lopez. yece c;an concahuaco yn ineteylhuil. amo quitzonquixti, ynic no niman [p. 166] Oc ceppa quipehualti omoteneuh fr. Jeronimo de c;arate in ye tlatollinia in ye tepinauhtia yn iuh omoteneuh achtopa quichihuaya. y Axcan miercoles ynic .22. mani Metztli febrero de 1612. a0 s. yhcuac omomiquilli in yecmahuizticatlacatzintli teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fray Garcia Guerra arcobispo 3 Mexico yva visurrey omochiuhtzinoticatca in nican yhua yn moch ic nohuiya nueua espafia teopixqui S. Domingo. ce tzilini ypan tlaco hara. tlacah yn opeuh ye tzilini ymiccatepoz­ tzin nohuiyan monasteries. auh ynic teoyotica tlahtohuani ynic arc;obispo omoyetzticatca Mexico, yexihuitl ypan nauhtetl Metztli ypa cenpohuallonnahui tonatiuh yn axcan ypan ye omomiquillico. auh ynic tlalticpacayotica omotlahtocatilli ynic visurrei omochiuh­ tzinoticatca. c;an chicuetetl Metztli ypan nahuilhuitl yn axcan ypan ye cemilhuitl mier­ coles omomiquillico, yehuatl ye momiquillico yn omoteneuh postema, yn itzcaltzinco quimotlapohuilique. auh hue! mochi tlacatl yuh quihto yn teopixque yhuan espafioles. ca c;an yehuantin quimomictilique in medigos yn iticitzitzinhuan quimopahtiliaya omentin yn espafioles yn ce vmpa quihualmohuiquilli yn espafia ytoca Doctor pineda. auh ynic ome amo hue! momati yn itoca Doctor. y Auh ye quin Sabado axcan ynic .25. mani Metztli febrero de 1612. afios. yn otococ ynacayotzin yehuatzin teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fray Garcia Guerra arc;obispo Mexico yhuan vi surrey. ometzticatca. Oc onahuilhuiti yn oonoca ynacayotzin yn oncan Capilla palacio. c;aniuh chichiuhtoya yea in teoyotica ytlahtocateopixcanechichihualtzin yn motenehua ornametos. pontificales. yn imitratzin yhuan casulla morada yhuan [p. 167] Yn itopiltzin baculo, quimotquilitoya, yhuan in cruz quimoyacaniliaya ynic arc;obispo ycxitlantzinco yxpantzinco yhcaya. yhuan yn oc cequi tlamantli ytlahtocamahuizc;otzin ynic visurrey. moyetzticatca moch on can catca ytlantzinco, oncan mochi tlacatl contenna­ miquia yn imatzin, ynic 6can ytechtzinco mocnopilhuiaya onpohualilhuitl yn tecentlapo­ polhuiliztli indulgencias. auh yn omoteneuh axca ypan Sabado. yn oquic ayemo quihual­ moquixtiliaya ynacayotzin yn oncan monoltitoya Capilla oncan cecen responso, ypantzin­ co quimihtalhuito mochintzitzin yn izqui tlamantin nepapan teopixque Mexico onoque, auh yn ihcuac ye otlanque in ye ixquich niman ye netecpano ynic quixohuaz oncan pa­ lacio. ye teotlac, auh yn onetecpanoc ye niman peuh in ye quixohua hue! yei tzilli ypan tlaco hora, teotlac, auh ynic netecpanoc ynic quixohuac oncan tecpan palacio, hue! tlaya­ cac mantiaque in timacehualti mexica, hue! yzquicanpa onca huallaque quihualcencauhque mochintin yn izquicampa Cofradias. quimopialia Mexica, in S. Juan Moyotlan tlaca, yhuan S. Pablo teopan tlaca, yhua S. sebastian atzacualco tlaca. yhuan S.ta maria cuepo­ pan, yhua in Sanctiago tlatilolco, hue! yzquicampa cecen cruz manca. quihualhuicaque, yhuan cecen estandarte ahnoc;o vanderra yn izqui ypan Cofradias. mopia hue! yzquican hualla, auh yehuatin tlayacac mantiaque yn omoteneuhque Mexica ynic oncan quixohuac 1. For "amo motlapalohuaya." 2. For "miyahuique." 1612 201 lashed, and said to the fiscal, "Whip me!" But the fiscal did not dare' whip him, so that our father began to whip himself on his own, because of which the Mexica who saw it greatly murmured and were taken aback by it.2 They said, "Why is our father doing that?" And they restrained our father fray Ger6nimo de Zarate from doing it; various of them grabbed him and put him in the interior of the building. When this was done Marfa L6pez was greatly encouraged in her complaint to the Royal Audiencia, but the Audiencia halted her complaint and did not bring it to a conclusion, so that right away [p. 166] the said fray Ger6nimo de Zarate began again to treat everyone badly and shame people as was mentioned that he had done before, Y Today, Wednesday the 22nd of the month of February of the year 1612, was when the truly reverend lord the spiritual ruler don fray Garcia Guerra, who was archbishop3 in Mexico and appointed viceroy here and all over New Spain, Dominican friar, passed away. At half past 1 o'clock in the daytime the bells began to toll for him in the monasteries everywhere. Today, on the day he passed away, he had been spiritual ruler and archbishop in Mexico for 3 years, 4 months, and 24 days. And he had ruled in earthly matters ap­ pointed viceroy, for only 8 months and 4 days today on the day of Wednesday wh;n he passed away. He died of the said abscess that they opened on his right side. Absolutely all of the religious and Spaniards said that it was just the doctors, his physicians, who killed him. Two Spaniards were treating him; one he brought here from Spain, named dr. Pine­ da, and the name of the other doctor cannot be established. Y Not until Saturday, today the 25th of the month of February of the year 1612, was the body of the spiritual ruler don fray Garcfa Guerra, late archbishop in Mexico and viceroy, buried. First his body had lain for four days in the palace chapel. He was outfitted in his full normal gear a.s a priestly ruler, called pontifical ornaments: his miter and purple chas­ uble, and [p. 167] he lay carrying his staff, the crozier; and the cross that used to precede him as archbishop stood at his feet, facing him. And all his other ruler's insignia as viceroy were at his side. Everyone there was kissing his hands, so that thereby they would attain forty days of general pardon, indulgences. And today, on the said Saturday, before they had come to remove his body from where it lay in the chapel, all the different groups of religious who live in Mexico went to say a responsory prayer each for him. And when they had finished, when it was over, everyone lined up to come out of the palace; it was afternoon by then. When they had lined up and began to come out, it was fully half past three o'clock in the afternoon. As to how they were lined up as they came out of the palace, we Mexica commoners went at the very front. Absolutely all the cofradfas that the Mexica have for each of the sections came along and had made preparations: the people of San Juan Moyotlan, the people of San Pablo Teopan, the people of San Sebastian Atza­ qualco, Santa Marfa Cuepopan, and Santiago Tlatelolco. Every single one each brought a decorated cross and a standard or banner, which are kept by each of the cofradfas. They came from absolutely all the sections, and the said Mexica went in a group at the front as people came out of the palace. - 3. For "an;obispo." 1:1 ,. 1: 1' :, I. :,I' ,,,1 < ·, ,. I I I I II', ! ' '\f' ' I i: I, ' ' '·I· / r' /' : , -r ,, : ' . :I ''1' ' ' .I ' '' 202 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION tecpan palacio, - y_ Auh ye niman yehuantin quimontocatiaque in pipiltzitzinti ycnotlaca in huapahuallo S. Juan de letra in motenehua colegio de los nifios, quihuicaq. yn incruz teocmtlatl plata tepitzin. y_ Auh ye niman yehuantin quimontocatiaque. yn mulatoti inco[p. 168]fradia quipia tlayacatitihui // ynic niman yehuantin quim5tocatiaque yn espaiioles. yn izqu\campa_ C~­ fradias quipia mexico, c;an tel ye cepanmantiaque yn omoteneuhque mulatot1h, mochmtm cecen quihuicatiaque yn esdantardes yn invamderra, in ye mochi mocenpohua ymaxca espafioles cenpohualli. yehuatl tecenpohualca yn iesdantardetzin yn ivamderratzin totlac;o­ nantzin S.ta maria nuestra Senora del rosario, c;a tlatocatiuh, yehica ca ya huecahua ca achto motlalli ynon Cofradia S Domingo catqui, c;a ce in ye mochi omoteneuh cofradias. ,an imamanian in tecpantiaque ynic mantiaque ynic yahtiaque - y_ Auh ynic no niman yehuantin quimontocatiaque in motenehua hermanos de co~va­ lecientes. yn quimocuitlahuia hospital S.t ipolito, ac;o <;an matlactm yn oncan mantrnq. ce yn cruz manca quihuicaque yhuan ytloc mantia ome ciliares, yhuan ce clerigo yncapellan capa quitlalitia, yhuan ytloc mantiaque ome diagonos almaticas quitlalitiaque - _ . y_ Auh ye niman yehuantin quimontocatiaque in c;a no motenehua hermanos yn 1p1l: huantzitzin Beato Juan de dios. in <;ano quimocuitlalmia hospital desmamparados. ahc;o c;a quen matlactlomomentin yn oncan mantiaque. ce yn cruz2 manca quihuicaque ytloc man­ tia ome ciliares yhuan ce capa quitlalitia. yehuatl in hermano mayor. ahnoc;o fundador. sacerdote, yhuan ytloc mantiaque ome diagonos almaticas quitlallitiaque. no sacerdotes, ,anno hermanos yn itlatecpampa yn itlac;otzin 11°. Juan de dios. - _ . . . . . . y_ Auh ye niman yehuantzitzin quimonmotoquilitiaque in ceca mahmztlhlom yxtlhlom yn teotlamachilizticatzinco [p. 169] Y n motenehua Teopixque La compai\ia de Jesus. in c;an quincuitia ye notzallo teatinos, ca amo yehuantzitzin ynnotzalloca ca oc centlamantin vm­ pa moyetztica in Roma yhuan Italia in teopixque teatinos. yhuan ye monotza la congre­ gacion de Jos Clerigos reglares, ynin ypilhuan huel achto ytlatlalilhuan yn Don Pedro carrafa obispo vmpa yn ipan altepetl Teatinense. auh ynin obispo c;atepan cardenal omo­ chiuh yequene Sancto Padre mochiuhtzinoco quimotocayotitzino yn ipan ye quimocorona­ maquilique Paulo Quarto. o yehuatzin in yn intatzin in huel yehuatin teopixque moten: ehua Teatinos yn ayemo hualmohuica nican ypan nueua espafia, // ma ye teyollo pach1hm ca oc centlamantintzitzin in ye nican moyetzticatca mexico, yn incatzinco titlahtohua, c;an hue! yxquich ynotzallocatzin teopixque la compafiia de Jesus. in yehuantzitzin in teo­ pixque ac;o hue! yepohuallonmatlactin. yn oncan momaniltitiaque yn omote~euh ye teco­ coc atle cruz manca quimohuiquilique, ,aniuh moquixtique <;aniuh mohmcaque yhuan ano~le capa quimotlalilitiaq. c;aniuh mochintzitzin mantiaque yea yn inc;odanatzin yhuan inmanteotzin yn iuh mochipa monemiltia - mochintzitzin cecencandelas ymactzinco. - y_ Auh ye niman yehuantzitzin quimonmotoquilitiaque in cenca m~huiztililoni teopixque in motenehua mercenadios, yn itlac;opilhuantzitzinhuan in tohueyc1huatlahtocatecmyo to­ tlac;omahuiznantzin Sancta maria las mercedes de la redeption de los cautiuos, ahc;o hue! onpohualtin yn oncan momaniltitiaque omoteneuh ye tetococ, ce yn cruz manca qm~o­ huiquilique ytloc mantia ome ciliares. yhuan ce capa quimotlalilitia 3 yhuan ytloctzmco mantiaque ome diagonos almaticas quitlallitiaq. [p. 170] I. Another possible interpretation is that the mulattoes went as a group (by them­ selves). 1612 203 Y And next there followed them the orphaned children who are raised at San Juan de Letran, which is called the Colegio de los Ninos; they took along their small silver cross. Y Then after them followed the mulattoes who have their cofradfa, [p, 168] going in front [of the Spaniards].// Then after them followed the Spaniards in all the cofradfas they have !n Mexico, but they went along in a group with the said mulattoes. 1 They all went carry­ mg a standard or banner each. A total of twenty belong to the Spaniards; the twentieth is the standard and banner of our precious mother Santa Marfa, our lady of the rosary. It came at the end because it has lasted a long time, for that cofradfa was first established at Santo Domingo. Each of all the said cofradfas was arranged in line in its place [according to seniority] as they went along in groups and proceeded. - Y Then after them followed those called the Brothers of the Convalescents, who take care of the hospital of San Hip6lito. Perhaps only ten of them went along in a group carrying a decorated cross; next to it went two processional candlesticks, and a secular priest, their chaplain, wore a cape, and at his side went two deacons wearing their vestments. - Y Then after them followed those likewise called Brothers, the children of the beatified Juan de Dios, who in the same fashion take care of the hospital of Desamparados. Perhaps about twelve of them went along in a group there, carrying a decorated cross,2 and next to it went two processional candlesticks. The senior brother or founder, a priest, wore a cape, and at his side went two deacons wearing their vestments, also priests and likewise broth­ ers of the order of the beloved of our lord Juan de Dios. - Y Then after them followed those who are very much to be revered and respected for their knowledge of the divinity, [p. 169] called the religious of the Company of Jesus, whom they acknowledge to be and are called Theatines, but that is not their [t1·ue] appellation, for residing in Rome and Italy is another group of religious, the Theatines, also called the congregation of regular priests. They are the children of and were first founded by don Pedro Caraffa, bishop in the altepetl of Thete, This bishop later became a cardinal, and finally he came to be made pope. At the time they crowned him he took the name of Paul IV. He was the father of the religious who are truly called Thea tines, who have not yet come here to New Spain,// May people's minds be put to rest thereby, for it is a differ­ ent group that is here in Mexico and that we are talking about, whose only real appella­ tion is religious of the Company of Jesus. Perhaps as many as seventy of these religious went along there in a group to the said burial; they did not take any decorated cross, they just came out and went along as they usually are. Nor did they wear capes; they all just went along as usual with their cassocks and long cloaks, as they always go about, each of them with a candle in his hand. - y_ Then after them went following the very reverend friars called Mercedarians, the precious children of our great queenly lady, our precious revered mother Santa Marfa de las Mercedes Y de la Redenci6n de los Cautivos. Perhaps a full forty of them went along in a group to the said burial, taking with them a decorated cross with two processional candle­ sticks going beside it; [a priest] went along wearing a cape, 3 and at his side went two deacons wearing their vestments. [p. 170] 2. !~e or~ginaI coo.Id be interpreted as yncruz, "their cross," rather than yn cruz, "the cross, m thts case as m several others. 3. See pp. 204-05, n. I. '!' i '11, . I ! I.' ! ,11 ,'! ·'1 :,,. ' ' i,, 1: 204 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION y_ Auh ye niman yehuantzitzin. quimonmotoquilitiaque, in cenca mahuiztililoni tlai;oteo­ pixque Carmenitas descalsos, in i;a no ytla,opilhuatzitzinhuan in tohuecihuatlahtocate­ cuiyo. totlac;omahuiznantzin in moteneuhtzinohua nuestra Sefiora S.ta maria del carme, amo miequintzitzin ahi;o i;an quen matlactintzitzin yn oncan momaniltitiaque omoteneuh ye tetococ, auh ,an cuauhcruz tepitzin nepaniuhqui coztic teocuitlayo. tlapallo, in quimo­ huiquillique, ytloc mantia ome cuauhciliares, yhuan ce capa quimotlalilitia. 1 yhuan necoc ytloctzinco mantiaq. ome diagonos. almaticas quitlalitiaque - y_ Auh ye niman yehuantzitzin quimonmotoquilitiaque in cenca mahuiztililoni teopixque hermitafios. yn itlai;opilhuantzitzinhuan totla,omahuiztatzin S. Augustin. Obispo Hipo­ nia huey yteotlamatilizmatcatzin in Sancta yglesia. ahi;o huel nauhpohuallonmatlactin yn oncan momaniltitiaque omoteneuh ye tetococ. ce yn cruz manca quimohuiquilique necoc ytloc mantia ome ciliares, yhuan ce capa quimotlalilitia yhuan necoc ytloctzinco man­ tiaque ome diagonos. almaticas quitlalitiaque - y_ Auh ye niman yehuantzitzin quimonmotoquilitiaque in ceca mahuiztililoni teopixque Menores. yn itla,opilhuatzitzinhuan totlai;omahuiztatzin S. Fran° 0 Patriarcha. ahi;o huel macuilpohuallonmatlactin. yn oncan momaniltitiaque omoteneuh ye tetocac, ,an ic mo­ centlamantiliq. i;an ic cenyahque i;an ic cenmomaniltitiaque. in teopixq. descal,os, cane! i;an ic cen ytlai;opilhuantzitzinhuan yn omoteneuhtzino totla,ottatzin S. Franco, no yhuan onca [p. 171] Yntlantzinco momaniltitiaque, yeintin teopixque trinidarios in quimopialia ytech ca ymescapulariotzin yztac ce cruz chichiltic yhuan xoxoctic. in motenehua ytlai;o­ pilhuantzitzinhua yn ieytilitzin tt0 • dios. la Sancta Trinidad,.ca no ye notzallo de la Re­ demption de captiuos, auh yn omoteneuhtzinoque teopixque S. Fran° 0 . ce yn cruz manca quimohuiquilique necoc ytloc mantia ome ciliares, yhua ce capa quimotlalilitia yhuan necoc ytloctzinco mantiaque. ome diagonos almaticas quitlalitiaque - Y. Auh ye niman yehuantzitzin. in huel yehuantin miccahuaque. quimonmotoquilitiaque. in cenca mahuiztililoni teopixque in moteneuhtzinohua predicadores. yn itla,opilhuantzi­ tzinhuan totla,omahuiztatzin, S. Domingo. Patriarcha, ahi;o huel macuilpohuallonma­ tlactin, yn oncan momaniltitiaque omoteneuh ye tetococ. ce cruz manca quimohuiquilique necoc ytloc mantia ome ciliares, yhuan ce capa quimotlalilitia yhuan necoc ytloctzinco mantiaque ome diagonos. almaticas quitlalitiaque - y_ Auh ynic niman yehuantzitzin quimonmotoquilitiaque in huel tlacpac moyetzticate. in huel teachcauhtzitzinhuan. clerigos. in cabildo tlaca. motenehua Canonigos cathedrales. yn itlai;omahuizpilhuantzitzinhuan totla,omahuiztatzin Sefior S. Pedro. Principe, quihtoz­ nequi tlahtocapiltachcauhtzin yn ipan S.ta yglesia, ynin ,an ic mocetilitzinoque i;an monepanotzinoque i;an mocepanmaniltitiaque. in vela cruz perroquia tlaca clerigos. yhuan S.ta catalina Martyr perroquia tlaca clerigos amo hue! mochiuh ynic nononcua man­ tiazquia, auh mochintintzitzin Sobrepe!liz. quimotlalilitiaque ynbonetestzin auh amo hue! mopohua in ye mochintzitzin clerigos. oncan [p. 172] momaniltitiaque omoteneuh ye tetococ, ca cenca miyequintzitzin, ce yn cruz manca quimohuiquillique necoc ytloc mantia ome ciliares, auh yehuatzin capa quimotlalilitia in cenca mahuiztililoni Sefior Doctor Sausedo arcediano, yhuan necoc ytloctzinco mantiaque ome diagonos almaticas tliltic I. The subject of "quimotlaliltia," went wearing, is singular. The only apparent_ can­ didate for subject in the immediate vicinity is the cross itself. It was a well established practice to have a priest in a cape surrounded by two deacons on all ~orts of c~remomal occasions. We can only presume that Ch. omitted a word for the pnest by m1Stake, or 1612 205 Y. Then followed the very reverend precious friars the Discalced Carmelites who are likewise precious children of our great queenly lady our precious revered mother ~alled our Lady Santa Marfa del Carmen. There were not many of them, perhaps only about ten, who went along to the said burial, and they just took along just a little wooden cross joined together and colored gold. Beside it went two wooden processional candlesticks; [a pnest] went wearing 1 a cape, and next to him on both sides went two deacons wearing their vestments. - Y. Then followed after them the very reverend friars the Hermits, the precious children of our precious revered father San Agustin, bishop of Hippo, the holy church's great expert on theology. Perhaps a full ninety of them went along in a group to the said burial. They took along a decorated cross; on both sides of it went two processional candlesticks a priest went wearing a cape, and on both sides next to him went two deacons wearing th~ir vestments. - Y. Then after them followed the very reverend Friars Minor, the precious children of our precious revered father San Francisco the patriarch. Perhaps there were a full hundred and ten of them going along in a group to the said burial. The Discalced friars formed a single group with them, they went together and went along as a group, because they are all to­ gether precious children of our said precious father San Francisco. And also [p. 171] three Trinitarian friars went along among them; they have a white scapular with a red and green cr~s~ on it; these said precious children of the three-part nature of our lord God, the Holy Tnmty, are also called [by the name of] the Redemption of Captives. And the said Fran­ ciscan friars took along a decorated cross; next to it on both sides went two processional candlesticks; [a priest] went wearing a cape, and next to him on both sides went two dea­ cons wearing their vestments. - Y. Then after them followed those who were directly bereaved, the very reverend friars called Preachers, the precious children of our precious revered father Santo Domingo the patriar_ch. Th_ere were perhaps a full hundred and ten of them who went along in a group to the said bunal. They took along a decorated cross; next to it .on both sides went two processional candlesticks, and [a priest] went wearing a cape, and next to him on both sides went two deacons wearing their vestments. - Y. Then after them followed the most highly placed, very senior secular priests, the people of the cathedral chapter, called canons of the cathedral, precious revered children of our precious revered father San Pedro the Prince, that is to say, the senior royal noble in the holy Church. With these the secular priests of the Vera Cruz parish and the Santa Ca­ talina Martir parish were united and joined; it was not possible for them to go as sep­ arate groups. They all wore a surplice and bonnet. All the secular priests going along in a group to the said burial cannot be counted, [p. 172] for there were very many of them. They took along a decorated cross, and next to it on both sides went two pro­ cessional candlesticks. The very reverend lord doctor Salcedo, archdeacon, went wearing a cape, and next to him on both sides went two deacons wearing their black vestments, both of them canons with a full ration. And all the canons with a full ration went wearing possibly taking it for granted. The situation_ is all the more strange because virtually the same phrase, with exactly the same omisston, occurs several more times in following paragraphs. These passages may be testimony to Ch.' s tendency to repeat certain phrases as a refram almost regardless of their content, as in the resume of Mexica history earlier. ,, , .. ,, ;I ii I ! :1 i I '' ' I, /1 I • I •,:: J ',I, I I ·I '' I· Ii -·-·· ----· ------------ -··- 206 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION quimotlalilitiaque ymomextintzitzin Racioneros, auh ynic ye mochtintzitzin Canonigos, Racioneros, mochintin tliltic manta del coro tabetan, in quimotlalilitiaque, yn iuh mo­ chipa ypan quaresmatica quimotlalilitihui yn ipa motenehua La Sena, auh ynic tlamico oncan quixohua palacio capilla. ye ypan macuilli tzilli ypan tlaco hora, ynic quihualmo­ quixtilique ynacayotzin omoteneuhtzino teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fray Garcia Guerra visurrey. yn oncan monoltitoya comanilique achtopa yehuantzitzin yn audiencia real tlaca tlahtoque Oydores. in Andas. ye monoltitoya. quimonapalhuique in tlacpac omoteneuh capilla ye quihualmotemohuillique tlatzintla ynic onca palacio caltempa quimotequillico ypan quauhtlapechtli motenehua Tumulo yn i;an ic tlatlalili ypan quimocehuilizque yna­ cayotzin miccatzintli, in ye oconmotequilico oncan nim'a ic ce responso cuicayo oncan ypantzinco2 yn inacayotzin quihtoq. in capilla tlaca 1 clerigos. yn officiales iglesia mayor, auh yc3 omoteneuh i;aniuh monoltitiuh in andasco yn inacayotzin cencauhtiuh ynic mochi chichiuhtiuh in teoyotica ytlahtocamahuiznechichihualtzin omamentos pontificates. ye­ vatl ynic centlamantli. amito,4 niman ye yn alba camisatli, yhuan maquiltitiuh in cassula morada, yhuan cenca tlai;otli yn icpactzinco actiuh Mitra, coztic teocuitlaycpatica yec­ tlamacho. yhuan tlai;oteyo epyolloyo. ymactzinco onotiuh yn ichcapixcatopiltzin baculo, macitica coztic teocuitlayo yn iztac teocuitlatl, auh no yhui yn imatzin haactiuh vandes. yhuan matzatzaztli [p. 173] anillos, auh ycxitlantzinco mantiuh yn ibonetetzin. ycpac yetiuh cc yztac borla ynic neztiuh ca maestro omoyetzticatca yn ipan sancta theologia, yhuan yn isomblerotzin huey quiltic ,an no ycxitlantzinco mantiuh, auh cayemo huehuentzin omoyetzticatca ca ye quin hue! yyolloco oquichtli yuh omihto ye quin ye ompohuallonmatlactli ypa macuilxihuitl oquimopialiaya. auh yn omoteneuh ynic qui­ hualmotemohuilique vmpa capilla palacio, no yehuantin cenpohualloncaxtolli in Docto­ resme, yn quihualmololhuilitiaque miccatzintli. in teopixque clerigos Doctores. yhua frayles maestros oc cenca yehuatzin in cenca mahuiztililoni maestro fr. diego de contreras cathedratico de escriptura. mochintzitzin i;an neneliuhtihui yn espafioles Doctores ynic moomemaniltitiaque in nepapa yzqui tlamantli ye Doctores. moch quimotlalilitihui yn inquechquentzin in motenehua capirotes. yhua inBorlas. ymicpac yayatiuh, cecenyaca yntech machioneztiuh yn tlein ye tlamatini tlamachiliznemachtiltica. auh yn omoteneuh miccatzintli yn icquac5 quihualmoquixtilique tecpan palacio. ca niman hualmotlalli mixtli achi tliltic ,an iyoca ypan in ciudad mexico. ye mixtlapacho in tonatiuh. ynic quiquiya­ huia. inic yuhquin ma oncan ytech nezqui no yehuatl y nauhtlamantli yn huel peuhcayotl motenehua Elementos no quicoco quitlaocolti yn imiquiliztzin teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fr. Garcia Guerra - Y. Auh yn o yuh onmihto yn omoteneuh ce responso, ypan ynacayotzin miccatzintli yn oncan omoteneuh ypan Tumulo. miccatlapechtli in caltempa palacio, ye niman oncan oc yehuantzitzin conmanilique conmonapalhuique yn inacayotzin teoyotica tlahtohuani, in cenca mahuiztililoni [p. 174] Canonigos. ynic niman ohtlipan oquimotlatoctilique oqui­ mohuiquilique, tlapohualtepoztli ycal ,an ixpan quimoquixtilique ynic tlayahualolotia ynic quimahuiztilique ynacayotzin miccatzintli, auh in yehuantin omoteneuhque Docto­ resme. huel yehuantin ytlan omantiaque oquitocatiaque yn omoteneuh miccatzintli, auh ,a motlatoquiltitia, ,a hue! quimotzacuiltitia yn omoteneuhtzin 6 cenca mahuiztililoni Padre l. Or people of the chapel, perhaps defining the secular priests? 2. For "yxpantzinco." 3. The intention seems to be ye, not ye. 1612 207 a black choir cloak of taffeta, like they always wear during Lent at what is called the main meal. When they finished coming out of the palace chapel, it was half past 5 o'clock as they brought out the body of the said spiritual ruler don fray Garcia Guerra, viceroy, from where he was lying. First the lords of the Royal Audiencia, the civil judges, took him in the bier where he was lying and lifted him up in their arrns in the above mentioned chapel, and in that fashion they brought him down below, until just outside the palace they laid him on a wooden platform called a catafalque, that had been set up for them to rest the body of the deceased on. When they had laid him there, the [ choir members?]' and the s~cular priests and officials of the cathedral sang a responsory prayer in the presence of2 his body. It was already3 said that his body just lay in the bier, all prepared, all out­ fitted with his revered equipment as ruler, the pontifical ornaments, which were first the amice, 4 then the alb, a shirt; then he had on the purple chasuble, and on his head a very precious miter, finely embroidered with golden thread and covered with precious stones and pearls, and in his hand lay his shepherd's staff, the crozier, solid silver gilded, and likewise he had gloves on his hands, and rings. fp. 173] Below his feet was his bonnet on top of which was a white tassel showing that he had a master's degree in holy theo'. logy, and his large green hat was also at his feet. He was not yet aged, for he was a man just in his full maturity; it was said that he was only fifty-five years old. And when as was mentioned they brought him down from the palace chapel, also thirty-five ecclesias­ tical holders of the doctorate went gathered around the deceased, secular priests with the doctorate and friars with master's degrees, especially the very reverend master fray Diego de Contreras, professor of scripture. All the Spanish doctors went mixed among one an­ other, so that all the different kinds of doctors went along two by two. They all went wearing neck garments called hoods, and on top of their heads were various tassels signifying for each person what branch of knowledge he was a scholar in. Whens the; brought the said deceased out of the palace, rather black clouds formed right away, only over the city of Mexico, covering the surface of the sun, and it rained off and on, as though showing thereby that also the four separate things thai are the very beginning, called elements, were hurt and moved to pity by the death of the spiritual ruler don fray Garda Guerra. - Y. And when as was mentioned a responsory prayer had been said over the body of the deceased, as was mentioned on the catafalque or platform for the dead, outside the palace, the very reverend canons took and picked up the body of the spiritual ruler. [p. 174] Then ~ey directed him along the road and took him to the clock tower; they took him passing nght m front of it in their procession in order to honor the body of the deceased. And the said doctors were the very ones who went beside and followed the said deceased· and the said6 very reverend father master fray Diego de Contreras, Augustinian friar, followed 4. An undervestment around the neck and shoulders. 5. For "ihquac." 6. For "omoteneuhtzino," ,I ,I 'i i/ ,. ,,. j 'I'. ' . i,,! i I •,'{•,,,I :i .-,II: Ii! )1 • ' I' j '-1:,, ,,, I ''I 'I ',ii :,_. I 0 ) ,: 1;:,,, l,, 11 . ! i" '!i', 'i , ·' ,i: ,I , I ,,:,, [,, I ; t: I . i I I: I i, 208 1RANSCRIT'f!ON AND TRANSLATION Maestro fr. diego de contreras teopixqui S. Augustin yehica ca ye huecauh achto ye maestro ynic nican Mexico - y Auh ye niman yehuantin quimonmotoquilitiaque mochintin yn ixquichtin cabildo ciudad tlaca, tecpantiaque quintocatia ome vamderra ahno,;o esdantarde real ytech icuiliuhtia _yn itlahtocatlahuiztzin yn iarmastzin Rey ynin ca tafetan tliltic netloc mantia yyomextt II auh ye niman yehuantin quimontocatiaque yn ixquichtin. Soldadostin yaotiacahuan a,;o hue! chicuepohualtin in ye mochi yn necoccampa motecpanque ynic tlayahualolotia mo­ cuecuentilique ynic tecpancayahque. ,;an inmac quitetecatiaque yn imarcaboz, yhuan no cecen lan,;as. inmac quihuicacaya, 1 ,;an tlalpan quihuillantiaque, amo huel cacocuia, auh yn in omoteneuhque Soldadostin ome yn invamderra yn inquachpan quihuicaque ,;an tlal­ pan tlaltitech quihuihuillantiaque amo no hue! cacocuia auh no yehuatl yn inyaohuehueuh atambores. chicuacentetl yn oncan quihuicaque quitzotzontiaque, amo cenca caquiztia amo huel nahuatia auh yehica ypampa tlilpalli luto ye quiquimiliuhtia. ,;an ipan yn quitzo­ tzontiaque, yhuan ome onca quipitztiaque bipano ahno<;o blaotas, tliltique cacatzacti amo no cenca quicaquiztilitiaque amo huel quinahuatiltitiaque ,;an quitlaocolpitztiaque, auh in yehuantin in omoteneuhque Soldadostin [p. 175] Yn oncan cenquizque omoteneuh ye teto­ coc, ca yehuantin y yazque La china in quitequipanozque tohueytlahtocauh rey y Auh ye niman yehuantzitzin quimonmotoquilitiaque in mochintin Audiencia Real tlaca, tlahtoque Oydoresme, moch luto yn inrobones yn indurga 2 quimotlalilitihui, auh yn o­ metin ymachtzitzinhuan omoteneuhtzino miccatzintli yn an;obispo. ynic ce yehuatzin in Padre fr. Jeronimo Guerra. ,;anno S. Domingo teopixqui vicario atlacohuaya. ynic ome yehuatl yn capitan de la guardia luto quihuillantiuh, tlanepatla yhcatihui ceca otlaocoxtiaq. inic quimotepotztoquilitiaq. intla,;otlatzin. quinnepantlaquetztiaque yn omoteneuhque oy­ dores, auh yhuan oc no ce tlacatl yn oncan yntlah ycatia tlanepatla, no luto yn quihuil­ lantia quitquitia yehuatl ce quauhpitzactli hueyac yn icuac tlanepanolli tlacruztlalili oncan ytech pilcatiah ,;ouhtia ce tliltic tepitzin camixatzintli, ytech icuiliuhtia yn itlacamecayo­ tlahuiztzin yn iarmastzin omoteneuhtzino miccatzintli ar,;obispo visurrey. // Auh ye ni­ man contocatia tlatoquilitiuh ce cauallo tomahuac y nohuiyan ytlacapan ,ouhtia ynic qui­ miliuhtia luto huel quihuillantia, yhua ycximanecuiliuhtia quiztiticque 3 ynic chochollo­ tia omoteneuh cauallo cantiaque yuh mihto huel yehuatl yn iaxcatzin catca yn ipan mo­ nemiltiaya omoteneuhtzino teoyotica tlahtohuani ar,;obispo visurrey. // Auh ynic_ ontetl cauallo quimontocatia ,;lino yuh chichiuhtia quimiliuhtia lutotica, no yhuan ycx1mane­ cuiliuhtia no quiztiticque no chocholotia, yn iuh yahtia oc cetetl omoteneuh cauallo. auh ynin ye ontetl cauallo ypan yatia ce espafiol, tepoztlahuiztica cotatica moyaochichiuh­ tia motenehua armada, ye yah. quihuicac quitquitia yn vamderra moteneuh Qmyon ,an huel tetepitzin ytech icuiliuhtia yn iarmastzin Rey. yehuatl yn castillo yhuan Jeon. yn i­ tlahtocatlahuiztzin, ynin omoteneuh vanderra tepitzin Quiyon ca yehuatl in quimoyaca­ niliaya yn ihcuac moquixtiaya yn ix[p. 176]quich ica omotlahtocatili ynic visurrey omo­ chiuhtzinoticatca mexico yn oquic mochicahualtitinenca omoteneuhtzino an;obispo. yn 1. For "quihuicaya." . ,, 2. It appears that Ch. may not have been familiar with the word t(mica, "turnc, etc., so that he may have miscopied "durga" from "duniga" in some earlier _text, whether written by himself or another. The form "duniga" in fact_ occurs elsewhere m the ongmal in a somewhat similar context [pp. 216-17 at n. 2]. In his section on the members of the 1612 209 everyone and went the very last, because he was the first master [ of theology J here in Mexico by a long time. - Y Then after them followed all the members of the [Spanish] cabildo of the city, going in line. Two banners or royal standards went following them, on which were painted the royal insignia, the arms of the king; they were of black taffeta; the two of them went side by side. // Then after them followed all the soldiers, the warriors, perhaps a full hundred and sixty in all. They lined up on both sides of the procession; the lines they went in were not straight; they left their muskets just lying in their arms, and the lances that each one carried 1 in their arms they just dragged on the ground, they could not lift them up. And the said soldiers carried two banners that they just went dragging on the ground; they couldn't lift them up either. And they also took along six war drums, kettle drums, that they went beating; they did not sound loudly or very clearly because they were wrapped in black mourning cloth, and they went along beating them measuredly. And two blacks played fifes or flutes, which they did not play very loudly or clearly either, but went along playing in mourning. The said soldiers [p. 175] who assembled for the said burial were the ones who were to go to China [the Philippines] to serve our great ruler the king. Y Then after them followed all the people of the Royal Audiencia, the lords judges; the robes and [tunics]2 that they wore were all of mourning cloth .. And the two nephews of the said deceased, the archbishop, of whom the first was father fray Geronimo Guerra, likewise a Dominican friar, vicar at Tacubaya, and the second was the captain of the guard, who went dragging mourning cloth, went standing in the middle; they went in great sorrow as they followed behind their beloved uncle. The said judges went placing them in their midst. And another person who went standing among them, in the middle, also carried and dragged a sign of mourning, which was a long narrow pole crossed toward one end to make a cross; from it went hanging and was displayed a little black shirt on which were painted the insignia of the said deceased archbishop and viceroy's lineage, his coat of arms. // Then after that followed, coming last, a stout horse on whose sides were everywhere displayed the mourning cloth with which it was wrapped, and it went dragging it. And it went along lame in a forefoot; they had cut a hoof3 so that the said horse that they went holding went along making leaps. It was said that the horse was the special property of the said spiritual leader, the archbishop and viceroy, when he was alive. // A second horse went following them, likewise outfitted with and wrapped in mouruing cloth, which also was lame in a forefoot, whose hoof they also cut, which also went leap­ ing, just like the other said horse. And on this second horse rode a Spaniard, outfitted for war with a metal device, a coat of mail, called a man in armor; as he went he took and carried a banner called an ensign, very small, on which was painted the king's coat of arms, a castle and a lion, his royal device. This said small banner or ensign was the one that preceded him whenever he would come out in public as long [p. 176] as he ruled as the viceroy appointed in Mexico, as long as the said archbishop was still in good health, Royal Audiencia in this funeral procession, Aleman (1911, p. 400), speaks of the wearing of a loba, described in the Diccionario de Autoridades as a long unfitted garment falling to the feet, in Latin tunic a taladris. 3. The form is apparently the equivalent of qu-izti-tecque. Speaking of this horse Ale­ man (1911, p. 402) uses the word despalmado, with the hoof pared off. Ii I I i ;i ,i I ',I ' I ! !'• :I 1 1 I ;1· I , , :l ,I " ' I ! ','i ' 1'.l1 '.'! :,lii,r · ·i ,, Ii: Ii '' I 'I i I 210 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION iuh mochintin quinyacana yn oc cequintin tlahtoque visurreyesme yn otlahtocatico nican mexico. yhuan yn oc tlahtocatiquihui in huel yxiptlatzitzinhuan tohueytlahtocatzin Rey yn espafia moyetztica Y. Auh ye niman yehuantin <;a cemi mochintin ontetocatiaque ontlatocatiaque. in teaachhuan yn ibaxehuan omoteneuhtzino miccatzintli ar,obispo visurrey omoyetzticatca. huel mochintin tlilpalli luto, quimololotiaque quihuillantiaque. 0 yhui yn. in quihual­ quixtique ynacayotzin oncan tecpan palacio. yn omoteneuhtzino miccatzintli teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fr. Garcia Guerra arcobispo 1 visurrey. ynic niman vmpa quimotlaco­ loltilito ynacayotzin, yn calnacazco. ynahuac S. Ilefonso colegio de saminario, ca <;an oc conmotlamellahualtilique ynic oncan necololoto ynic niman tlanipa ohtli quimotoctilique ynacayotzin ynin ye quimohuiquillique ca mopapatlatiaque in ixquichtin teopixque nepa­ panme yhuan tlahtoij. ynic quimonapalhuitiaque miccatzintli, ynic niman ypan ohtli S. Domingo. quimoquixtilito quimonamictilito yn ohtli. ynic niman <;a tlamellauhca oqui­ hualmocuepillique ca oquihualmotlamellahualtilique. ynic oncan quimoquixtilico yqui­ yahuac yn iportales Marques del valle. ynic niman oncan oquimocallaquillico miccatzintli iglesia mayor. huel yhcuac onaqui tonatiuh ynic onyohuac in quimaxitilico. auh yn omo­ tenehu in ynic otlipan quihualmohuiquilliij. ynic huallayahualolotia ca macuilcan yn otlipan quitlallica quauhtlapechtli. Tumu)o. yn ipan quimocecehuilitiaque ynacayotzin miccatzintli ar<;obispo. yzquican onca responsos ypantzinco quihtoque [p. 1771 Yn capilla tlaca 2 clerigos. auh ca amo huel mihtoz. motenehuaz. yhuan amo huel moponhuaz yn ixquich tlacatl catca yn oquimotoquilique 3 miccatzintli. yn espafioles. yhuan timacehual­ tin mexica. amo huel campa tetlan quixohuaya yn otlipan cenca oteten yn tlacatl yhuan yn i;a ohtenco otlamahuii;oque otlachixi'j cenca miec tlacatl yhuan yn calticpac tlapaco cenca no teten yn tlacatl tlachixque, cenca huey tlamahuiztililiztica in quimotoquilique ynacayotzin miccatzintli ca yuhquin ma Q3. yhcuac viernes Sancto. ye omochiuh yo ineto­ quiliztzin omoteneuh teoyotica tlahtohuani ari;obispo visurrey. auh yn omoteneuh ynaca­ yotzin tococ altar mayor tlamayecamcopa II auh yn o yuh conmotoquilique oncan iglesia mayor, ye niman quixohuac necuepalloc vmpa n tecpan palacio. mocueptzinoque vmpa yn audiencia Real tlaca oydores. yhuan yn oc cequintin Justicias quimocuitlahuia quincahuato yn omentin omoteneuhi'j. ymachtzitzinhuan omoteneuhtzino miccatzintli ar<;obispo, y­ huan yn ibangetzitzinhuan cahualloco, yhuan no tecahuaco y moteneuhque Soldadostin. ynic hualmocuepque ye quihualquechpanotiaque yn imarcaboz. no yhuan ye quihuallacoc­ tiaque yn imalan<;as.4 yhuan yn invamde1rn yn inquachpan Y. Auh axcan Juebes ye .8. mani metztli Mar<;o. de 1612. afios. yhcuac in honrras ymis­ satzin omochiuh iglesia mayor. in teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fr. Garcia Guerra ar<;obispo yhuan visurrey moyetzticatca Mexico. II auh i;ano ypan in yn omoteneuh ypan cemilhuitl Juebes yn ohualla tlahtolli vmpa espafia quitemachiztico ynic omomiquilli yn tohueyci­ huatlahtocatzin Dofia Marcarida de avstria Reyna espafia ocatca yn inamictzin tohueytlah­ tocatzin Don Felipe Tercero Rey espafia - [p. 178] Y. Axcan Juebes ye .15. mani Metztli Mar<;o de 1612 afios yhcuac yn ohuallathuic ye omomiquilli yohualtica, in cihuapilli Dona Ana de castilla ynamic in Anton 5 de ibarra catca. auh ychpotzin in huehue Don Luis de Velasco. ynic ome visurrey mochihuaco. I. For "ar<;obispo." 2. See pp. 206-07 at n. I. 3. The word could equally well mean "followed." 1612 211 just as it precedes the other lords viceroys who have come to rule here in Mexico and the other true representatives of our great ruler the king who is in Spain who will come to rule in the future. Y Then finally came following the others, coming last, the pages of the said deceased, the late archbishop and viceroy; every one of them wore black mourning cloth and went dragging it. This then was how they brought the body of the said deceased, the spiritual ruler don fray Garcia Guerra, archbishop 1 and viceroy, out of the palace. Then they took a turn with his body at the corner close to the seminary college of San Ildefonso, for they took him straight until they turned there; there they took his body along the road down­ ward. As they took him all the different ecclesiastics and judges went along taking turns carrying the deceased. Then they brought him to meet the road to Santo Domingo; then they brought him straight back, then they brought him to outside the arcade of the Mar­ ques de! Valle, then they brought the deceased inside the cathedral, right at sunset; they brought him in as it got dark. And as they brought him on this said route and came in procession, in five places along the way they had set up a wooden platform, the catafalque, on which they caused the body of the deceased archbishop to rest while the [choir?]2 and secular priests said responsory prayers for him. [p. 177] It cannot be said, told, or counted how many people there were who [buried]3 the deceased, Spaniards and we Mexica commoners. It cannot be [said] how, wherever they passed by people on the way, it was full of people; very many people just gazed and looked at things from the roadside, and the housetops, the roofs, were also full of people looking. With very great splendor they buried the body of the deceased; the burial of the said spiritual ruler, the archbishop and viceroy, was performed as though it were Good Friday. And his said body was buried on the right hand side of the main altar. II After they had buried him at the cathedral, ev­ eryone came out and returned to the palace. The judges of the Royal Audiencia and the others who administer justice accompanied the two said nephews of the said deceased arch­ bishop there, and his pages were brought there, and also the said soldiers came in accom­ paniment; as they returned, they shouldered their muskets again, and they again raised their lances4 and their banners, their cloth flags. Y. Today, Thursday the 8th of the month of March of the year 1612, was when the ob­ sequies were held and a mass was performed in the cathedral for the spiritual ruler don fray Garcia GueITa, late archbishop and viceroy in Mexico. II And likewise on the said day of Thursday word came from Spain and it was announced that our great queen dofia Margarita de Austria, late queen of Spain, spouse of our great ruler don Felipe III, king of Spain, had passed away. [p. 178] y Today, Thursday the 15th of the month of March of the year 1612, in the night before morning of that day, was when the lady dofia Ana de Castilla, who was the spouse of Ant6n 5 de Ibarra, passed away. She was the daughter of don Luis de Velasco the elder, 4. Probably for "inlan<;as." 5. The name is given as Diego on pp. 176-77. 11 'I.' I I 1! I I , ,,i' i:t ,I j,I I i,1 :1 ' , I I I : I ',, ,, I I i I I ' I Ii 1/ I ' ,,, ' j,I'•• ,I ,' '!•11 1i1-'i ",·' , ,I,, , 111, ,, ,',!' '.II , Ii : 111 '1,: 1 - II ·,: :r : : ! ( ~ ' I ', I 212 1RANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION nican Mexico nueua espafia. auh yhuan ynin omoteneuh Dona Ana de castilla, ca huel ihuan tlacatia huel yuhctzin. ynic ome ytoca Don Luis de Velasco Marques de Salinas. in yehuatl oppa visurrey omochiuh nican Mexico nueua espana. auh ,atcpan omohuicac yn espafia vmpa presidente del consejo de indias omochiuhtzinoto Oquihualmonochilli vmpa yn tohueytlahtocatzin Rey Don Felipe Tercero, auh ynin omoteneuh cihuapilli Dona Ana. S. Domingo. yn tocoto ynacayo yn ompa toctoque ynamic yhuan omoteneuh yttatzin cat­ ca huehue Don Luis de Velasco.- y_ Axcan Martes ye .20. mani Metztli Mar,o de 1612 anos. yn ohuallathuic ye omomi­ quilli yohualtica in diego cauallero fundador y patron yn oncan Monasterio Sancta incs. monjas. yehuatl ytlatzintil quichiuh yhuan ytlapachol yn omoteneuh monasterio catqui, ynahuac hospital de las bouas. cenca miec yn iaxca ytlatqui quicahuillitia omotencuh i monasterio - y_ Axcan Domingo quaresma ynic .i. mani metztli Abril de 1612. afios. yhcuac opeuh in ye quimana tliltique ynic cequintin oquimanque tliltique oncan hospital huitzillan nucstra Senora ye teotlac ypan Sermon quinmachtiaya yn oncan quimanaco Justicia ynic quincal­ laquique La carcel de Corte quincallaquito yn oncan motenehua calabo,os. ypampa yntech tlan quil mach yaoyotl [p. 179] quihtohuaya macocuizquia yn ipan Juebes Sancto. quin­ mictizquia yn intecuiyohuan espafioles. - y_ Axcan viernes ye .6. mani Metztli Abril de 1612. afios. yhcuac nican S. Joseph S. Fran CO. hualmocallaqui in Padre fr. jua ma,ura. 1 yehuatzin Capillero mochiuhtzino. qui­ hualmohuiquilli in Padre fr. Sebastian de caribay telpochtli 2 temachtiani mochihuaco S. Joseph. yhcuac quicauh yn itequiuh Padre fr. Jeronimo de ,arate ynic Capillero catca yuh­ quin ceuhtiaij. Mexica tenochca yn iuh omoteneuh tlacpac ynic cenca quitoliniaya in quinmecahuitequia yhuan quincalnamacaya - capitulo indelmedio ypan in in tequicauh - y_ Axcan Martes ye .10. mani Metztli Abril de 1612 afios. yhcuac ye teotlac tlaca ypan macuilli tzillini yn oquixohuac oncan tecpan palacio otlayahuallolotia ynic ocallacohua tohueyteopan iglesia mayor. ynic yhonrras yvigiliatzin omochihuilli ynic omomiquilli tohueycihuatlahtocatzin Dona Margarida de Austria Reyna de espana moyetzticatca yn inamictzin ocatca tohueytlahtocatzin Don Felipe Tercero Rey espafia yn axcan moyetztica. auh ynic oncan quixohuac tecpan palacio. ca ,anno yuh mochiuh yn tlacpac omoteneuh yn iuh mochiuh yn iuh tococ ynacayotzin teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fr. Garcia Guerra arcobispo' y virrey yn iuh netecpanoc. ,an ye no cuel yuh motecpan yn mochi cofradias. ocatqui mexico. yhuan ,an ye nicuel yuh motecpantiaque yn nepapan teopixque monol­ titoque Mexico. yn oncan mohuicatza. yhuan yn ciudad cabildo tlaca yhuan oydores. audiencia real tlaca n quinepantlahuitiaque yn tlahtocacorona real quinapalotia ce tlacatl coxin ypan mantia4 ,an ye ynmamanian yn mantiaque. auh yehuatzin yn teoyotica tlah­ tohuani Don fr. Balthasar Acobarrobias. [p. I 80] Obispo michhuacan teopixqui S. Au­ gustin, mochichiuhtzino capa quimotlalilitia yhuan Mitra. yhuan yn itlacaychcapixca­ topiltzin baculo. quimotquilitia yhuan ome ytloctzinco man ti a clerigos capa quitlallitiaij. auh ynin Obispo yehuatzin quimihtalhui yhoracio yn ipan omoteneuh ye vigilia mochiuh l. Name unconfirmed. 2. Or just meaning that he was a young man, or young for a preacher. 3. For "an;obispo.'' 1612 213 who came here to Mexico and New Spain appointed as the second viceroy. This said dona Ana de Castilla was a full sibling-he was her younger brother-of the second of the name don Luis de Velasco, Marques of Salinas, who was made viceroy twice here in Mexico and New Spain and afterward went to Spain, where he was made president of the Council of the Indies; our great ruler the king don Felipe III sent summoning him. The body of this said lady dona Ana was taken to be buried to Santo Domingo, where her spouse and her said late father don Luis de Velasco the elder lie buried.- y_ Today, Tuesday the 20th of the month of March of the year 1612, in the night before morning of that day, Diego Caballero, founder and patron of the nunnery of Santa Ines, passed away. He founded the said nunnery, near to the Hospital de las Bubas, and it was under his governance. He bequeathed a very great deal of his property to the said nunnery. y_ Today, a Sunday of Lent, the 1st of the month of April of the year 1612, was when they began to arrest blacks, so that they arrested some blacks at the hospital of Nuestra Senora in Huitzillan in the afternoon. The sermon was being preached to them when the officers of the law came to arrest them and put them in the court jail. They put them in what are called cells because they were accused, according to what they say, that they were declaring war, [p. 179] that they were going to rebel on Maundy Thursday and kill their Spanish masters. - y_ Today, Friday the 6th of the month of April of the year 1612, was when father fray Juan Mazura I entered San Josef here at San Francisco, becoming the chaplain. Father fray Sebastian de Garibay the younger,2 who had been made preacher at San Josef, brought him when father fray Geronimo de Zarate relinquished his post as chaplain, Thus the Me­ xica Tenochca got relief from the way, as was mentioned above, that he had been greatly mistreating them, whipping them, and selling their houses. - It was at an intermediate chapter meeting [ of the Franciscan province] that he left office. - y_ Today, Tuesday the 10th of the month of April of the year 1612, in the afternoon but still daytime, at 5 o'clock, was when a group came out of the palace and went in pro­ cession to enter our great church, the cathedral, to perform the obsequies and vigil for the death of our great queen doi\a Margarita de Austria, late queen of Spain, who was the spouse of our great ruler don Felipe Ill, king of Spain, who now rules. They left the palace in the same fashion as was mentioned above with the burial of the body of the spiritual leader don fray Garcia Guerra, archbishop3 and viceroy. Again all the cofradfas there are in Mexico were lined up in the same way, and again all the different religious who dwell in Mexico lined up the same when they came there, and the members of the city cabildo and the judges of the Royal Audiencia. They placed in their midst as they went the royal crown; someone was carrying it on a cushion.4 They all went along in the same places as before. And the spiritual ruler don fray Baltasar Covarrubias, [p. I 80] bish­ op in Michoacan, an Augustinian friar, went along all outfitted, wearing a cape and miter and carrying his staff as a shepherd of people, the crozier, and two secular priests went beside him wearing capes. And this bishop was the one who made the main speech of 4. The way this line is inserted makes it quite clear that the version of the text here is a copy either from an earlier version or from a source. ' ' I I' I' !,! 1,: i,'1 I, 214 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION auh cenca huey yhuan cenca mahuiztic yn cuauhteocalli 1 motlalli on can yhtic yglesia mayor. mochi tlacatl cenca oquimahui<;o yhua ,an ye no yxquich ynic otlayahualloloc ax­ can yn ixquich moyahuallo yn tlacpac omoteneuh yhcuac tococ ynacayotzin teoyotica tlahtohuani Don Fray Garcia Guerra ar<;obispo. moyetzticatca. auh niman yn ipan ymoz­ tlayoc miercoles. yn omoteneuhtzino Don Fr. Balthasar Acobarrobias. obispo. yehuatzin quimihtalhui yn Missa. Auh yehuatzin motemachtilli yn Don Alonso de la mota y esco­ bar oopo tlaxcallan ano<;o ciudad de los Angeles. ynin ye hualmohuicaque omentin omo­ teneuhque obisposme. ca quimonmonochillique yn tlahtoque oydoresme - y_ Axcan Sabado ynic 14. mani metztli Abril de 1612 afios. yhcuac ye otzatzihuac yn ihtic ciudad Mexico yn tliltique oquichti aocac espada quitecaz quihualhuicaz. yhuan cuello aocmo quitlalizque no yhui yn tliltique cihua aocmo tliltic manta quitlalizque yhuan mulatati moch quincahualtiq. yhuan pena ye quintlalilique. // auh achtopa ye tzatzihuac nohuiyan yn ihtic ciudad Mexico in yehuantin espafioles. ye nahuatilloque, yn aquin quipia chicuacentliltic quinnamacaz yn nahui auh ,an oome yn mochi tlacatl quipiaz ytlil­ ticauh. auh yn aquin amo quitlacamatiz Justicia yn iuh tlanahuatia quicuiliz yn omo­ teneuh nahui ynic aoctle onqui<;az tlatquihua - [p. 181] y_ Auh ynic omilhuitl axcan ypan Domingo de ramos. ynic 15. mani Metztli Abril yn ipan omoteneuh xihuitl 1612 yhcuac cenca omocomonique yn mochintin espaftoles yn Mexico onoque cenca omomauhtique miectlamatli yntechpa oquimotemohuillique yn tliltique yn intlacahuan ,a quimimacaztinemia ,a ynhuicpa mihmattinemia y mane! quintequipanohua. yuh quihtoque mochintin yn espafioles. ca otechcentlahtalhuique in techrnictizq. totlacahuan yn totlilticahuan ynic cenca quinmauhtiaya ynic niman oquix­ quetzque yn ipan in omoteneuh cemilhuitl Capitan General quichiuhque yn telpochtli Don fernando altamirano. ynin yxhuiuh yn Don Luis de Velasco Marques de Salinas. yn oppa Visurrey omochiuh nican Mexico. auh yn omoteneuh yxhuiuhtzin ye quitlallique yn tlapiazque nican ypan ciudad Mexico. ynteyacancauh ymachcauh mochiuh yn ixquichtin Soldadostin motlalliq. in yaotlapiazque yn ipampa macocuiznequi in yaoyotl quihtohua tliltique yhuan mulatoti ynpan yn espafiolesme ynic mochi tlacatl quihtoca ypan yn Juebes Sancto. quichihuazque yn intemictiliz. tliltique - y_ Auh yniqueylhuitl axcan Lunes. santo. ynic 16. mani metztli Abril yhcuac yancuican otlayahualloque teotlac ypan ome tzillini yn ompa hualquizque yn teopan yn Sancta maria cuepopan tlaca. ynin prossesion quitlallique yn cofradia yntech pohui yn animasme purgatorio tetlechipahualloyan moyetzticate. auh ynic tlayahualoloc ypan in prossesion oncan quinmoquixtilique yn S. Nicolas de tolentino ynic neci [p. 182] Ca yntepale­ huicatzin yn omoteneuhque animasme quim5moquixtilia ytemcopatzinco in tt0 . dios. yn ompa omoteneuh purgatorio. ynic omentzitzin oncan quinmoquixtilique yn ipan in tla­ yahualoliztli yehuatzin yn totla<;ottatzin S. Franco. ynic no yehuatzin ytetzinco neztiuh ca hue! no yehuatzin yea yn inelpiayatzin yn icordontzin yn aquique quicelia ynic molpia nican tlalticpac yn ihcuac ye omomiquilique ca ye yehuatl vmpa quimonmoquixtilia quin­ mopalehuilia yn purgatorio. ytemcopatzinco yn tt0 . dios. yn aquin macehualle ycnopille vmpa yauh auh ynic tlayahualloque yn hue! ixquich ic oncan ahcico yn S. Francisco. niman la casa professa. niman yglesia mayor. niman ye mocuepque S. Domingo qui<;ato ye niman S luren<;o monjas qui,;ato. ye niman vmpa yn inteopan ahcito. auh ,a ihciuhca ,a yxtomac2 yn ontlayahuallotihuetzque. ca ye niman ynpampa hualquiz yntlahtocatla- 1. The "monument" or catafalque. 1612 215 pra_yer when the said vigil was held. A very large and splendid wooden shrine1 was set up ms1de the cathedral; everyone greatly marveled at it. The procession went over the same route as told above when the body of the spiritual ruler don fray Garcia Guerra, late archbishop, was buried. Then on the following day, Wednesday, the said don fray Baltasar Covarrubias, bishop, was the one who said the mass. The person who preached was don Alonso de la Mota y Escobar, bishop in Tlaxcala or the city of Los Angeles [Puebla]. These two said bishops came because the lords judges of the Audiencia summoned them. y_ Today, Saturday the 14th of the month of April of the year 1612, was when it was proclaimed in the city of Mexico that black men were no longer to carry swords or wear [Spanish-style] collars, and likewise black women were no longer to wear black veils, and they also prohibited all the mulatto women [from the same thing] and set a fine for them. II But first it was proclaimed everywhere in the city of Mexico and the Spaniards were ordered that whoever has six blacks was to sell four of them, and everyone would have only two blacks each. For whoever would not obey the law it was ordered that the said four be taken from him, so that he would no longer be the owner. [p. 181] y_ On the second day, today Palm Sunday, the 15th of the month of April in the said year of 1612, was when all the Spaniards who live in Mexico became very agitated and fearful. They investigated many things about their black slaves; they went about in fear of them, they were very watchful about them even though they serve them. All the Spaniards said, "Our black slaves have set and coordinated a time to kill us," which greatly frightened tl1em. Then on the said day they selected and set up don Hernando Altamirano the younger as captain general; he is the grandchild of don Luis de Velasco, Marques of Salinas, who was made viceroy twice here in Mexico. The reason that those in charge here in the city of Mexico installed his said grandson and made him leader, commander of all the soldiers who were set to stand guard was that the blacks and mulattoes were about to rise and declare war on the Spaniards, so that everyone said that on Maundy Thursday the blacks would do their killing. - y_ And on the third day, today Monday of Holy Week on the 16th of the month of April, was when the people of Santa Marfa Cuepopan first came out in procession; at 2 o'clock in the afternoon they came out of the church. The cofradfa dedicated to the Souls of Pur­ gatory, where people are purified by fire, organized this procession. And as they went in procession they brought out San Nicolas de Tolentino so that it would be seen [p. 182] that he is the helper of the said souls, he redeems them from the said purgatory by order of our lord God. The second one they brought out in the procession was our precious father San Francisco, so that also through him it would be seen that he too, with his belt, his rope, very much receives those who are tied here on earth; when they die, he uses it to help them and redeem from purgatory by order of our lord God those who are deserving to go there. As to how the procession went, they got all the way to San Francisco, then to the Casa Profesa, then to the cathedral; then they turned around and went past Santo Domingo, then they passed by the San Lorenzo nunnery, then they got back to their church. They hastened to go on their procession quickly and [ without warning],2 for right 2. See the use of this root above (pp. 172-73 at n. 4) in a word implying haste, un­ expectedness, haphazardness. There too the root is preceded by iciuhca, "quickly." I ,· I I::' , .l,1' " ,: I 1 1' i: I 'I :! :-,I' , ',' ·1i I I!'' ! ''i 'i,;j! ' i ,, ,, I,,• 216 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION nahuatiltzin yn oydores. motlatzontequillique ynic ,;an niman acampa cc teopan tlaya­ hualoloz yn ipan in Semana Sancta. auh ynic ,;a niman ipan in omoteneuh lunes Sancto ye yohua ynic otzatzihuac nohuiyan yhtic ciudad mexico. ynic acan tlayahualoloz. Sema­ na Sancta yehica ypampa ye iuh catca teyollo yn muztla ypan martes Sancto teotlac no omen yancuic tlayahualloliztli prossesion oquic;azquia yn oncan omotlali yancuic cofra­ dias. ynic ce cofradia yehuantin quitlalliq. yn espafioles. yhuan Mexica Moyoteca oncan yn Monasterio S. Juan de la penitencia monjas. ya yehuantin in in tlayahualozquia ypil­ huantzitzin S. Juan II auh ynic ome tlayahualoliztli yancuic oqui,;azquia ypan in omo­ teneuh Martes Sancto. yehuantin yn Mexica tlatilulco S tiago tlaca [p. 183] Yn ipilhuan­ tzitzinhuan totla,;omahuiznantzin S. ta maria del rrosario no ihuli motenehua ypilhuatzi­ tzin el Nino Jesus Perdido cenca miec tetlapopolhuiliztli yndulgencias. oncan quihual­ motlalilia in Sancto Padre Paulo Quinto. yn ipan tlayahualoliztli auh ynic huel iuhqui omochihu in ca ytlayhualiztica ytlaytlaniliztica y notla,oycniuhtzin diego lopez. cuauh­ tlacuillo1 yn hue! tlatzintille fundador yn ipan i omoteneuh cofradia. yehuantzitzin qui­ mocnopilhuililito y bullas yn totla,;ottatzitzinhuan teopixque de la compafiia de Jesus yn mohuicaya Roma. auh ca ye ayamo huel mochihu in yqu itlacauh ye ,an mocauh yn ipampa ye tzatzihuac in huel yzquilhuitl ypan ye ce Semana Sancta ynic acan tlayahua­ loloz. yhuan yn mane! no ypan xuchipasqua de resurection amo no huel tlayahualoloz. yhuli amonoyac huel mohuitequiz. yn espafioles. yhuan yn timacehualtin yn ipan yzquil­ huitl omoteneuh Semana Sancta pena motlalli yn aquin duniga2 ye canazque onpohual­ lonmatlactli pesos yxtlahualtiloz. yhuan tlatitlanq. yn omoteneuhq. tlahtoque oydoresme ynic nohuiampa altepetl ipan ynic no amo campa huel tlayahualoloz ypan omoteneuh Se­ mana Sancta ,;an nohuiyan yaotlapialloz. in teopan ypan Juebes Sacto ynic quimotza­ cuilizque tepetlacalco Sanctissimo Sacramento. i;an ixquicb mochihuaz. atle oc centla- mantli yhuan - y_ Auh yn axcan ye ye omilhuitl yn ipan Martes Sancto omoteneuh ynic 17. mani Metztli Abril. yhcuac nican caltenco. S. Anton Xolloco ypan huey otli omotlallico miequintin yaotiacahuan Soldadostin espafioles yn oyaotlapiaco tlahuiztica no yhui yhuan yn ipan huey otli tepeyacacpa yahticac coyonacazco no miequintin yn oncan motlallito Soldados­ tin no yhui yn ipan ohtli chapoltepecpa yahticac oncan calyacac 3 temetzcruztitlan 4 no cenca miequintin. yn oncan motlalito [p. 184] Soldadostin yhuan ynic nohuiyan yzqui ohtli ypan hualcallaqui ciudad mexico huel yzquican ye yaotlapiallo i;a ce ynic nohuiyan in yahualiuhcan yn icaltenyoc 5 yxquich ye ciudad Mexico. yhuan yn ipan huehuey acal­ lotlih nohuiyan ye yaotlapiallo tlachiallo in campa ye qui,;aquihui tliltique yn quinmic­ tiquihui espafioles. ypampa yuh mihtohuaya vmpa huallazque in ilhuicaatenco in huey atenco acapolco omotlallique cimalonti tliltique yhuan cequintin belacruz huallazque in tliltique cimaloti omocuepque in nican mexico. chollohua yn oquincauhtehuaque yntecui- yohuan y_ Auh yn axcan ye yeilhuitl yn ipan Miercoles Sancto cenca yequene mocomonique mo- 1. Or it could be taken that he used Quauhtlacuilo as a second surname. 2. See pp. 208-09, n. 2. 3. Tlayacacac is sometimes a small inhabited district or settlement, and calyacac may have a similar meaning. A similar case on pp. 104--05 at n. 5. 4. The name means literally next to the leaden cross. r 1612 217 afterward came out a royal order of the judges of the Audiencia in which they pronounced that there should not be a procession at any church whatever during Holy Week. Right then _on the said Holy Monday, at night, it was proclaimed everywhere in the city of Mexico that there were to be no processions anywhere during Holy Week, because it was people's intention that the next day, on Holy Tuesday afternoon, two more new pro­ cess10ns would come out from where new cofradias had been established. The first cofradfa was established by the Spaniards and the Mexica of Moyotlan at the nunnery of San Juan de la Penitencia; those who were going to go in procession were the children of San Juan. // And in the second procession on the said Holy Tuesday the Mexica of Santiago Tla­ telolco were to come out for the first time, [p. 183] the children of our precious revered mother Santa Maria of the Rosary, also called the children of Nino Jesus Perdido. The Holy Father Paul V granted very many pardons, indulgences, for the occasion of the pro­ cession. As to how this could be done, it was through the sending and petitioning of my beloved friend Diego L6pez, a woodcarver, 1 who is the true founder of the said cofradfa; [some of] our precious fathers the religious of the Company of Jesus who were going to Rome got the bulls for him. But it was ruined and dropped because of the fact that [the procession] could no longer be held. For it was proclaimed that on absolutely no day during the whole of Holy Week was there to be a procession anywhere. It was not per­ mitted to go in procession even on Easter day, the day of Resurrection, either. Nor could any Spaniards or we commoners scourge themselves on any day of the said Holy Week. A fine was set for whomever they should arrest with a tunic;2 he would be made to pay 50 pesos. And the said lords judges of the Audiencia sent messages everywhere so that in the altepetl all around there could also not be processions anywhere during the said Holy Week, but everywhere people should stand guard. All that could be done in church on Maundy Thursday was to enclose the most Holy Sacrament in a stone tomb, not a single thing beyond that. - Y. Today on the second day [of Holy Week], on the said Holy Tuesday the 17th of the month of April, was when here outside [the church of] San Ant6n in Xoloco many Span­ ish warriors, soldiers, came and were stationed on the highway to stand guard with their arms. Likewise many additional soldiers went and were stationed on the highway toward Tepeyacac, going to Coyonacazco, and likewise a great many more soldiers were stationed on the road going toward Chapoltepec, at the [group of houses?]' at Temetzcruztitlan,4 [p. 184] and all the roads everywhere coming into the city of Mexico they stood guard, absolutely everywhere all around outside the houses5 in the whole city of Mexico. And everywhere on the great canals they stood guard and looked out for where the blacks would come from who were coming to kill the Spaniards, because it was said that the black renegades who had established themselves at Acapulco would come from the seashore, and that some blacks who had turned renegade and run away from Mexico here, leaving their masters behind, would come here from Veracruz. Y. Today, the third day, on Holy Wednesday, when night was coming, the Spaniards came 5. The word has not been found as such. Its components are calli "house"· tentli "d"dh · ' '' e ge, an t e collect1ve-abstract nominal ending -yo. The first two in combination e~pe?ia!ly with :ran, "in, etc.," often had the meaning at the entrance of a building, out~ side 11, ID effect ID the street or on the sidewalk if there was one. i ' i1 I ' !1 ,, " ' :] :' '1' ' I ;I I .1 . .' , ,;,, I il,, I , :·j I 'l'I i, '.I ;· Ii ·1: ,. ,. I • I ·, I! \· 218 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION mauhtique yn ipan ye hualyohuac yn espafioles. cenca tlayohuac mixtica yhuan quiyauh yhuan amo hue! momati aquin tzatzitincnca nohuiyan yhtic ciudad Mexico tetzatziliaya amo nel aca telpochtlaveliloc espafiol ynic nohuiyan calnacazco quihtotinenca ca ye oahci­ co yn tliltique aocmo hueca nemi ma neyaochichihuallo. ynin aquin tzatzitinenca ye quin ipan chiuhcnahui tzilini netetequizpan ynic ,;a ye catca ynic yequene hue! momauhtique espafioles. motepetlatzatzacq. yn inchachan ynic cenca momauhtique auh in sefiorati mo­ chintin mochoquiliaya in ye quincahuazque ynnamichuan ypampa yuh mihtohuaya ,;an yehuantin yn oquichti espafioles mictilozque auh in sefiorati ,;an cahualozque quinmoci­ huahuatizque yn tliltique. cenyohual yn amo cochque yxto,;oque nohuiyan tlatlatique 1 yn inchachan omoteneuhque espafiolesme. i;an iuh tlathuilique yn amo cochque. auh yn izqui­ tlamantin teopixquc Mexico monoltitoque i;an mohuetzquitiaya amo [p. 185] Quinmo­ mauhtiliaya yn quimocaquiltiaya yn ipampa yxquich tlamantli mihtohuaya yaotlahtolli yntechpa tliltiq. yn cuix quichihuaznequi. auh yn mexica timacehualtin atle ytlan quin­ mauhtiaya i;an tlatlachia yhuan tlatlacaqui ,;an quinmahui,;ohuaya yn espafioles. yn iuh mopollohuaya in inemauhtiliztica yniqu iuhqui macamo hue] yaotiacahua ypan nezque - y_ Auh yn ipan Jucbes Sancto. yn izquican teopan ye mexico, ynic tepetlacalco quimo­ tzacuillique Sanctissimo sacrameto, ynic hualyohuac ,;an nohuiyan tzauhcticatca puerta teopan acan tlapoticatca ce yohual ca yuh catca tlahtocatlanahuatilli ye tzatzihuac ya tlat­ huinahuac yn motlatlapo. in ye ypan viernes Sancto. tlathuico. / auh yn ipan in omo­ teneuh viernes Sancto. i;an ocean yn quimotemohuillique cruztitech yn ixiptlatzin tt 0 . Dios. yhuan quimotoquillique ynic ceccan oncan y nican S. Joseph S. Franco. ,;an callitic yn mochiuh auh ynic ocean vmpa n S.tiago tlitilulco 2 quimotoquillique i;an no callihtic yn mochiuh yhuan ynic nohuiyan altepetl ipan acan tlayahualoloc ,;an necomoniloc ynic nohuiyan yaotlapialoc. // auh yn nican Mexico yn izquican ypa ohtli omoteneuh ye yao­ tlapialloc Sabado Sancto tlamico. ynic callacque ynchachan yn Soldadostin mochiuhca - y_ Axcan Miercoles ynic .2. mani Metztli Mayo de 1612. afios. yhcuac piloloque cen­ pohuallonchicuey tlacatl yn tliltique oquichti auh in tliltique cihua chicome tlacatl yn ihua piloloque in ye mochi ye mocenpohua cenpohuallon[p. 186]caxtolli tlacatl in pilo­ loque o ynpan neltico ynic otlatzontequilliloque ynpan yah yn Sentencia yn ipampa yniqu intech tlan ye omoteneuh tlacpac qui! macocuizquia quinmictizquia yn intecuiyohuan espafioles. yn iuh omoteneuh yuh chihuililoque informacion quil ypan Juebes Sancto yn ihcuac tlayahualolo ynnehuitequian yn espafioles quinmictizquia yn iuh quihtoque testi­ gostin ypampa ynic cenca tlamauhtique ypan omoteneuh Semana Sancta ynic amo campa hue] tlayahualoloc auh quil yntla hue! quinchihuani yntecuiyohuan espafioles. yntla hue! quinmictiani. qui! ye niman. yehuantin tlahtocatizquia qui! ce tliltic Rey mochihuazquia yhuan ce mulata morisca3 qui] quimonamictizquia reyna mochihuazquia. ytoca Isabel yn otlahtocatizquia Mexico. auh qui! yn ixquich altepetl ynic nohuiyan ypan nueua espafia qui! ye moch oquimomamacaca yn tliltique yn oncan otlahtocatizquia ynic cequintin Du­ ques. cequintin Marquestin cequintin Condesme qui! omochiuhca ynic tinmacehualhuan 1. In the absence of an indication of vowel length, this form could refer to hiding rather than burning things. 2. For "tlatilulco." 1612 219 to the ultimate of agitation and fright. It was very dark because of clouds, and it rained, and it cannot be found out who went shouting all around the city of Mexico-was it not some mischievous Spanish youth?-shouting to people and going about saying at the corners of houses everywhere that the blacks had arrived, that they were not far away, that everyone should get equipped for fighting. Whoever this was didn't go about shouting until 9 o'clock, the time when everyone goes to bed, so that the Spaniards reached the height of fear; they blocked themselves off in their homes from their great fear. All the Spanish women were weeping, [thinking] that their spouses would leave them, because it was said that only the Spanish men would be killed; the Spanish women would be left and the blacks would take them as wives. All night the said Spaniards did not sleep and kept vigil; everywhere they kept fires going 1 in their houses, and when dawn came they had not slept. And all the different groups of ecclesiastics who live in Mexico were just laughing; they were not [p. 185] frightened by what they were hearing about all the dif­ ferent kinds of news of war concerning the blacks, what they supposedly wanted to do. And we Mexica commoners were not at all frightened by it but were just looking and listening, just marveling at how the Spaniards were being destroyed by their fear and didn't appear as such great warriors. - Y. On Maundy Thursday, when they enclosed the most Holy Sacrament in a tomb as night came, the doors of the churches everywhere were closed; during the whole night they were open nowhere, for the royal command that had been proclaimed was that they were to be opened close to dawn, as it dawned on Good Friday./ And on the said Good Friday there were only two places where the image of our lord God was taken down from the cross and buried; the first place was here at San Josef at San Francisco; it was done just inside the building. The second place where they buried him was at Santiago Tlatelolco,2 where it was also done inside. And in the altepetl all around there were no processions anywhere; people were just agitated and stood guard everywhere. // And here in Mexico on Holy Saturday they stopped standing guard on all the roads that were mentioned, so that those who had been made soldiers went to their homes. - Y. Today, Wednesday the 2nd of the month of May of the year 1612, was when 28 black men were hanged, and 7 black women were hanged with them; it added up to 35 [p. 186] people who were hanged. Verification was made about them so that they were sentenced and a judgment was issued against them because they were accused, as was mentioned above, of reportedly intending to rebel and kill their Spanish masters. According to the investigation made of them they were reportedly going to kill the Spaniards on Maundy Thursday when they were going in procession scourging themselves, as the witnesses said, because of which they caused great general fear during the said Holy Week, so that processions were not permitted anywhere. And reportedly if they had been able to do it to their masters, to kill them, reportedly a black was going to become king and a mulatto woman, a morisca, 3 named Isabel, was reportedly going to marry him and become queen, and they would have been the rulers in Mexico. And reportedly all the different altepetl everywhere in New Spain had been distributed to the blacks, and there they would rule, so that some had reportedly been made dukes, some marqueses, some counts, so that we 3. The exact thrust of this term in this context is not clear. At times Ch. seems to use it as a virtual synonym of mulatto. i: ,·: , i iU i ,, !· •. :1 " : :i;I ii I i il,'.I 1 I .. : I, iii ,ii , ' i I I. , ., I !I; :' 'h 'I I, '! I' I: :,,,' I·• I : i,, I '1, I, ~ i i I 220 TRANSCRU'TION AND TRANSLATION otochihuazquia otiquintlacallaquilizquia otiquintlayecoltizquia oc yehuantin y nican titlaca timacehualtin techcamaycuilozquia ynic necizquia ca totecuiyohuan. yhuan yuh mihto. ca i;an niman aocac qulcahuazquia yn oquichtin espafioles yn huehuentzitzin yn iyolloco oquichtin yn telpopochtin i;a ce ynic ye mochi oquichpipiltzitzinti mochintin quinmic­ tizquia hue! quinpopollozquia ynic aocmo yehuatin tlapilhuatizquia aocmo yehuantin tla­ caxinachozquia yhuan qui! no quinmictizquia yn sefiorati in ye yllamatzitzin yn aoctle ynnecoca yhuan in mane! quin iyolloco cihua yhuan qui! yn mane! noi;o [p. I 87] Oqu ichpopochtin 1 yntlacamo hue! chipahuaque 2 quil yntlacamo hue! cualxayaqueque mochm­ tin quinmictizquia. yntla huelitini i;an quintlapepenizquia. auh qui! <;a yehuantin quin­ cahuazquia yn hue] chipahuaque 2 sefiorati yn huel cualxayaqueque in ye yyolloco cihua yhuan yn ichpopochtin i;a ce in ye mochintin cihuapipiltotonti yn hue! cualxayaquequ_e i;an yehuantin amo quinmictizquia, i;an quincahuazquia yehica ypampa qml qummoc1- huauhtizquia in tliltique. auh yhuan qui! yntla nel quinpilhuatizquia tliltique yn sefiorati yntla oquichtin yntech quichihuazquia ynpilhuan in ye xeliuhqui ynnacayo 3 yn motenehua mulatos moriscos.tin tlacatizquia, quil niman quinmictizquia amo huel nemizquia amo hue! quinhuapahuazquia, auh quil intla ye cihua yntech sefiorati quinchihuazquia in mo­ tenehua ye mulatati muriscastin quil amo quinmictizquia ye nemizquia quinhuapahuazquia ypampa yn ihcuac huehueyazquia ca niman quinmocihuauhtizquia yehua~tin in tliltique ynic huel hualmotlilticacuepazquia yn innepilhuatiliz yn intlacamecayo yn mtlacaxmacho. auh ne yn ipampa oquichti yn inpilhuan tliltique omoteneuh yn itech quinchihuazquia senorati quil yn ipampa amo quincahuaznequia nemizque ynic amo quinhuapahuaznequia. qui! ye ye quimimacacia ypampa yntla huehueyazquia ma quenmanian ytlan ypan qui­ chiuhti yn intahuan tliltique in tlamiequiyazquia moriscos. tin ma quilnamicti yn cihua­ tica yn innanhuan ca espafiolas. yn intech qui<;a mahuiztic xinachtli mahuiztic tlaca­ mecayotl yn amo yuh mahuiztic quipia ytechpa yntahuan tliltique. ynic niman a,o quin­ yaotlahtalhuizquia, ah<;o ye niman quinmictizquia yn intahuan tliltique. qui! yehuatl i~ _Y~ quimimacacia [p. J 88] Yniqu iuh quihtohuaya quichihuazquia tliltique yntla huehllm yntla hue! mochihuani auh quil yn ixquichtin cihuateopixque yn monjastin motzacuil­ titoque Monasterios Mexico qui! mochintin quinquixtizquia yn ichpopochtin quinmoci­ huauhtizquia yn tliltique qui! oc cenca yehuantin yntech tlahtohuaya yn omentin ychpoch­ huan tlahtohuani Don Luis de Velasco Marques de Salinas pressidente del conseJO de indias. yn espafia auh yn omoteneuhque ychpochtzitzinhuan ce ycnocihuatl ytoca Dofia Maria dircios. ynin ynamic catca Don Juan altamirano. auh yn oc omentin cihuateopixque monjastin yn oncan moyetzticate monasterio totlai;onantzin Regina ynic ce ytoca Dofia Beatriz de la ecarnaci5 Abbadessa yn oncan ynic ome ytoca Dofia isabel de Jesus. auh qml i;a yehuantin yn illamatzitzin vncan mocahuazquia monasterios. yn ternachtizquia. auh qui! oc yehuantin yn tliltique cihua callaquizquia yn monasterios oncan motza~uaz~ma ynic oc yehuantin cihuateopixcatizquia monjastin mochihuazquia, auh yhuan yn 1zqmtla­ mantin teopixque Mexico monoltitoque quil no mochintin quinmictizquia quinpopo­ lozquia, auh quil ,a yetlamantin in teopixque quincahuazquia. ynic centlamantin quil yehuantzitzin in teopixque carmenitas descali;os. ynic ontlamantin qui! yehuantzitzin in teopixque s. Diego moyetzticate descal<;os. S. Franco. ypilhuantzitzin. auh yniqu etla­ mantin qui! yehuantzitzin. yn la compafiia de Jesus teopixque teatinos. qui! ynin ye quin- I. Or were girls, maidens. 2. The word can also be interpreted as meaning light-skinned. 1612 221 local people, we commoners, would have become their vassals, we would have paid them tribute and served them, and they would have branded our mouths so it would be seen that they were our masters. It was also said that they were not going to leave any Spanish men at all, whether old men, men in their maturity, or youths; they would kill every last one of all the male children and destroy them absolutely, so that they would no longer have children and reproduce. And reportedly they were also going to kill some of the Spanish women, the old women who were no longer of any use, and even though women were still in the prime of life and reportedly even though [p. I 87] they were still young, 1 if they weren't really good looking 2 and with comely faces, they were going to kill them all if they had been able; they were going to choose among them. Reportedly they were going to spare only the very good looking 2 Spanish women with very comely faces, the mature women and maidens and all the little girls who were comely of face; they were the only ones that they were not going to kill, that they were going to spare, because re­ portedly the blacks were going to take them as wives. And also, reportedly, even if the Spanish women had the blacks' male children, if they engendered by them children whose blood 3 was divided, and what are called male mulattoes or moriscos would be born, re­ portedly they would kill them right away, they would not be permitted to live and be brought up. But reportedly if they should engender females by the Spanish women, called female mulattoes and moriscas, reportedly they would not kill them; they would Jive and they would bring them up, because when they grew up the blacks would take them as wives so that their procreation, their lineage, their generation would turn black. But about the blacks' male children, as was said, that they would engender by Spanish women, re­ portedly the reason they didn't want to let them live and to raise them reportedly was that they feared them because when they grew up they might do something sometime to their fathers the blacks, and when the moriscos increased, [they were afraid] lest they remember that their mothers, on the female side, were Spanish women who came from splendid stock, splendid lineage, more splendid than they had on the side of their fathers the blacks, so that perhaps then they would prepare for war against them, perhaps then they would kill their fathers the blacks. Reportedly that was the reason they were afraid of them. [p. 188] That is what they said the blacks would have done if they had been able to do it. And reportedly, as to all the nuns who were enclosed in nunneries in Mexico, the blacks were going to bring them all out and take the young ones as wives; reportedly they spoke especially about the two daughters of the ruler don Luis de Velasco, Marques of Salinas, president of the Council of the Indies in Spain; of the said daughters one is a widow named dofia Marfa de Ircio, who was the spouse of don Juan Altamirano, and there are another two who are nuns at the nunnery of our precious mother Regina [Coeli], the first of whom is named dofia Beatriz de la Encarnacion, abbess there, and the second is named dofia Isabel de Jesus. And reportedly only the old women would be left in the nunneries to teach, and reportedly black women would enter the nunneries too and be enclosed there so that they too would become nuns. And as to all the different groups of ecclesiastics ;ho live in Mexico, reportedly they were going to kill and destroy all of them too. Reportedly they were going to spare only three groups of religious: first, the Discalced Carmelite friars; second, reportedly, the friars of San Diego, who are discalced and the children of San Francisco; third, the Theatine religious of the Company of Jesus; reportedly they 3. Literally flesh. ' ,, ' ' ·,,,I '. : 1·•', I I ' i, ; 'I ,., -; . 1-i I I I 1 'I I i"'• I ,1,11 · . , I' 1j ,',' 222 TRANSCRJPTION AND TRANSLATION cahuazquia ypampa ynic quinmachtizquia huel quimixtlamachtizquia yn inpilhuan tliltique yn ica mochi tlamachiliztli yn ixquich quimomachiltia. ynic no oc yehuantin quil teo­ pixcatizquia missa quichihuazquia yn cacatzac cocone yhuan ynic cequintin quil oydoresme mochihuazquia [p. 189] <;:a ce yn ixquich tlamantli yn intlatecpantlahuiquiliz espafioles. quil moch quincuilizquia ynic no yehuantin tliltique ypan yazquia no ye tlamanitizquia auh ,an yehuantin ynin omoteneuhque yetlamantin teopixque, yn quil quincuallittaya tliltique ynic quincahuazquia ynic amo quinmictizquia yece macihui yn quincahuazquia yniqu intlan tliltique monemiltizquia yece quil mochintin quinmatequixtilizquia quinmate­ cuilizquia ynic amo campa huel oc ceme tlapilhuatizquia yntech sefiorati. ynic quil huel quincenpopoloznequia espafioles. 0 yxquich tlamantli yn yo italhuililoque yn tenehui­ liloque yn tliltzitzin 1 yhuan oc cequi miectlamatli yo italhuiloque yn amo huel moch nican motenehuaz tlahtolli ca cenca miec yn intech tlan yn a<;o nelli quichihuazquia yn ano<;o amo ca ,;an iceltzin huel yehuatzin quimomachiltia yn tt0 • dios. yntla yuhtica, yehica ypampa ca amo huel mellahuac quimocuititihui yn cequintin yn mane! oqui­ tzauhctiaque opiloloque ,an oquihtotiaque ma ycatzinco tt0 • dios. ticcelican yn miquizte­ tlatzontequililiztli topan ye mochihua ca amo ticmati yn tleyn in totech tlami ye tic­ tzauhctihui, Auh nican teneuhtica yn intocatzin yn izquintin tlahtoque Oydores. yhuan alcaldes de carte ingouierno ypan moyetzticatca yn huel quimixcahuitzinoticatca tlahto­ cayotl Mexico yn oquic ayac catca ce tlahtohuani visurrey yn quimochihuilique Justicia. ynpan omoteneuhq. tliltique quinmotlatzontequililique ynic piloloque ynic yuhqui ynpan mochiuh. yn iuh mochi tlacatl oquimatqui oquittac. ynic ce tlahtoque yn huel yntiach­ cauhtzin mochiuhtzinotica oncan audiencia Real yehuatzin y El licenciado Don Pedro de Otalora Presidente - .Y. El licenciado Diego nufiez de Morquecho. - y El Doctor Jhoan quesada de figueroa. - y El licenciado Antonio Rodriguez. - y El licenciado Pedro Suarez de longoria - l[p. ]90] 2 3 4 5 y El Doctor Don Marcos guerrero. - 6 y El licenciado Aller de Villagomez - 7 y El licendiado Pedro Suarez2 de molina, - 8 y El licenciado Albar gomez de Abauni;a.3 - 9 y El licenciado ualle,;illo fiscal de! Rey de lo ciuil - 10 Auh yn allees de carte y El Doctor Antonio de morga - ii y El licenciado Diego Lopez bueno - 12 y El licenciado Don Franco de Leoz4 - 13 y El Doctor Valen,;ia fiscal del Rey del crimen- 14 o yzquintin in yn tlahtoque yn quimochihuillique Justicia impan omoteneuhque cenpo­ hualloncaxtolli tliltique ynic piloloque axcan ypan omoteneuh cemilhuitl Y. oc achtopa quitlayahualochtique caualloti ypa quinteyttiq yn otlipa 5 auh yn quinpehualti ye quinpi- 1. The form should be "tlilticatzitzin" or "tlilticatzitzintin." 2. Apparently an original J was corrected to S. 3. Name unconfirmed . 4.The name is given as Leoz or at times Leos in Monroy Castillo 1987-88, 1: 361; 1612 223 were going to spare them so that they would teach and instrnet the children of the blacks in all knowledge, everything that they know, so that black children too, reportedly, would become religious and perform mass, and so that some reportedly would become judges of the Audiencia. [p. 189] All the different things that the Spaniards were responsible for arranging they reportedly were going to take from them so that the blacks also would have access to them, would thereby make the rules of behavior. It was only these three said groups of religious that the blacks reportedly approved of and were going to spare and not kill; but although they were going to spare them so that they would live among the blacks, nevertheless reportedly they were going to remove and take off the testicles of all of them so that one of them somewhere couldn't have children by the Spanish women, so that, reportedly, they wanted to destroy the Spaniards utterly. These then are all the things that were said and told about the blacks; 1 many other additional things were said about them, not all of which tales can be told here, for they were accused of very much that maybe they truly were going to do or maybe not, for only our lord God himself knows whether it is so, because some [of the blacks] did not acknowledge the full truth of it; though they were punished and hanged, they said on dying, "Let us in the name of our lord God accept the death sentence that has been passed upon us, for we do not know what we are accused of that we are being punished for." Here are given the names of all the lords civil and criminal judges of the Audiencia in the time of whose government it was and who ruled all by themselves in Mexico, who as long as there was no lord viceroy administered justice regarding the said blacks and sentenced them to be hanged, as was done to them, as everyone found out and saw. The first of the judges, who had become the most senior in the Royal Audiencia, was: Y lieenciado don Pedro de Otalora, president y licenciado Diego Nuilez de Morquecho Y. doctor Juan Quesada de Figueroa y liceneiado Antonio Rodriguez y licenciado Pedro Suarez de Longoria y doctor don Marcos Guerrero I [p. 190] 2 3 4 5 6 y licenciado Aller de Villag6mez 7 y licenciado Pedro Suarez2 de Molina 8 y licenciado Alvar G6mez de Abaunza3 9 y licenciado Vallecillo, royal prosecutor in civil matters 10 and the court alcaldes, y doctor Antonio de Morga 11 y licenciado Diego L6pez Bueno 12 Y. licenciado don Francisco de Leoz4 13 Y. doctor Valencia, royal prosecutor in criminal matters 14 These then were the judges who administered justice upon the said 35 blacks, so that they were hanged today on the said day. Y. First they had them go in procession on horses; they displayed them on the roads. 5 And Cristobal Tranpipitl, 6 a mulatto, began to hang them 2: 98, 298. 5. The portion from "oc achtopa" to "yn otlipa," in the English from "First they" to "on the roads," is added in the margin. 6. Name unconfirmed and on the face of it quite unlikely. ,: ,!i 1:1 l\i ' 1:: II] :, 1, ,:i , .·.·1 ,!,',, I 111 I' ,, 1'.·' ( ii t '!I 224 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION pilohua xpoual tranpipitl' mulato matlactli tzillini ypan quarta hora yn tlaca yhcuac yancuican quipalehui yn ipiltzin 2 yniqu inehuan tepilloque oncan tecpan quiyahuac auh chicuetetl in yancuic tepilolcuahuitl inca moquetz tliltique ye chiuhcnauhtetl mochiuh in yeppa ya huecauh yhcac tepilolcuahuitl tlanepantla moquetztiquiz. yehica yn omoteneuh chicuetetl yacuic tepilolcuahuitl ye quimanque i;an quiyahuallochtique [p. 191] Auh ye­ huantin yn achi huey yntlatlacol yntech mihto yeintin in tlanepantla piloloque, auh yn oc cequintin i;an quintlayahuallochtique yn itech omoteneuh yancuic tepilolcuahuitl ynic quinpilotiaque mochintin cualtica quimonochilitiaque quimotzatzililitiaque yn intemaquix­ ticatzin tt0 . Dios. ynic momiquilique mochintin mocencauhtihui moyolcuititihui auh yn tlamico. ynic quinpiloque omoteneuhque tliltique ye ce tzillini hue\ yei horn in quinpil­ loque. auh in ye o yuh mochintin quinpilloque i;an oc oncan ynpan yohuac cenyohual yn pipilcatimanca. auh no miequintin yn amo piloloque tliltique yhua mulatoti i;an oncan tzauhcticatca yn carcel de carte tlatlatolchixticate y_ Auh ye quin iyomilhuiyoc yn ipan Juebes ynic eilhuitl mani n i metztli Mayo. hue\ ypan ylhuitzin Sancta cruz oquintemohuique in mimicque yn oncan tepilolcuauhtitech auh ynin omoteneuhque mimicque ynic tlatzontequililoque Justiciatica mochintin xexeloloz­ quia ynic ynnacayo miyxtlapanazquia vmpa onmopipilozquia mochi yn ipan yzqui hue­ huey ohtli ochpantli hualcallaqui Mexico /1. auh yn ipampa i ye niman Acuerdo mochiuh yn audiencia real ye mononotzinoque yn tlahtoque no oncan quinmonanamiquilique yn ixquichtin Doctoresme in tepahtiani ynic yncepantlacemihtoltica mochiuh ynic i;an quech­ cotonalloque cenpohuallonchiuhcnahui yn omoteneuhque mimicque auh yn intzonteco on­ can tepilolcuauhticpac quini;ai;alloque, auh yn intlacnacayo oncan quincallaquique yn con­ tadoria tlatzitla i;a moch quechcotontia oncan quinquimilloto yn inhuayolque tliltique. auh yn ayac yea mochiuh i;an iuhqui auh ye nima ye teotlac ye ypan chicuacen tzillini yn oncan quimonehualtique vmpa quintocato yn hospital nuestra Senora de [p. 192] La mise­ ricordia. auh in quinhuicaque yn cuicatiaq clerigos, yhU.an in hermanos ypilhuantzitzin Bato 3 Juan de Dios. tehuicaque yhuan cequintzitzin tottatzitzinhua S. Domingo. yhuan S. Franco. yhuan S. Augustin. yhuan La compai\ia de Jesus teopixque in motetoquillito. auh niman ya yehuantin in tliltique yhuan achi quezquintin yn espai\oles. yhuan Mexica ce­ quintin yn timacehualtin tlapallehuique quinnapalloque in mimicque yn atle andas quipia i;an petlatica ynic quinhuicaque quintocato II auh yn oc chicuacen omoteneuhque tliltique mimicque quinxexelloque ye cemixtlauh quintlapahtillique ynic mochintin incepanyan xexelolozquia oc cequintin ynic tlatzontequililoque mochintin yn c;an otocoque ye omihto, auh ye omoteneuh i;a chicuacentlacatl y mimicque quinxexelloque quinpilloto yn ipan omoteneuh yzqui ohtli huehuey hualcallaqui Mexico, auh ynic amo mochintin xexelo­ loque oc cequitin yn omoteneuhque i;an tocoque yehica ypampa quihtoque in mochintin tlamatini Doctoresme intla mochintin xexellolozque mimicque auh ynic quinpillotihui ypan yzqui huehuey ohtli yn innacayo. ca oncan mochi pallaniz amo cualli ye mochihuaz yn iyaca yn ipotonca ca cocoliztli mocuepaz auh niman nican hehecatica huallaz yn ihtic ciudad Mexico. topan motecaquiuh ynic techcocolizmacaz. o yehuatl ipampa yn yn intlah­ tol Doctoresme ynic quinmonanamiquillique tlahtoq. oydores yn oncan omoteneuh acuer­ do mochiuh ynic i;an otocoque oc cequintin mimicque - y_ Auh axcan viernes ynic 4. mani Metztli Mayo de 1612 ai\os. ye oquiz yn pascua yhcuac I. See p. 223, n. 6. 2. Son, surely. 1612 225 :i~e:~:r:~:r:~yl~:~c::cg~t~e~:a:goerdning; alt that hdme his child2 helped him for the first peop e outs1 e the palace E' ht been set up for the blacks· the g ll d . · ig . new gallows had , a ows use as the mnth h d b . long time before; it turned out to stand in the , ddl a . een _standmg there for a new gallows they placed them all around it [pm119le] bTehcaushe m settmg up the said eight th h · · · · e t ree about whom ·t · d at t elf cnme was greatest were hanged in the middle and th h I was sm them on the said new gallows. As the went al , . . ey putt e others all around and cried out to their redeemer our lorlGod Whon~:an!'.nJ them they all properly called confessed. Hanging the said blacks came t~ an ::d a? '~ , all _h_ad been prepared and had hang them. After they had all been h d h I o clock: it took three full hours to left hanging all night. Also many bl:~t: ;~de: ~ere there until night fell, and they were locked up in the court jail awaiting sentence. u attoes who were not hanged were just Y. Not until the second day on Thursda the 3rd d feast day of Santa Cruz did they take thye d d d ayfof the month of May, right on the . . ' ea own rom the gallow A d' official sentence the said dead we II t b . s. ccor mg to the '."hich were going to be hung her:::d tier: i:~~pt::~::,:::::~n~i~'.dhed into pie~es, mto Mexico II On th' h 1g ways commg judges ~ere ~ummone~sf;~:,t::~ :is:~ii"!h~:~::::ad:c~:r:h:;si:~~ed !nto ses~ion; the thelf J0!Ilt pronouncement that 29 of the said dead 1 d . th m, and it was by stuck on top of the gallo Th h . ';ere on y ecap1tated and their heads ws. ey put t elf torsos m the ro I • . below, and the relatives of all the blacks wh h d ya accountmg office, down them. Nothin . ose ea s were cut off went there to shroud the afternoon~ a::so~:i~:;:~eya~:ookftthheem, they wedre just left as they were, and then in ' m away an went to bury th t th h • , Nuestra Senora de [p 1 9211 M' . d' em a e osp1tal of · a 1sencor rn They were • d b went sin in d b · accompame Y secular priests who g g an y the brothers who are the children of the beatified' Ju n d D' d some of our fathers the religious of Santo Domingo San Fr . S ; e ms, an Company of Jesus went to the burial And then the, bla k ancd1sco, a: gustfn, and the . · c s an some ,ew Spania d d ~~h:tht~~: ~e;:t: ~:~:;n:~:!~l~le*::e:i::;'!:~dt~:/::~;/!~c~:d ::r~i::t; :pr e;wjau1~tsht w 1c was made good and 'th th h , ::f. ·=J;::::;!~E.~:7~~::r2~~:;; 1~~ didn't cut them all up a d th 'd h ds commg mto Mexico. The reason that they n esa1 ot erswerej stb · d · h said that if all the dead should be cut u and . u une IS t. at all the learned doctors :if:::'::: :;:,_;:;:ww: ~ :::j::::'.:"':"::t:: ~':2s::E'~ E h n1:i,us, m~kmg us SJCk. It was because of these things that the doctors said ~hen ;e e:the:~e:;•::! ;~:/~::1:.dges of the Audiencia when the said session was held, tha; Y. Today, Friday the 4th of the month of May of the year 1612, after Easter had been 3. For "Beato." ,, ' I, 111 '' ,, ,, " "I I . ,I I i .!1 ,i !I 11 ·i,}. '<'1 :, !·· ,·: '( 226 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION macoca tlanahuatilli huelitiliztli licecia audiencia real yn espafioles. yn oquitlallique yan­ cuic cofradia oncan omoteneuh S. Juan de la penitencia monjas IJJ. 193] Moyotlan ynic tlayahuallozquia prossion 1 mochihuazquia qui,;azquia yn ipilhuantzitzin S. Juan bapta. tlamaceuhque penitentes inic mohuitequizque. yn ipan ome tzillini teotlac auh ye yuhqui. ye quixohuazquia quiquixtizquia yn ipassi5tzin tt0 . dios. auh yece in yehuatl prouisor Don Juan de Salamanca oc polihuia yn ihuelitiliz yn itlanahuatil licencia amo tle quitlanilique ynic ,;an quihualtzacuilli tlayahualoliztli ynic amo hue! mochihuaz. yhuii descomunion quinhuallalili yn espafioles. ynic amo hue! qui,;az omoteneuh tlayahualloliztli prossion 1 ynic oc nen quitlanilizquia licencia ,;a ihciuhca prouisor. <;a quinhualilhui yn espafioles. ca aocmo ymonecyan yn axcan ye qui<;az ytlayhiyohuilitzin yn ipassiontzin ylnamicoca tt 0 • dios. auh ca ye oquiz in hue] ynemacpan cahuitl catca, auh ca ye pahpaquilizcahuitl yn axca ypan ticate caocmo hue! mochihuaz. o yhui yn yn quihualtzauhc prouisor ynic ni­ man ,;a mixcahuique in tlamaceuhque penitentes quizque yn momecahuitecque ynic yzquican teopan quiqui,;ato ynic estaciones quichihuato. y Auh axcan martes ynic 8. mani Metztli Mayo de 1612 afios. ye macuilli tzillini teotlac yhcuac otocoque yn intzonteco omoteneuhque tliltique piloloque in yaoyotl quihtohuaya yea ,;an chicomilhuitique yn oncan cacatca tepilolcuauhticpac ypampa cenca ye iyayaya ynic niman quinquixtique ,;ano vmpa quihtocato2 yn ·omoteneuh hospital de la miseri- cordia y Axcan Lunes ynic 14. mani metztli Mayo de 1612 afios. yhcuac IJJ. 194] Ye no ce tlil­ tic piloloc yn oncan tecpan quiyahuac yncapitan yn achtopa omoteneuhque tliltique pilo- loque - y Axcan Sabado ynic 26. mani Metztli Mayo de 1612 afios yhcuac nican Mexico quimon- pehualtique miequintin tliltique yn ompa quinhuica espafia quinmottiliz yn tohueytlah­ tocatzin Rey yn ipampa yntlatlacol yn omoteneuh ynic macocuizquia yn a,o nelli yaoyotl quichihuaznequia nican ypan nueua espafia yn oc mocauhque yn amo tehuanme piloloque nican yn iuh ynpan mochiuh oc cequintin tlacpac omoteneuhque tliltique, auh ynin omo­ teneuhque espafia huicoque oncan tetlan yhcuac huicoc yn Anton de loya 3 tliltic ,;ano ymalguacil catca yn tliltique libres yn tlacallaquia // auh yn ipan in omoteneuh cemilhuitl Sabado no yhcuac omochiuh capitulo. in S. Domingo yehuatzin prouincial mochiuh yn Padre maestro fr. hernando Ba,;an auh yn iyomilhuiyoc yn ipan Domingo ynic 27. mani metztli Mayo. yhcuac otlayahualoloc yn oncan omoteneuh S. Domingo ycatzinco ypam­ patzinco yn huey Sancto S. Luis perdra4 confesor teopixqui S. Domingo. ynic ,an oc tlayectenehualtic rnotenehua Beatificacion ycatzinco yancuica mochiuh yn ompa Roma. in Sancto Padre quinmomacahuilili yhuelitzl yn teopixque S. Domingo ynic hue! quimol­ huichihuililitiazque cecexiuhtica, ynic no nican Mexico. ycatzinco omochiuh yancuican tlayahualoliztli yn ipan in omoteneuh Domingo motlayahualhui yn ixiptlatzin Sancto S Luis. // y Axcan Junes ynic 28. mani Metztli Mayo de 1612 afios yhcuac nican mexico vnmo- 1. For "prossession" or the like . 2. For "quintocato." 3. Name unconfirmed. 4. Stafford Poole has suggested that the person Ch. gives as "S. Luis perdra" was St. Luis Beltran (1526-1581), known in English as St. Louis Bertrand, a Dominican friar 1612 227 celebrated, was when an order of permission of the Royal Audiencia had been given to the Spaniards who established the new cofradfa at the said nunnery of San Juan de la Peni­ tencia IJJ. 193] in Moyotlan, so that at 2 o'clock in the afternoon the children of San Juan Bautista, the penitents, could come out and go around holding a procession 1 to scourge themselves. Everything was ready, they were going to come out and bring out the Passion of our lord God, but the order of permission of the vicar general don Juan de Salamanca was still lacking, they had not asked him for any, so that he blocked the procession, so that it could not be held, and he excommunicated the Spaniards, so that the said procession 1 could not come out and it would do no good to ask him for permission. The vicar general quickly told the Spaniards that now was no longer a proper time for the suffering and passion in memory of our lord God to be brought out. That had already end­ ed; now we were truly in a time of his grace, in the midst of celebration; it could no longer be done. This then is how the vicar general blocked it, so that then the penitents just came out on their own [as individuals] and scourged themselves, going by each of the churches and making the stations [of the cross]. Y Tuesday, the 8th of the month of May of the year 1612, at 5 o'clock in the afternoon, was when the heads of the said blacks who were hanged, who had declared war, were bur­ ied. The reason that they were on top of the gallows for only seven days was that they were already smelling very bad, so that then they removed them and buried2 them likewise at the said hospital of Misericordia. Y Today, Monday the 14th of the month of May of the year 1612, was when !p. 194] another black was hanged outside the palace, the captain of the earlier mentioned blacks who were hanged. - Y Today, Saturday the 26th of the month of May of the year 1612, was when they set off from Mexico here with many blacks they were taking to Spain. Our great ruler the king wtJI see them because of their crimes that were mentioned, how they were going to rebel, and if it was true that they were going to make war here in New Spain. Those who were still left, who were not hanged here with the rest as was done with the other blacks men­ tioned above, these said blacks were taken to Spain. At that time Anton de Loya, 3 a black, was also taken with the rest; he had been the constable of the free blacks who pay tribute. // Also on the said day of Saturday was held the provincial chapter meeting at Santo Domingo; father fray Hernando Bazan, master in theology, became provincial head. And the next day, on Sunday the 27th of the month of May, was when a procession was held at the said [church of] Santo Domingo on account of the great saint San Luis Beltran, 4 confessor and Dominican friar. Since he has only been blessed for the time being, and what is called beatification was recently petformed for him in Rome, the Holy Father granted the Dominican friars his permission for them to go along celebrating his feast day every year, so that also here in Mexico there was a procession for the first time on his behalf; on the said Sunday the image of the saint San Luis went in procession.// Y Today, Monday the 28th of the month of May of the year 1612, was when father fray active in the Caribbean and on the Spanish main, who was ultimately canonized and was named patron saint of New Granada ( 1690). The form "perdra" is a plausible represen­ ta!ton of Beltran, with the normal substitution p for b, hypercorrect r for I and d for t and omission of n, a ubiquitous phenomenon in Nahuatl writing. ' I! ,,, I I I Ii 'i ,·: ,, 1.1. 11 228 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION pehualti yn padre fr. [p. 195] Antonio de olea el prcsentado mohuica espana vmpa ychan­ tzico ynin ycompanerotzin yn teoyotica tlahtohuani Don fr. Garcia Guerra an;obispo Mexico yhuan visurrey moyetzticatca yn oquimohuiquillitzino tt0 • Dias. - y_ Axcan Lunes ynic .2. mani Metztli Julio de 1612 afios. ypan ylhuitzin visitacion ynic quimotlapalhuito totlai;onantzin S.ta maria yn itlai;opitzin S.ta isabel. yhcuac mochalli ynic yecauh teocalmamallihuac yn oncan yancuic teopan nuestra Senora de! colegio de las Nifias. ynin omoteneuh teocalli hue\ amo huecauh yn omochiuh i;an iuhqui yn hualixhuac inic moyancuilli ynic quichiuhque cofrades de! Sanctissimo Sacramento. II auh ,ano ypan in yn omoteneuh lunes yn ohualtlathuic omomiquilli yn franCO de leyba. ynahuatlahto­ cauh catca visurrey. ynin cenca tlamamauhtiaya nohuiyampa ytoca 1 timacehualti ynic cenca tlahueliloc hue! teahuani catca yn ipa tleyn tequitl mochihuaya hue! tentlahueliloc camachichi catca ayac quixittaya mane! gouernadoresme amo tie ye quinmahuiztiliaya yhuan cenca teca omocacayauhtia - y_ Axcan Lunes ynic .20. mani Metztli Agosto de 1612 afios. yhcuac omomiquilli yn Don Balthasar mm chane S. Pablo i;oquipan i;an atlaca2 catca amo campa tlahtocayotl ytech qui<;aya ynin yehuatl yn gouernador catca azcapotzalco. ,an quicahualtique yn igouernacion ynic niman conpatlato Don Antonio Valeriano tclpochtli yn iuh omoteneuh tlacpac y_ Axcan Miercoles ynic .29. mani Metztli Agosto de 1612 anos, yhcuac omomiquilli yn El licenciado Albar gomez de Abaurn;a oydor catca Mexico. auh ye chicuacen tzillini teo­ tlac yn otocoto ynacayo yn oncan teopan Monasterio de nu[p. 196]estra Senora de las mercedes, yn iztac habito teopixque quimotlalilia ynchantzinco 3 y_ Axcan Domingo ynic .30. mani Metztli Setiembre de 1612 afios ypan ylhuitzin S. Jeronimo. yhcuac omachiztico omomiquilli cuauhtemallan. yn Doctor grauajar. oydor catca yn 6pa ornoteneuh cuauhtemallan ynin nican Mexico yahca quin icel criyoyo oydor omochiuhtia - y_ Axcan Lunes ynic .22. mani Metztli octubre de 1612 a0 s. yhcuac nican Mexico ahi;ico callaquico in El licenciado Don Juan Fernandez de Velasco y horozco alk!e de carte Mexico vmpa hualla espafia ynin yuh omihto criyoyo. nican yahca Mexico ynic oquicuito ytequiuh omochiuh II. auh <;1ino yhcuac yn hualla yn Don Juan gano Moteuhci;oma, 4 ynic onhuia espafia ye expa yllo.5 II auh ,ano ypan in yn omoteneuh Junes. yn ohuallathuic oquichtacamictique yn Miguel Sanchez tecuicitli alkle chane S. Pablo ometochtitla oquittato chichinampii huetztoc oquicuallique yn ixayac atlan chaneque 6 oncan yn ichan 1. Despite the plural form, "ytoca," the singular must be intended. 2. The form "atlaca" may lack the singular absolutive ending tl, or it may be the plural used in a partitive meaning, "one of." The word is probably litlahcatl, a person associated with or inhabitant of the water, which in effect usually means a boatman, sailor, or fisherman. A remote possibility would be ahtllicatl, usually meaning an inhuman, monstrous person, but conceivably susceptible of being interpreted as a nobody, a person of very humble origins. 1612 229 Antonio de Olea, who has been presented [as candidate for archbishop], set out [p. 195] to go to Spain where his home is. He was the companion of the spiritual ruler don fray Garcia Guerra, late archbishop in Mexico and viceroy, whom our lord God took._ Y _T~da~; Monday the 2nd of the month of July of the year 1612, on the feast day of V1s1tac1on, when our precious mother Santa Marfa went to greet her dear older sister Santa Isabel, was when the new church at Nuestra Senora de! Colegio de las Nifias was maugurated and first dedicated after being finished. It was not very long ago that this said church was built; it is just as though it were branching out and being renovated; the members of the cofradfa of the most Holy Sacrament did it. fl And also on the said Mon­ day, in the night before morning, Francisco de Leiva passed away; he was the viceroy's interpreter, whose name' greatly frightened us commoners everywhere because he was very bad, he used to really scold people about whatever tribute duty was being performed. He really had a bad mouth and spoke bitterly. He respected no one; even though it was a governor he showed no respect. And he greatly cheated people. - Y Today, Monday the 20th of the month of August of the year 1612, was when don Baltasar Martin, from San Pablo <;:oquipan, passed away. He was just a [boatman or fish­ erman],2 he didn't come from a ruling dynasty anywhere. He was governor of Azcapo­ tzalco, but they made him relinquish his governorship so that then don Antonio Valeriano the younger replaced him, as was said above. Y Today, Wednesday the 29th of the month of August of the year 1612, was when there passed away licenciado Alvar Gomez de Abaunza, who was civil judge of the Audiencia in Mexico, and at 6 o'clock in the afternoon his body was buried at the monastery church of Nuestra [p. 196] Senora de las Mercedes; he wore the white habit of the friars in their home establishment. 3 Y Today, Sunday the 30th of the month of September of the year 1612, on the feast day of San _Ger6~imo, was when it became known that in Guatemala doctor Carvajal, who was a Judge m the Audiencia in the said Guatemala, passed away. He had gone from Mexico here, and up to that time he was the only criollo who had been made civil judge in an Audiencia. - Y Today, Monday the 22nd of the month of October of the year 1612, was when licen­ ciado don Juan Fernandez de Velasco y Orozco, alcalde de corte in Mexico, got to Mexico here and entered; he came from Spain. It was said that he is a criollo; he had left Mexico here in order to go take the office to which he had been appointed. II Likewise at that time don Juan Cano Moctezuma 4 came back from having gone to Spain; it was the third time that he has come back.5 // And also on this said Monday, in the night before morning, Miguel Sanchez Teuccitli, alcalde, from San Pablo Ometochtitlan, was secretly killed [murdered]. They found him lying in the chinampas; the fish6 had chewed at his face. He 3. Possibly the passage merely means that the friars wore the white habit· "ynchan- tzinco" seems to be hanging, not in its usual position. ' 4. So used in Spanish, as seen on p. 67 at n. 5. 5. App~rently this i~ _the verb Uoti, to come back from where one has gone, in the pretent without the m1trnl o, which Ch. often omits. The standard preterit is ilot; the fmal t m~y}ave bee?, reduced to an unwritten glottal stop as regularly happened with the verb mat,, to know, or 11 may have been madvertently omitted. 6. Literally, residents of the water. " !· I ', '.i I '' I' ' ' !''1' '' '1' ', 'I '.,I '.I i_ir I , II 1·"1·/: I ,•,•,1:1 I ' ; ,·;· , . . , (! ':' I [ \"i ',: · .. 'I. "!I 'i I . ,ii 230 TRANSCRlf'f!ON AND TRANSLATION yhuino 1 an0<;0 yvinonamacayan Morexon temaztitlan yn quimictique ,an quicocohuiteq yea ce gadana ,an ihuayolque yn tle yea quimictique cholloque Y. Axcan Domingo ynic .28. mani Metztli octubre de 1612 afios. hue! ypan ymilhuitzin yn Sant. Simon yhuan S. Judas Tadeo, Apostoles. yhcuac nican Mexico tecpa palacio ye ypan chicuacen tzillini teotlac ynic onyohuac yn omocallaquico yn tlahtohuani Don diego femandez de cordoua [p. 197] Marques de guadalcazar comendador S.tiago Visurrey lugar­ theniente del Rey nuestro Senor gouor y capitan general de la nueua espafia, yhuan qui­ hualmohuiquilli yn inamictzin yn cihuapilli ytoca Dofia Mariana Riedre2 Marqsa virreyna de la nueua espafia. ynin cihuapilli Alemafiis ca hue! ompa chane yn ciudad Alemafiia: 3 vmpa quihualmohuiquilli ycihuapiltzin yhuan ysecretariatzin hualmochiuhtiaca yn to­ hueycihuatlahtocauh Dofia Margarida de Austria Reyna espaiia omoyetzticatca yn oqui­ mohuiquilli uo. dios. axcan ce xihuitl ypan ytlac;oylhuitzin S. Franco, yn momiquilli. // auh yn iteyolcuiticauh yconfesor ohualmochiuhtia Visurrey yn ompa oquihualmohuiquilli espafia ce clerigo quitocayotia Doctor Guerrero comendador Calatraba chichiltic cruz yn icomienda quitlalia // yhuan oc ce cauallero ytoca Don fran" 0 de cardona comendador de montesa no chichiltic cruz. c;an ixquich nepaniuhqui 4 yn icomienda quitlalia no vmpa hualla yn espaiia. ynin nican inJuez mochihuaco yn obrajeros. 5 II ynic ey hualla espafia yn cauallero 6 ytoca Don Luis de Alc;ega ybarguen7 comendador de Alcantara yn icomienda quitlallia quiltic cruz. ynin telpocapiltontli novicio y hualla ayemo monetoltia yea ayemo quichihua profession ,an oqu ixquich quihualcuitehua vmpa comienda ynin omoteneuh ynpiltzin ynconeuh yn contador ybarguen catca yhuan Dofia catalina de Alc;ega yn axcan ye ynamic yetica yn Doctor Antonio de Morga alkle de carte Mexico. ye ytlacpahuitec yn omoteneuh telpochtli comendador criyoyo Y. Axcan viernes ynic 24. mani Metztli Nouiembre de 1612 afios. yhcuac oquiz yn in­ Sentencia revista yn audiencia [p. 198] real Mexico ynic tlahtoque oydores yhuan virrey o­ quinmomaquillique yn intlal Mexica tenochca yn ipampa moteylhuique cochtocan y espa­ fioles oquicuica ynic ce yehuatl yn Alonso dauilla huehuenton ynic ome yehuatl yn Moli- son quincahualtique auh yn macoto possesion oc cenca yehuatl yn isabel ___ yhuan ynamic Juan de espafia chaneque S.ta maria cuepopan yehuantin huel mochicauhque yn moteilhuique yntlatqui ymixcoyan quipopolloque, auh c;a yuhqui yn ontlatoquilitiaque S. Pablo. tlaca yn hernando teuhcxochitzin ynehuan yn Nicolas hemandez tlacayelel / Y. Axcan Sabado ynic .8. mani metztli de diziembre de 1612 aiios. hue! ypan ylhuitzin totlac;onantzin Comsepcion yhcuac cenca tlamahuiztililiztica tlayahualoliztica quitocaque coztic teocuitlatl yn teopixque S. Franco, ypan yn commissario fr. Juan c;urida yn ompa totlac;onantzin S ta maria motenehua de la Redonda. cuepopan ynic otlamachiyotique yn I. Apparently the form "yhuino" is to be read as though it had a hyp~en after it, to_ be completed by "-namacayan," so that Ch. is simply giving two alternattves for spellmg the loanword vino, probably pronounced with an initial [w] in Nahuatl. 2. For the name see Sanchez 1998, p. 29. 3. Conceivably Ch. means a city in Germany, but since he often equates ciudad and altepetl, and considers entities such as Japan to be altepetl, it seems more hkely that he 1s calling Germany a city. 1612 231 was killed at the home and wine tavern' of Morrison at Temaztitlan. His throat was cut with a cutlass. It was just [one of?] his relatives who killed him over something then fled. ' Y. Today, Sunday the 28th of the month of October of the year 1612, right on the feast day of San Sim6n and San Judas Tadeo the apostles, at 6 o'clock in the afternoon as night was falling, was when there entered the governmental palace here in Mexico the iord don Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, [p. 197] Marques of Guadalcazar, comendador in the order of Santiago, viceroy and deputy of the king our lord, governor and captain general of New Spai_n, and he brought his spouse, the lady named dofia Mariana Riderer,2 marquise and vtrreme of New Spain; this lady is German, for she is actually from the city of Germany. 3 She was brought from there as her lady[-in-waiting] and secretary by our great queen doila Margarita de Austria, late queen of Spain, whom our lord God took a year ago now; it was on the precious feast day of San Francisco that she passed away. // And the person who came appointed as the viceroy's confessor, whom he brought from Spain, was a secular pnest whom they call doctor Guerrero, comendador in the order of Calatrava; he wears a red cross as his badge.// And another gentleman named don Francisco de Car­ dona, comendador [ of the order of?] Montesa also wears a red cross as his badge, but [doubled?J; 4 he too came from Spain, appointed judge of [owners of textile works?].s // The third ge~tleman 6 who came from Spain was called don Luis de Alcega Ibarguen, 7 comendador m the order of Alcantara; he wears a green cross as his badge; he is a youngster, a novice, who came before taking his vows and professing; all he has done so far is get his badge there before leaving. The one we are talking about is the child of the late royal accountant lbargucn and dofia Catalina de Alcega, who has now become the spouse of doctor Antonio de Morga, alcalde of court in Mexico, so that the said youth who is a comendador is his stepson; he is a criollo. Y. Today, Friday the 24th of the month of November of the year 1612, was when the sentence after appeal of the Royal Audiencia of Mexico was issued, jp. 198] by which the lords judges and the viceroy gave to the Mexica Tenochca their land at Cochtocan about which they had made a complaint, that Spaniards had taken, first the old man Alonso de Avila and second that Morrison. They made them relinquish it, and possession was given t~ [the Mexica Tenochca], especially Isabel ___ and her spouse Juan de Espana, c1t1zens of Santa Marfa Cuepopan. They were very energetic in the complaint; it was their own property that they lost, and following them [in pursuing the suit] were the people of San Pablo, Hernando Teucxochitzin together with Nicolas Hernandez Tlacaellel. / Y. Today, Saturday the 8th of the month of December of the year 1612, right on the feast day of our precious mother of Concepcion, was when with very great splendor, in a pro~ession, the Franciscan friars, in the term of the commissary fray Juan de Zorita, buned some gold at [the church of] our precious mother Santa Marfa, called de la Redonda, in Cuepopan, by which they signified that groundbreaking began for building a 4. Nepaniuhqui refers to various kinds of folding, doubling, joining. 5. The word ~bra1ero was most frequently used in New Spain for the owners or man­ agers of the texttle works called obrajes, but it could also mean one in charge of public works, contractor. 6. Or knight. All three of those mentioned were knights in military orders. 7. Name unconfirmed. I i ,j ,!,•I: 'I,!,· 1.'! '1·: ,,: .':I ·,!' . ,, 232 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION oncan opeuh ye otlatlallanoc ynic ye mochihua yancuic tlatlapolloyan Porteria yn oncan mochihuaz missa yn oquic mochihuaz yancuic cochiantli yhuan yancuic teopacalli yn­ tlatquitica yn teopixque ye quimochihuilia - xitiniz yn teoparn;olli // axcan viernes ynic 28. mani Metztli de diziebre de 1612 afios ynic nahuilhuitl pascua nauidad yn itlaca­ tillitzin uo Jesu xpo. hue! ypa ilhuitzin pipiltzitzinti sanctos ynocentes. yhcuac omaco- 4 escabulario yhua yn capilla in motenehua hermanos conbalecientes Y quimocuitla­ huia hospital de los Locos, S.t ipolito tlalcozpan .12. monetoltiq profession qui­ chiuhq. ymac yn intiachcauh hermano mayor ypan missa yohuatzinco yxpantzinco visu­ rrey yhua mochi audiencia real tlaca oydores. auh yehuatzin oncan motemachtili y Don fr. diego de c6treras Electo an;obispo yn la isla S. Domingo ayhtic auh S. Padre ytenco­ patzinco yn iuh mochiuh - hernos. I de huastepec y_ Bernardino Aluarez. fundador de los hospitaleros hernos. conua- lecientes de Mexico. y de otros muchos que estan repartidos por la nueua espafia que merecio felicissimo successos de prosperidad para el bien remedio. y salud de muchos 1613.2 .iiii. calli xihuitl yn ipan in yehuatl [p. 199] Gouemador yn Senor Juan Perez de monterrey. y nican Tenochtitlan, auh yn alklesme motlallique S. Juan Moyotlan Diego de S. Franco chane tequicaltitlan 3 yhuan Augustin Vasquez chane huehuecalco, auh yn alklesme motlallique S. Pablo teopa Juan Ramirez chane <;oquipan yhuan Pablo Damian chane ometochtitlan, auh yn alklesme motlallique S. Sebastian atzacualco Don diego luis de Moteuhc,;oma chane cuitlahuact6co. yhuan Melchior xuarez. chane tomatla, auh yn alhlesme motlallique S.ta maria cuepopan Xpoual pasqual mesti<;o chane copolco II yhuan Andres de ]os Angeles chane __ ynin Andres de los Angeles ,an tlaco xihuitl yn alkle­ tic ,;an 6momiquillico ye niman yehuatl conpatlac yn Pablo corrier4 chane __ ynin qui­ tzonquixtico yn omoteneuh xihuitl ynic alkletic v Axcan Miercoles ohuallathuic ynic omilhuitl mani yancuic Metztli hencro No yhuan ~uin ic omilhuitia yancuic xihuitl de 1613. a0 s. yhcuac nican Mexico omixiuh yn cihuapilli Dona Mariana Riedre Marquesa y Virreyna de la nueua espaiia. yn inamic tlahtohuani Don diego fernandez de cordoua Marques de guadalca,ar Visurrey de la nueua espaiia, yn ipiltzin otlacat cihuatl ytoca Dona Mariana Manuel auh ynic niman ohual­ yohuac yn ontzillin horacion ypampa nohuiyan otlatzitzillicac yn hue! yzquican teopan monasterios mexico. yhuan nohuiyan cuahuitl oquitlatlahtique yn inquiyahuac yn intla­ panco espafioles. yhuan candelas sepo tlatlatlac luminarios. . . . y_ Axcan martes ynic .15. mani Metztli henero de 1613 afios. yhcuac ,;an 1xtomamiqU1- liztica xoxouhcamiquiliztica' momiqui[p. 200]lli yn Luy Lopez casti,;o5 yn chane ocatca hueycalco yn tictocayotia ychan tonatiuh7 ynin otlayecoltilloya comendero 8 ocatca. yn 1. This part is in the margin, in Spanish, though in Ch.' s hand._ The Spanish here is over-elaborate and not quite in control, reminiscent of the Spamsh of some Nahuatl speakers in "Stage 4," in the late eighteenth century. (See Lockhart 1992, pp. 318-23.)_ 2. The number is accompanied by a precontact-style representation of a house with four dots above. 3. The names in this position throughout the list seem to ide~tify tlaxilacalli ( con- stituent subdistricts) within the respective large quarter of Tenochtitlan. 4. Name unconfirmed. . . 5. As racial mixture proceeded over the decades and centuries, a_ set of often unrealistic ethnic-racial categories arose to describe different mixtures; a cast1zo was supposed to be 1612-1613 233 new place where things are opened up, an arcaded entryway [porterfa] where mass will be held until such time as a new dormitory and a new church are built; the friars are doing it with their assets, and the old church will be torn down. II Today, Friday the 28th of the month of December of the year 1612, on the fourth day of the Christmas holiday, the birth of our lord Jesus Christ, right on the feast day of the children, the holy innocents, was when the scapular and hood were given to the said brothers of the convalescents who take care of the Hospital de los Locos at San Hip61ito in Tlacozpan; twelve of them took vows and made profession to their most senior member, the eldest brother, at a mass early in the morning in the presence of the viceroy and all the judges of the Royal Audiencia. The person who preached was don fray Diego de Contreras, archbishop elect of the island of Santo Domingo out in the ocean. It was done by order of the Holy Father. - Brothers' of Huaxtepec. y_ Bernardino Alvarez, founder of the hospitalers, the Hermanos Convalecientes of Mexico, and of many others which are spread throughout New Spain, deserved the happiest results of prosperity for the succor and health of many. 1613,2 4 House year. In this year [p. 199] seiior Juan Perez de Monterrey was governor here in Tenochtitlan, and as alcaldes Diego de San Francisco, from Tequicaltitlan, 3 and Agustin Vasquez, from Huehuecalco, were installed for San Juan Moyotlan. And for San Pablo Teopan Juan Ramirez, from <:;oquipan, and Pablo Damian, from Ometochtitlan, were installed as alcaldes. And for San Sebastian Atzaqualco don Diego Luis de Moteuc- 9oma, from Cuitlahuactonco, and Melchor Juarez, from Tomatla, were installed as a1cal­ des. And for Santa Maria Cuepopan Cristobal Pascual, a mestizo, from Copolco, // and Andres de los Angeles, from ___ , were installed as alcaldes. This Andres de los Ange- les served as alcalde only half a year, for he died, and then Pablo [Corrier],4 from __ , finished out the said year as alcalde. y_ Today, Wednesday before dawn, the 2nd day of the new month, January, also the 2nd day of the new year of 1613, was when the lady doiia Mariana Riderer, marquise and vir­ reine of New Spain, spouse of the ruler don Diego Fernandez de C6rdoha, Marques of Guadalcazar, viceroy of New Spain, gave birth; her child was born a girl, named doiia Mariana Manuela. And then when night was falling and the bells were rung for prayer time, the bells everywhere in absolutely all the churches and monasteries in Mexico pealed, and everywhere the Spaniards burned wood outside their houses and on their roofs, and tallow candles, luminarios, were also burned. Y.. Today, Tuesday the 15th of the month of January of the year 1613, was when Ruy L6pez, a castizo, 5 passed away of an unexpected, premature 6 death; he was a resident of Hueicalco, which we call Ichan Tonatiuh.7 [p. 200] He was served as the encomendero8 three-fourths Spanish, one-fourth indigenous. 6. See above (pp. 172-73, 214-15), for ixtomamiquiliztica used in connection with sudden or unexpected death. Xoxouhcamiquiliztica by the context appears to be a syn­ onym; it is used again in connection with ixtomamiquiliztica on pp. 250-51. Xoxouhqui is something green, including in the sense of unripe, immature. 7. In Book 12 of the Florentine Codex, Moteuc,oma talks about taking refuge in tonatiuh ichan, possibly a real geographical place, though the phrase means "home of the sun" and referred to a kind of paradise (Lockhart 1993, pp. 88-89). 8. In much Nahuatl usage the en of encomendero was taken for the subordinator/article in, so that it was omitted in the loanword. '. i '] ! i' I' ;ii I I ' i ,I ',I' ·!I.: I I i 1 "I, 234 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION azcapotzalco tepanecapan yhuan tenantzinco c;a ye yehuatl ytech otlamico ynic niman oquimocuilli y Rey yn omoteneuh altepetl ynin ypiltzin catca yn Juan de Zaucedo Mestic;o conquistador. auh yn ical moch itech opouh yn iteyccauh yhermano Miguel Lopez 1 - y_ Axcan Martes ynic 22. mani Metztli henero de 1613 afios. yhcuac ye tlathui cenca chicahuac oquiyauh y nican Mexico. yhuan ynic nohuiyan cuauhtla o nohuiyan tepeuh2 yn ceppayahuitl o cepayauh cenca chicahuac in motecac cepayahuitl oc cenca oncan ytech yn chicahuac motecac tepetl yn quitocayotia Tenan y nican tonahuac catqui cuyohuacan c;ah ce ynic nohuiyan yntech mochi tetepe hue] ye moquimilloq. yn cepayahuitl yn xochimilco yntech tetepe yhuan oc no cenca vmpa yn chalco Amaquemecan yn intech yztac tepetl yhuan popocatepetl yhua yn oc cequi tepetl yn intech c;aliuhtoque hue] ic moquimilloque yn cepayahuitl yhuan yn itech tepetl quitocayotia cilcuaye yn tenanco tepopolla catqui yhuan ytech y quetzaltepetl yn huexotla aculhuacanpa catqui moch iztazque yn tetepe auh ynic omilhuitl ypan miercoles cemilhuitl yn oquiyauh yhuan oceppayauh yn omoteneuh ytech tepetl tenan yhuan cenca ocehuac y nican Mexico II auh c;anno yhcuac yn ipan in omoteneuh Metztli henero omachiztico ohualla tlahtolli yn espafia ynic hualla acaltepiton naviobiso. 3 yn quenin oncan hualmohuicaya teoyotica tlahtohuani Don Jeronimo de carcamo4 obsipo de troxillo. piru castillampa hualmohui­ caya auh c;an huey apan [p. 201] Onmomiquillico. ynin criyoyo nican tlacat Mexico. nican mohuicac ynic yaca espafia. y_ Axcan Domingo ynic 27. mani Metztli henero de 1613. afios ihcuac oquicuaatequique yn iyacapa yn ipiltzin tlahtohuani Don diego fernandez de cordoua Marques de guadalcazar visurrey de Ia nueua espafia. quitocayotique ynic mocuaatequi ypiltzin ytoca mochiuh Dofia Mariana manuel auh yn iPadrino mochiuh ce tottatzin hue! sancto ytoca fray Pedro Lazaro teopixqui S. Franco. c;an mocnonemiltia yn mahuiztililoni huehue tlacatl mote­ miccamiquilizpahpalehuillia5 nohuiyan yn Mexico vmpa mohuica ychan yn aqui quimo­ machiltia cocoxqui espafioles yn cenca ye yhiyocahui in ye momiquiliznequi ychan on­ mocochiltia ynic cenca miec tlatlatlauhtiliztli ypan conmihtalhuia yn ixquich ica quic;a quincahua ymanimantzin ynic momiquilia tlaca. ynin tottatzin cenca tillahuac c;a c;an queninami Xerga quimotlatlamanililia 6 yn ihapitotzin quimotlallilitinemi yehuatl in yn tottatzin ye on padre mochiuh visurrey. auh yn cuaatequiloc piltzintli on can y tecpan palacio capilla real - y_ Axcan Sabado ynic .2. mani Metztli febrero de 1613. afios. hue! ypan ilhuitzin totla­ ~onantzin Purificacion - yhcuac oncan teopan totla~onantzin S ta maria nuestra Sefiora de monserrate tequixquipan omonetoltico oncan profession quichihuaco yn tlacpac omo­ teneuh Don luis alc;ega ybarguen cauallero de! habito de alcantara ynic Comendador telpo­ catzin,7 auh ynic quichihuaco oncan professii'\ [p. 202] Yehuatl ymactzinco yn Padre Prior I. It appears that Ruy L6pez de Salcedo was the grandson of the mestizo conqueror Juan de Salcedo. See Gerhard 1972, p. 170. For more on the encomiendas involved see ibid., p. 248, Gibson 1964, p. 414, and Himmerich 1991, p. 235. Ch. uses both the tra­ ditional term for younger sibling, -teiccauh, and the Spanish for brother, hermano, probably because the people involved were Hispanic and Chimalpahin here in all likeli­ hood bases himself ultimately on conversation or writings in Spanish. 2. One must suspect that where we see "tepeuh," "it scattered down," the original intention was something including tepetl, "mountains," so that the intended meaning would have been "it snowed in the forests and mountains everywhere." ' 1613 235 in Azcapotzalco Tepanecapan and Tenancingo; with him it came to an end, so that the king took [both] the said altepetl. He was the child of Juan de Salcedo, a conqueror who was a mestizo, and his whole house was assigned to his younger brother Miguel L6pez. I y_ Today, Tuesday the 22nd of the month of January of the year 1613, was when at dawn it rained very heavily here in Mexico. And in the forests all around the snow came down and it snowed.2 It made a very heavy covering; it covered especially heavily the mountain they call Tenan which is here near to us, in Coyoacan. All the mountains absolutely everywhere were really blanketed in snow; it was on the mountains in Xochimilco, and also very heavily on Iztaccihuatl and Popocatepetl in Chalco Amaquemecan, and it adhered to other mountains, which were entirely blanketed in snow, and on the mountain they call Cilquaye, which is in Tenanco Tepopolla, and on Quetzal mountain in Huejotla, toward the Acolhua region. The mountains were all white. And the second day, Wednesday, it rained all day and snowed on the said mountain Tenan, and it was very cold here in Mexico. II Likewise in this year, in the said month of January, it became known and news arrived from Spain when a small ship, a dispatch ship,3 came, that the priestly ruler don Ger6nimo de Carcamo, 4 bishop of Trujillo, Peru, was coming from there, from Spain, but he passed away on the ocean. [p. 201] He was a criollo who was born here in Mexico, and he left from here when he went to Spain. y_ Today, Sunday the 27th of the month of January of the year 1613, was when they baptized the first child of the ruler don Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, Marques of Guadalcazar, viceroy of New Spain; when his child was baptized they named her and her name became dofia Mariana Manuela, and a very holy f~ther named fray Pedro Lazaro, a Franciscan friar, became her godfather. A venerable ancient person, he lives humbly, he helps people with dying 5 all around Mexico. When he knows Spaniards to be sick, at their last breath and about to die, he goes to their homes; he sleeps there and says many prayers for them until their souls depart and leave them, until the people die. This padre uses any old piece of very rough coarse cloth to fix up his habit that he goes about wearing.6 This padre became the viceroy's compadre. The child was baptized in the royal chapel of the palace. - y_ Today, Saturday the 2nd of the month of February of the year 1613, right on the feast day of our precious mother the Virgin of Purificaci6n, was when at the church of our precious mother Santa Maria, Our Lady of Monserrat at Tequixquipan, the above mentioned don Luis Alcega Ibarguen took his vows and professed as a knight of the order of Alcantara, as a [junior?]' comendador. He professed [p. 202] under the direction of the 3. Presumably for "navio [de] abiso." 4. Name unconfirmed. 5. There can be little doubt about the general sense of this form, but it is not yet clear why it contains both micca- and miquiliz-, both "dead person" and "death." 6. It has not been possible to confirm the meanings hazarded here from the relevant Nahuatl vocabulary as seen in reference works. 7. Though the words could indicate status as a novice, they could also mean simply a young comendador. l' 'iii 1, '" 'I i I ,ii I, '': ,·.,' '' '' I,, 1,, I ,, ',:: "i, ,1': 236 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLA'l10N fray Bernardino de argedas teopixqui S. Benito. yn oncan quimopiallia teopancalli nuestra Senora monserrate, yehica ypampa ynin teopixque Monges yn inteotlatecpannemilitzin yn quinmotlallilitehuac Regla ypan monemitizque ynic quinmonahuatilitehuac yn omoten­ euhtzino yntla,ottatzin S. benito. Patriarcha, auh ca ,anno yehuatl ocanque oquinmoma­ quilli y tonantzin Sancta yglesia yn omoteneuh teotlatecpanoctacanemiliztli Regla. yn caualleros comedadores yn itech pouhque omoteneuh horden de alcatara, ,anno yehuatl ynnehtol mochihua ynic ,an cepanehtolleque yn omoteneuhque teopixque Monges. San Benito. Y. Axcan ye ce Domingo quaresma ynic 24. mani metztli febrero de 1613 anos. hue! ypan ylhuitzin Sant Matia, ye teotlac ynic nican Mexico onmopehualti ynic ompa mohuica la ciudad de los Angeles cuitlaxcohuapan yn tlahtohuani Senor El licenciado Don Pedro de otalora Presidente yn audiencia real Mexico. ynic ompa mohuica moteochiuhtzinoz ynic teopixqui clerigo mochiuhtzinohua, yhuan yea vmpa ye moteochiuhtzinoz yn EPISTOLA yhuan Euangelio yhuan yn missa ye quimochihuiliz. ,an oppa ye quimoteochihuiliz yn ipan in ce cuaresma yn obispo Don Alonso de la mota y escobar yuh quihualmonahuatilia yn Sancto Padre ,an eilhuitl mochivaz auh macihui yn iuh catca yn nahuatilli ca ye quin ipan Dominiga yn passion tlamico yn ineteochihualitzin ynic missa quimochihuillico. yn aye yuhqui oyttoc nican Mexico ce pressidente ahno,o oydor omochiuh clerigo. yn iuh yehuatzin omochiuhtzinoco omoteneuhtzino Don Pedro de otalora yhuan amo ye quimo­ cahuilli yn itequitzin ynic pressidente mochiuhtzinotica [p. 203] Audiencia real yuh qui­ monequiltia yn tohueytlahtocatzi moyetztica espafia auh yn ixquich ica ayemo tlamia yneteochihualiztzin quaresma yxquichcauh vmpa moyetzticatca cuitlaxcohuapan yhuan vmpa quihualmihtalhuitehuac la compafiia de Jesus in yancuic missa ynic niman hual­ mocueptzino hualmohuicac y nican mexico quimochihuillico yn itlahtocatequitzin ynic pressidente. 1 Y. Axcan martes inic .5. mani metztli Mar,o de 1613 afios. quaresma yhcuac quimonpe- hualtique nican y china quinhuicaque espafioles cequintin mestic;oti yhuan cequitin mula­ toti ome tliltic. ey macehualli yn ,an tecuitlahuiltiliztica ye hui motenehua for<;ados. 2 vmpa quinmihualli Justiciatica yn tlahtohani vi surrey. tepo,otiaque mochintin cauallo ypan quinhuicaque in ye mochi chiconpohuallonmatlactli yn for<;ados. ynin ye quinhui­ caque cequintin tlatlacolleque cequintin ,an vagamundos ynic anoq atle ymofficio quipia. auh yn espafioles cequintin huicoque hue! momahuiztillitihui ynic huicoq motenehua hue! luzidos ynic yahque.3 cequitin namiqueque quincauhtiaq. yn innamichuan cequintin quin­ huicaque yn incihuahuan. auh yn Soldadostin noncua yahque in <;an inyollocacopa hui china amo ynhuan nican mocenpohua4 v Axcan miercoles ynic 13 mani metztli Mar,o de 1613 afios. Quaresma yhcuac omachiz­ tico nican Mexico vmpa tlahtolli hualla yn acapolco yn quenin ye ye onxiuhtica ye oppa oncan oqui<;aco yn Jabon acalli oncan ohualla yn Senor Sebastian vizcayno espafiol y nican Mexico yah onxiuhtica yn omocuepaco. yhuan no oncan ohualla quihualhuica [p. 204] Yn teuhctitlantli in Embajador yn ititlan yn quihualtitlani huey tlahtohuani Empera­ dor Jabon, macuilpohualli yn imacehual Jabonti quinhualhuica auh yn quinnahuatlahtal­ huitihuitz ce S. Franco tottatzin descal<;o I. Compare with the partially identical passage on pp. 248-49. 2. Forced or penal laborers. 3. The words "ynic yahque" could also be taken as referring to how the lucidos went. 1613 237 father prior fray Bernardino de Arguedas, a monk of St. Benedict, who is in charge of the church of Our Lady of Monserrat, because the holy rules of life of these religious or monks, the rule by which they are to live, that their said precious father St. Benedict the patriarch issued, ordered, and left behind for them was the same one that the knights and comendadores who belonged to the said order of Alcantara took and that our mother the Holy Church gave them, so that they both take the same vows, the said religious or monks of St. Benedict have joint vows with them. Y. Today, the first Sunday of Lent, the 24th of the month of February of the year 1613, right on the feast day of San Matfas, in the afternoon, was when the lord sefior licenciado don Pedro de Otalora, president of the Royal Audiencia of Mexico, set out for the City of the Angels, Puebla; the reason he is going there is to be ordained, for he is becoming a secular priest, and is to be ordained as subdeacon, deacon, and priest who can say mass. The bishop don Alonso de la Mota y Escobar will ordain him twice during one Lent; thus the Holy Father has sent him orders. It is to be done in only three days. But although that was the way the order ran, it wasn't until Sunday at the end of Easter week that his or­ dainment was finished, so that he performed a mass. Never was the like seen here in Mex­ ico, that a president or civil judge of the Audiencia became a secular priest, as the said don Pedro de Otalora did, and he did not therefore relinquish the office that he had been ap­ pointed to of president [p. 203] of the Royal Audiencia; so our great ruler who is in Spain wants it to be. Until his ordainment during Lent was finished, he stayed in Puebla; before leaving he said his first mass in the Jesuit church there, and then returned and came back here to Mexico to execute his royal office as president. 1 Y Today, Tuesday the 5th uf the month of March of the year 1613, during Lent, was when they caused to depart from here those whom they took to China [the Philippines]: Span­ iards, some mestizos, some mulattoes, two blacks, and three commoners, who went by force, calledforzados; 2 the lord viceroy sent them there by legal sentence. They went in irons; they took them all on horseback. The forzados added up to 150. As to why they took them, some were wrongdoers, some just vagabonds who were arrested because they had no occupation. Some of the Spaniards who were taken went in fine style as they were being taken, called very stylish people. When they went,3 some of the married men left their spouses behind, and some took their wives along. The soldiers went separately; they are going to China willingly and are not included in the total here.4 Y. Today, Wednesday the 13th of the month of March of the year 1613, during Lent, was when it became known here in Mexico and news came from Acapulco of how in the second year [of its voyage] the Manila galleon landed there for a second time; on it came the Spaniard sefior Sebastian Vizcaino, who left Mexico here two years ago, who has returned and also come bringing there [p. 204] the lordly emissary, the ambassador, the messenger who was sent here by the great ruler the emperor in Japan. He brought along a hundred Japanese, [the emperor's] subjects, and a Discalced Franciscan friar came along to interpret for them. 4. The following paragraph is crossed out. Other sections have related material but do not duplicate it entirely. ,, ', . I 'ii i ·'I I •.I 238 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION y Auh ,ano ypan in yn omoteneuh quaresma de 1613 afios. yn opeuhque 1 yn tlacpac omoteneuhque Juan Perez de monterrey Juez gouernador yhuan alldes di ego de S. Franco. yhuan Augustin Vasquez. yhuan Regidores. ynl Moyotlan tlaca, yhuan Juan Ramirez. yhuan Pablo Damian alldes S Pablo. yhuan Don diego luis de Moteuhcgoma, yhuan Melchior xuarez ynin alldes. S. Sebastian yhuan xpoual pascual yhuan Andres de los Angeles yni alldes. S.ta maria cuepopan ynpan in yn ohualmotlalli oc nahui tomin tlacallaquilli nican tenochtitlan ynic niman opeuhque ye nohuian quitlani ye quinechi­ cohua ye tepan quiga yn ipan in omoteneuh quaresma ca yn achtopa oquimanaya intla­ callaquil y namiqueque ce peso yhuan chicome tomin. auh yn axcan ypan in omoteneuh xihuitl ynic ohualmacoc nahui tomin in ye mochi quimana intlacallaquil namiqueque ye ome peso yhuii ey tomin auh y telpochnemi yhuan ichpochnemi y quimana axcii ytla­ callaquil ye chiuhcnahui tomin yhuan medio ynic ohualmacoc, ca ,an oc chicome tomin yhua medio ocatca y Axcan Domingo ynic 24. mani Metztli Margo de 1613. afios quaresma yhcuac omo­ miquilli yn Doctor. Don Marcos gueffero, Oydor yhuan allde de corte catca auh qui Junes teotlac teopan S. Augustin yn tocoto ynacayo. oncan mohuicatza motetoquillico tlahto­ huani Visurrey yhuan mochintin [p. 205] Y n tlahtoque Oydores yn audiencia real tlaca yhuan allde de cortes yhuan mochintin yn ciudad tlaca caualleros. yhuan yn clerigos. yhuan y nepapan teopixque frayles Mexico monoltitoque moch oncan mohuicatza mo­ tetoquillico // y Auh gano ypan in yn omoteneuh Domingo nepantlah tonatiuh yn tococ ynacayo ci­ huapilli Dofia Martina chane ateponazco ynantzin in yn Nicolas hernandez tlacayeleltzin in momomiquilli 2 Sabado ye yohua chicuey hora. ynic 23. mani metztli Margo. auh teopan S. Pablo tococ ynacayotzin // auh yn ipampa yniqu iz nicmachiyotia nehuatl Don domingo de S. Anton Munon Quauhtlehuanitzin yn imiquiliz omoteneuh cihuapilli Doiia Martina ca hue! nicmati ca ceme oc yehuantin yn inecauhcahuan yn itlaquillohuan 3 yn mihtohua ytzonhua yztihua in ye huecauh onemico nican Mexico tenochtitlan yn ceca otlamamauhtico yn aquin catca huehue tlacayeleltzin cihuacohuatl tlahtocapilli tenoch­ titlan yn o ytlan tlahtoco yn oquinnanamiquico macuiltin huehueyntin tlahtoque tenoch­ titlan yn itzcohuatl yn huehue Moteuhcgoma ylhuicaminatzin yn Axayaca, yn tigocic, yn Ahuitzotl, yn izquintin in tlahtoque o yntlan yeco oquinnanamiquico yn ipa yxquich tla­ mantli oquichihuaco yn omoteneuh huey yaotachcauh Capitan General catca huehue tlaca­ yeleltzin cihuacohuatl ca tel vmpa neztica in tlacpac 4 yn ixquich tlamantli oquichiuhtia yn yn ipan yntlahtocatian yn izquintin omoteneuhque tenochtitlan tlahtoque catca - y Axcan martes ynic 19. mani Metztli Margo de 1613 aiios. hue] ypan ylhuitzin S. Joseph. yhcuac opeuh in ye cehuetzih chicahuac yn ipan ic nohuiyan motenehua nueua espafia cenca [p. 206] quipolloco yn ixhuacatoctzintli, yhuan yn nopalli celtic mochi quicua yhuan in xochicualli yxochiyo yn ixocoyo mochi quitlaco quitepec 5 gan tel cana in hue! quitlaco xochicualli auh macuililhuitl yn cehuetz yn aye yuh mochihuani ,an tel yuhquin tlacuilolchicahuaca cehuetz. - l. Just what they began is not clear. Such phrases often refer to beginning in office, but these officers were already mentioned above at the beginning of the year. Probably the reference is to their beginning to collect the tax mentioned below, but the sentence breaks off before getting that far. 2. In this form mo is inadvertently repeated. 1613 239 Y. And likewise during this said Lent of the year of 1613 there began 1 the above mentioned Juan Perez de Monterrey, judge and governor, and the alcaldes Diego de San Francisco and Agustin Vasquez, along with the regidores-these were Moyotlan people-­ and Juan Ramirez and Pablo Damian, alcaldes for San Pablo; and don Diego Luis de Moteucgoma and Melchor Juarez, alcaldes for San Sebastian, and Cristobal Pascual and Andres de los Angeles, alcaldes for Santa Marfa Cuepopan. During their term an addi­ tional four reales of tribute was assessed here in Tenochtitlan. Already then during the said Lent season they began to go around to people and ask for it and collect it. First as their tribute a married couple was paying a peso and 7 reales, and now in the said year it was raised by 4 reales, so that in all a married couple pays as their tribute 2 pesos and 3 reales, and bachelors and spinsters now pay as their tribute 9112 reales, since it was raised, for before it was just 7 112 reales. Y. Today, Sunday the 24th of the month of March of the year 1613, during Lent, was when dr. don Marcos Guerrero, who had been civil and criminal judge of the Audiencia, passed away. It was not until Monday afternoon that his body was taken to the church of San Agustin and buried; there came to bury him the lord viceroy and all Ip. 205] the civil and criminal judges of the Royal Audiencia, and all the gentlemen who are on the [Span­ ish] cabildo, and the secular priests, and all the different friars and members of orders in Mexico were assembled, all came there to the burial. // Y. Likewise in this year on the said Sunday at midday there was buried the body of the lady doiia Martina, from Ateponazco, the mother of Nicolas Hernandez Tlacaelleltzin, who passed away2 Saturday at 8 o'clock in the evening on the 23rd of the month of March; her body was buried at the church of San Pablo. II The reason why I, don Domingo de San Anton Mufion Quauhtlehuanitzin, record here the death of the said lady dofia Martina is that I well know that she is one of the descendants, 3 called the hair and fingernails, of one who lived long ago here in Mexico Tenochtitlan, who was held in great awe, and that was the elder Tlacaellel, the Cihuacoatl, a noble of the royal dynasty of Tenochtitlan, who ruled alongside and aided five great rulers of Tenochtitlan: Itzcoatl, the elder Moteuc,oma Ilhuicaminatzin, Axayaca, Tigocic, and Ahuitzotl. The said great war leader, who was a captain general, the elder Tlacaelleltzin, the Cihuacoatl, stood beside and aided each of the rulers in everything they did, for above4 appear all the different things he did during the reigns of each of the said late rulers of Tenochtitlan. - Y. Today, Tuesday the 19th of the month of March of the year 1613, right on the feast day of San Josef, was when it began to freeze hard everywhere in the said New Spain. [p. 206] The freeze greatly destroyed the sprouting stalks of maize, and it ate up all the tender nopal cactus, and it spoiled 5 all the blossoms and buds of the fruit trees, although only here and there did it really ruin the fruit. For five days it froze as never before, although the strong freezing was spotty. - 3. Literally relics and fruits of the tree. 4. Here Ch. apparently refers to another part of his work, apparently considering that some of his accounts referring to precontact history precede the material here within a single framework. 5. The unidentified form "quitepec" seems to reinforce "quitlaco," "spoiled." 1, .I j' I:' 'I :,' ; 240 1RANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION ':!. Axcan Sabado in ye ic .23. mani Metztli Mari;o de 1613. anos. ye teotlac ihcuac opeuh in ,an oc ahuechquiyahuico auh in ye ye omilhuitl ypan Domingo in ye teotlac ye ye cen peuh y momanaco quiyahuitl cehuallatl1 cenca ytztic yn icecuizyo mochiuh yhuan ceppayauh y nohuiyan cuauhtlah. yxquich ica ynic tlamico Metztli Margo. yn quiyauh yn cehuallatl manca yn aye yuh mochihuani ypan omoteneuh metztli. yhuan cenca chicahuac in yequene momanaco cocoliztli matlaltotonqui 2 yn ipan in omoteneuh Metztli Margo. ynic micohuac ynic mochi ypan nohuiyan nueua espafia. yn opa ye hualpeuhtica ytzin­ ecan yn ipan in omoteneuh xihuitl yxquichcauh necocolloc yhuan micohuac ynic yequene axcan chicahuac ye mochihua cocoliztli momiquilia yn timacehualtin yhuii espanoles - ':!. Axcan Lunes Sancto. ynic .i. cemilhuitl mani Metztli Abril de 1613 afios teotlac yh­ cuac ye oppa otlayahualloque yn Sancta Maria cuepopan tlaca yn cofrades yn itech pohui animasme yn ompa quimotlalili ynpalehuiloca in Padre fr. diego Mexia yn ica ymeca­ nelpiayatzin ycordontzin totlagottatzin S. Franco. quinmopalehuilia quimonmoquixtilia yn ompa tetlechipahualloyan Purgatorio, ca yuh neztia oncan ynic tlayahualloque Ip. 207] Quimohuiquillique andasco S. Franco. quinmoquixtiltiuh yn animasme yn ica omoteneuh ymecanepiayatzin yn icordontzin yn oncan omoteneuh tetlechipahualloyan ytencopatzinco yn u0 • dios. yhuan oc cequi yPassiontzin yn tlayahuallo tcotlac yn ompa huallehuaque ynteopan qui~aco concepci5 Monjas. ayoticpac ye niman qui~aco Visitacion monjas. ye niman niman3 qui<;aco S. Franco teopan. ye niman S. ignacio. la casa professa qui~aco. ye niman oncan yn iglesia mayor quii;aco oncan ye mocuepque ye niman quii;ato teopan S. Domigo niman S. lureni;o quii;ato monjas. ye niman vmpa yn inchan ahcito. y_ Auh i;an no ypan in yn omoteneuh Lunes Sancto no yhcuac teotlac yancuican tlayahualloque yn tlacanechicoltin 4 yn oncan oquitlallique yancuic ycofradia yn hospital S. ]azaro atenantitech yn itetzinco pohui S. Roche. callaqui tonatiuh yn quizque i;an oc quezquintin yglesia mayor ahcico ynic tlayahualloque. ':!. Auh yn axcan ye omilhuitl martes sancto teotlac yhcuac yequene hue! oquizque yn cofrades espafioles yn itetzinco ponhui yn ipilhuantzitzinhuan Senor S. Juan bapta. cenca mahuiztic ynic quizque ynic tlayahualloque oncan quizque yn teopan monasterio monjas motenehua S. Juan la penitencia Moyotlan. auh tlayacac mantiaque in Mexica yn oncan tlaca tequicaltitlan tlaxillacalleque i;an oc quezquintin yn oncan tehuan quizque yehica ypampa quimixnamic quintzacuilli in fray Jeronimo de i;arate capellan S. Josep. amo quinec yn oncan tehuan quii;azquia Mexica moyoteca yn S. Juan la penitencia. yehica yn oncii quinmoquixtiliz[p. 208]quia in yancuicatzitzinti quinmochihuillique Mexica yn imixiptlatzin S. Juan baptistatzin yhuan ymiquillitzin S. Diegotzin. in ye huiptla ypan Domingo de ramos catca yn ihcuac oncan S. Joseph quinmoteochihuilliq. yn oquimah fr. Jeronimo de i;arate ynin omoteochiuhtzinoque yancuiq. Sanctome. yn ca tehuan vmpa motlayahualhuizque Sant Juan la penitencia yn ipan in omoteneuh martes Sancto niman yhcuac yn ipan omoteneuh Domingo de ramos 5can quinmotzacuilili in Mexica S Joseph yn inSanctotzitzinhuan ynic amo vmpa tehuan motlayahualhuizque S. Jua quihto. yn fr. I. Perhaps also persistent; see pp. 194-95 at n. 2. 2. Typhus; see pp. 92-93 at n. 2. 3. The word "niman" is inadve1tently repeated. 1613 241 Y. Today, Saturday the 23rd of the month of March of the year 1613, in the afternoon, was when it began to rain, at first just a sprinkle, but on the second day, Sunday in the after­ noon, it really began, a freezing rain 1 which became extremely cold, and it snowed every­ where in the woods. There were cold rains until the month of March ended, as had never happened in the said month. And finally, an illness, matlaltotonqui, 2 broke out in the said month of March, causing deaths all over New Spain. It had its beginning [earlier] in the said year, there was sickness and death, until finally now the illness became stronger, and we commoners and Spaniards are dying. - Y. Today, Monday of Holy Week, the 1st day of the month of April of the year 1613, in the afternoon, was when for the second time there marched in procession the people of Santa Maria Cuepopan, the members who belong to the cofradfa of the Souls [ of Purgatory], that father fray Diego Mejia established there for their help. With his cord girdle, his rope belt, our precious father San Francisco helps them and extracts them from the place where people are purified by fire, purgatory, for so he appeared going along; when they went in procession Ip. 207] they carried San Francisco on a carrying platform freeing the souls with his said cmd girdle, his rope, from the said purgatory by order of our lord God, and other things from his Passion [ were in evidence]. The procession was in the afternoon; they started from their church and passed by the nuns of Concepcion at Ayoticpac; next they came by the nuns of the Visitacion; next 3 they came by the church of San Francisco; next they came by the Casa Profesa of San Ignacio; then they came by the cathedral, where they turned back; next they went by the church of Santo Domingo, next they went by the nuns of San Lorenzo; next they reached their home. Y. Likewise on this said Holy Monday, in the afternoon, was when for the first time the people who have come together from various places4 went in procession; they established their new cofradfa at the Hospital of San Lazaro at Atenantitech; it is dedicated to San Roque. The sun was going down as they came out; only a few got as far as the cathedral in their procession. y Today, the 2nd day [of April and of Holy Week], Holy Tuesday, in the afternoon, was when at last the Spanish cofradfa members who are dedicated to and are the children of senor San Juan Bautista were able to come out and went in procession in a very splendid fashion; they came out of the convent church of nuns called San Juan de la Penitencia in Moyotlan. At the front went the Mexica who belong to the tlaxilacalli of Tequicaltitlan; only a few came out there with the others, because fray Geronimo de Zarate, chaplain at [the chapel of] San Josef, opposed and blocked them. He didn't want the Mexica of Moyo­ tlan to come out with the others at San Juan de la Penitencia, because they were going to bring out Ip. 208] the new images the Mexica made of San Juan Bautista and the death of San Diego two days before that, on Palm Sunday, when they blessed them at San Josef. When fray Geronimo de Zarate found out that these new saints had been blessed and that they were to go with the others in procession at San Juan de la Penitencia on the said Holy Tuesday, right then on the said Palm Sunday he locked up the Mexica's saints in San Josef so that they would not go in procession with the others at San Juan. Fray 4. More literally collected people, used by Ch. to refer mainly to indigenous people of other than Nahua ethnicity who migrated to Mexico City on their own. The word also occurs on pp. 242-43 at n. 3 and pp. 246-47 at n. 10. . I ,, ' ' ' ' ! ' I ,I, i· ' ' ,1. 1 1 : ,.1, :11',! -1',,1,,. ,, ,,, ; I'' ,·,' 1' ,, !t, 1 ' I ' ,. I: ·1' . ,, 242 1RANSCRJPT!ON AND TRANSLATION Jeronimo de c;arate amo huel xelihuiz yn altepetl ye quin ic cen yn ipan Juebes Sancto nican S. Joseph motlayahualhuizque yn S. Juan baptista. yhua ymiquillitzin S. Diegotzin o yehuatl ipampa yn ynic amo huel onca omotlayahualhuique Sanctome yn monasterio monjas. yn ipan in omoteneuh martes Saneto. yhua in gou0 r mexieo ynie amo ypan moehicauh ytlapacholhuan mexica in miyequintin quinequia oncan tehuan quic;azquia S. Juan inpampa ce oydor anoc;o alkle de corte quixnamic yn omoteneuh gouemador ynic c;an mocauh yuh mihto quimotlaquehui yn fr. Jeronimo. ynic c;a mixcahui motlayahualhui ce yncrucifixotzin cemanahuatl yn ipan moquetztinotiuh yhuan yn inS. Juan baptistatzin espafioles. c;an moquetzinotiuh mahcopatlachialtilitiuh yhua momanepanotzinotiuh 1 yhuan totlac;onantzin - Y. Auh no yhuan yn ipan in Omoteneuh Martes Sancto teotlac yhcuac yequene huel no quizque ynic ceppa [p. 209] Otlayahualloque yn S.tiago tlatilolco tlaca yn cofrades yn itetzinco pohui ynic mopolihuiltia eilhuitl teotl dios Jesus. piltzintli yn motenehua Nifio Jesus Perdido, ynin omoteneuh cofradia. no yhuan yehuatzin ytetinco pohui yn totlac;o­ mahuiznantzin S.ta maria del rrosario ca yuh oquimoneltilili yn Sancto Padre Paulo quinto. yn iuh ytech neztica ome yBullatzin yn quihualmohuiquillique tottatzitzinhuan de La compania de Jesus teatinos. yntla ytlaniliztica mochiuh oc cenca yehuatl y nocniuhtzin diego lopez cuauhtlacuillo in huel ye tlatzintille quimotlallili yni ome omoteneuh cofradia. fundador mihtohua. auh ynic ome tlacatl ytlaytlaniliztica ytlapalehuiliztica mo­ chiuh yehuatzin yn ompa gouernador Don Melchior de Soto. quinmotlatlauhtilli yn omo­ teneuhtzinoque tottatzitzinhuan la compafiia de Jesus. yni quimocuillito Roma. auh ynic yancuican quizij yn ynic tlayahualloque cenca niman mahuiztic hue! cuepontiaque moch yancuic yn andas tlayahuallo yhuan estadartes cuachpanitl yn iuh mochi t!acatl oquittac ynic mochihu in cenca ypan mochicauhque yn omoteneuhque diego lopez. yhuan gou 0 r. auh ynic tlayahualoloc huel motlayacanilitia yn Jesus piltzintli cruz quimoquechpanil­ huitia. auh amo yhuan oncan moquixti amo yhuan oncan motlayahualhui yn totlac;o­ nantzin Rosario yehica quitenhuique yn espanoles yn quimopiallia Rosario oncan teopan S. Domingo cofrades. amo quinecque ynic no quinhuelitiltizque tlatilolca auh cenca huey yn quiyahualloque ynic ompa hualquizque ynchan S.tiago tlatilolco. niman quic;aco Sanct ana ye [p. 210] niman quic;aco S ta catalina Martyr Perochia. ye niman quic;aco S. Do­ mingo. ye niman ahcico oncan yn iglesia mayor. ye niman quic;ato S. ignacio la casa pro­ fessa. ye niman quic;ato S. Franco_ ye niman quic;ato Visitacion monjas. ye niman quic;ato totlaconantzin 2 concepcion monjas ye niman quic;ato Sancta maria cuepopan ye no ceppa ahcito yn inchan S.tiago tlatilolco ynin tlayahualoliztli cenca miec yn tetlapopolhuiliztli indulgencias oncan ytech quicnopilhuia yn aquiq. oncan yntlanequiliztica tlayahuallohua yn quimohuiquilia Nino Jesus. - Y. Auh yn axcan yqu eilhuitl miercoles Sancto teotlac yhcuac yancuican tlayahualloque yn tlacanechicoltin 3 michhuaq. cequi mexica yn oncan yancuic yncofradia oquitlallique hospital real nra sa. de la charidad yn oncan tipahtillo timacehualtin 4 ynin ytech pohui y totlac;onantzin omoteneuhtzino ynic ome cofradia 5can ca S. Nicolas de tolentino yte­ tzinco pohui 5 ynin ye tlayahualloque c;an oc quezquintin yhuan huey yn quiyahualloque 1. Possibly joining his hands in prayer. 2. For "totlac;onantzin." 3. See pp. 240--41 at n. 4. 4. This time timacehualtin is treated as a true first person plural with an agreeing verb. 1613 243 Geronimo de Zarate said, "The altepetl cannot be divided. Not until Maundy Thursday, once and for all, San Juan Bautista and the death of San Diego are to go in procession here at San Josef." It was for this reason, then, that the saints were not able to go in procession at the convent of nuns on the said Holy Tuesday. And the governor in Mexico did not support his Mexica subjects, many of whom wanted to come out with the others at San Juan; because of them a civil judge or a criminal judge of the Audiencia opposed the said governor, so that it was abandoned. It was said that fray Ger6nimo paid him off, so that the only thing going in procession was their [Christ on the] cross standing on the world, and the Spaniards' San Juan Bautista went standing looking upward and crossing his arms, 1 along with Our Precious Mother. - :;_And also the said Holy Tuesday in the afternoon was when at last also [p. 209] the members of the cofradia, people of Santiago Tlatelolco, dedicated to the Child Jesus, the deity and god who was lost for three days, called Nino Jestis Perdido, were able to come out and go in procession once. This said cofradfa is also dedicated to our precious revered mother Santa Maria del Rosario, for thus the Holy Father Paul V confirmed it, as appears in two bulls of his that our fathers of the Company of Jesus, the Theatines, brought back; it was done at the petition especially of my friend Diego L6pez, woodcarver, who was the real beginner, called a founder, who established this said double cofradia. The sec­ ond person at whose petition and with whose help it was done was the governor there, don Melchor de Soto, who asked our said fathers of the Company of Jesus to go to Rome to get [the bulls]. And when these people first came out in procession, it was very splen­ did. There were plenty of explosions [of rockets] as they went along, and new carrying platforms and standards, cloth banners, went in procession, as everyone saw. The said Diego Lopez and the governor were very energetic in bringing it about. As to how the procession was, at the very front the Child Jesus went leading the way, shouldering the cross. But our precious mother of the Rosary didn't come out on that occasion, didn't go in procession along with him, because the Spanish cofradfa members who have a cofradfa of the Rosary at the church of Santo Domingo raised objections to it; they didn't want the Tlatelolca to be given permission too. They went in procession over a very large route; they left from their home base in Santiago Tlatelolco, then they passed by Santa Ana, [p. 2 JO] then they passed by the parish of Santa Catalina Martir, then they passed by Santo Domingo, then they came as far as the cathedral, then they went past the Casa Profesa of San Ignacio, then they went past San Francisco, then they went past the nunnery of the Visitaci6n, then they went past the nunnery of our precious mother 2 of Concepcion, then they went past Santa Marfa Cuepopan, until again they got to their home base in San­ tiago Tlatelolco. Those who went on this procession voluntarily, accompanying the Nifio Jestis, earned thereby very many pardons, indulgences. - Y. Today, the third day, Holy Wednesday, in the afternoon, was when the miscellaneously assembled people 3 from Michoacan and some Mexica went in procession for the first time; they established their new cofradia at the royal hospital of Nuestra Senora de la Caridad, where we commoners are treated; 4 the cofradfa is dedicated to our said precious mother. A second cofradfa there is dedicated to5 San Nicolas de Tolentino; from it only a 5. The words "Nicolas de tolentino ytetzinco pohui" were first omitted, then added in the margin. Since the passage makes no sense without these words, we can deduce that Ch. here was quite mechanically making a new copy from something already existing. ' .,. .I ·1i ',"I ' I ! I 1·, :i 244 TRANSCRIPTION AND1RANSLATION ahcico yglesia mayor - y Auh c;ano ye no ypan in yn omoteneuh miercoles Sancto. teotlac yhcuac oquizque otla­ yahualloque yn S.tiago tlatilolco tlaca yn cofrades yn itetzinco pohui ymiquillitzin to­ tlac;ottatzin S. Franco. no cenca mahuiztic ynic quizq. no cenca cuepontiaque oc ceppa oncan ahcico yn iglesia mayor no yxquich quiyahualloque yn ixquich [p. 211] Omoteneuh tlacpac in yalhua tlayahualloque yn itetzinco pohui Nifio Jesus Perdido, yhuan Rosario y no tlatilolco tlaca y Auh yn axcan ye nahuilhuitl Juebes Sancto. teotlac ynic otlayahualoloc oncan teopan capilla S. Joseph S Franco, ynic mochipa yuh mochihuani cecexiuhtica yn huey tlayahua­ loliztli auh ya nelli oncan omotlayahualhuique oncan oquinmoquixtillique yn omoteneuh­ tzinoque tlacpac S. Juan baptista. motlancuaquetzinotiuh yhuan ymiquillitzin S. Diego­ tzin yn imaxcatzin S. Juan tlaca yn quinmotzacuillica fr. Jeronimo de c;arate ca yuh quito yn oncan motlayahualhuizque yn amo vmpa nepa 1 - y Auh no yhuan yn ipan in omoteneuh Juebes Sancto in Sanctiago, tlatilolco in huey cemaltepetlayahualoliztli ye mochiuh no oncan ahcico yn iglesia mayor yhuan S. Franco quic;ato ynic mocuepque ca no yxquich quiyahualloque yn ixquich omoteneuh tlacpac ye tlayahualloque yn itetzinco pohui Nifio Jesus Perdido yhuan Rosario mopia tlatilolco - y Auh yn axcan ye macuililhuitl Viernes Sancto ce tzillini ye tlathuitiuh oc hue! yohual­ tica yn oquizque ynic yancuican otlayahualloque yea ynetoquillitzin tt0 . dios. yn Sancta cruz contzinco tlaca. c;an yehuatl Dean licencia yhuelitzin quinmomaquilli ypampa pleyto quintlalili quimixnamiquia in hernando de San Martin teuhcxochitzin chane S. Pablo tlachcuititlan amo quinequia ynic noncua tlayahuallozque. c;an quinequia ynic oncan mo­ cenchihuaz yntzontecompa S. Pablo. ynic moteylhui yxpan prouisor doctor Don Juan de Salamanca. ynic amo qui~azque noncua. auh in yehuantin Sancta cruz contzinco tlaca ye o[p. 212]mihto hue! c;a oc yohualtica yn tlayahualloque ynic ayac ceca quimittaz yuhquin c;an ichtaca tlayahuallo ynic possesion conanque yea tlayahualloliztli yhuan ynic atle pena quinhuiquilliz ypampa prouisor yn oquic yxpan catqui yneteylhuil hernando de S. mm teuhcxochitzin. yn nahui tzillin ye ontlayahualloque ye inchan cate yn S ta cruz contzinco tlaca ynic amo cana ohtlipan monepanozquia yn itlayahualloliz netoquiUitzin 2 tt0 dios. quic;a S Pablo yn ipii macuiUi tziUini ye otlathuic. auh macihui yn pleyto oqultlallilica contzinca yn omoteneuh hernando teuhcxochitzin. yn c;atepan ca ohuellitiloq. ynic huel noncua tlayahuallozque mochipa y Auh yhuan in c;a ye no ypan in viernes Sancto ye tlathui yn oquizque yn otlayahual­ loque S.tiago tlatilolco tlaca in motenehua Nazarenos. no yglesia mayor ahcico yhuan S. Franco quic;ato ynic mocuepque y Auh no yhuan yn ipan in omoteneuh viernes Sancto. yohuatzinco yhcuac ye opah otla­ yahualloque yn S.tiago. tlatilolco tlaca cofrades yn itetzinco pohui totlac;onantzin ymi­ quiUitzin motenehua nuestra Senora trasito3 oncan quimohuiquillitiaq andastica mohuetz- 1. The passage might be interpreted as meaning that they could go at that point but not back further in time (when they had wanted to). See the entry for April 2nd on pp. 240-43. 1613 245 few more came along in the procession. They went in procession over a long route, coming as far as the cathedral. - y Likewise the same said Holy Wednesday in the afternoon was when the cofradfa mem­ bers from Santiago Tlatelolco who are dedicated to the death of our precious father San Francisco came out in procession; they too came out in great splendor, they too went shooting off many rockets, again they came as far as the cathedral; they went in pro­ cession over the entire same route [p. 211] as told above that the people dedicated to Nifio Jesus Perdido and the Rosary, also from Tlatelolco, went over yesterday. y Today, the fourth day, Maundy Thursday, in the afternoon, there was a procession at the church and chapel of San Josef at San Francisco, the big procession that is always held every year. And truly in that procession went and were brought out the above mentioned kneeling San Juan Bautista and the death of San Diego, belonging to the people of San Juan, that fray Ger6nimo de Zarate had blocked [from going out]. He said that they could go in procession [in the immediate area of San Josef?], but not beyond that. 1 - y And also on the said Maundy Thursday in Santiago Tlatelolco the great general altepetl procession was held; it too came as far as the cathedral and went by San Francisco before turning, for it too went in procession over the entire route mentioned above for those who are dedicated to Nifio Jesus Perdido and the Rosary that is kept in Tlatelolco. - y Today, the fifth day, Good Friday, at I o'clock in the morning, while it was still full nighttime, the people of Santa Cruz Contzinco came out and went in procession for the first time with the burial of our lord God. Only the dean [of the cathedral chapter] had given them his permission, for which reason Hernando de San Martfn Teucxochitzin, citizen of San Pablo Tlachcuititlan, brought suit against them, opposing them. He didn't want them to go in procession separately, but wanted them to join together with their cabecera, San Pablo, so he brought suit before the vicar general doctor don Juan de Sala­ manca so that they would not come out separately. But it was already said that the people of Santa Cruz Contzinco [p. 212] went in procession while it was still fully night, so that no one would see them very well, as though they were going in procession secretly, whereby they took possession [of the right to hold] processions, and so it would not bring them a fine, because the litigation brought by Hernando de San Martin Teuc­ xochitzin was still pending before the vicar general. At 4 o'clock the people of Santa Cruz Contzinco had already gone in procession and were back home, to avoid meeting somewhere along the way with the procession of the burial of2 our lord God that came out from San Pablo at 5 o'clock in the morning. But although the said Hernando Teuc­ xochitzin had brought the suit against the Contzinca, afterward they were given perpetual permission to go in procession all by themselves. y And on the same Good Friday, at dawn, the people of Santiago Tlatelolco called Naza­ renes came out in procession; they too came as far as the cathedral and went past San Francisco before returning. y And also on the said Good Friday, very early in the morning, was when for the second time the cofradfa members from Santiago Tlatelolco who are dedicated to the death of our precious mother, called Nuestra Sefiora del Transito,3 went in procession. They went 2. For "inetoquillitzin." 3. See pp. 74-75 at n. 2. ' i: ! !i I :I 1·1 :I 'I ! I ' I, ., I ' I:·•' '!_'.' 'i :t:,, 246 TRANSCRIITION AND TRANSLATION iltihtiuh ypan chicome tzillini yn oncan ahcico huey teopan yglesia Mayor. ye quiniuhti much oncan tecpantia quihuicatiaque yn izqui tlamantli in huey. in ohui, in mahuiztic yn itlamahui<;ollotzin yn imisteriosyotzin tlahtocaychpochtli S.ta Maria ynic yehuatzin Sprn Sancto, miec tlamantli ca yqu expa oyezquia y intla tlayahualoloni ye ce xihuitl 1 !p. 213] Yqu itechpatzinco quimopohtilitzinohua, quimonenehuililia yn omoteneuhtzino tlahtoca­ ychpuchtli, yn itechpatzinco quimotlachieltilia, yn hue! ytechtzinco pohui yn teotlamati­ liztlamahui,;olli y nican motenehua 2 ypan ye tlayahualoloc ynic centlamantli3 yehuatl yn imachiyoilnamicocatzin yn inezcatlahtollotzin yn ichipahuacanenacayotiliztlacatililo­ catzin4 motenehua limpia concepcion yn itech pohui 5 ye in tonatiuh. in Metztli. yn huey citlalli tlathuinahuac hualquic;a. in tlatzacuilotl tzauhctiuh, yn iteocaltzin 6 tt 0 . dios. ynic ahuaztli ylhuicac. in i;oyatl. yn azetonasquahuitl. 7 yn ahuehuetl, yn tlatzca. yn tezcatl. yn castillan tulpatlachuitztecolxochitl 8 lilio. yn xuchitl Rosa. yn quilmiltepancalli huerto. in hue! tzauctica, yn ameyalli fuente in hue! tlatzauhctli. yhuan yn oc cequi tlamantli yte­ tzinco nezcamachiyotlahtoa tlahtocaychpuchtli concepcion. moch oncan quiquixtique yn. auh macihui yn o muchi mahuiznec 9 in ypan tlayahualloliztli. yece camo ynemacpan yn oncan muchi necizquia. yehica ypampa ca i;an mixcahuiya yn axcan molnamiqui ymiqui­ liztlayhiyohuiliztonehuitzin yPassiontzin tt 0 . dios. ca tel yehuantzitzin quimomachiltia yn teopixque yn oquimocelilique yn iuh mochihuaz yn iuh tlayahuallozij. omoteneuhque totlai;onantzin ipilhuantzitzin no huey yn quiyahualloque S. Fran" 0 • quii;ato ynic mocuepij. ynchan S.tiago y_ Auh yhuan yn ax can ypan in omoteneuh viernes Sancto yn oncan teopan S. Domingo ye oquixohuac ynic otlayahua!p. 214]Ioloc teotlac yn iuh mochipa mochiuhtiuh cece­ xiuhtica ynic oquimotoquillique yn imiquilizyxiptlatzin tt0 • dios yn intech ponhui ynic ompa quii;a espai\oles. auh no onca quiniuhti tlayacac quinmanque quiyacatihtiaque ynic tlayahualoloc in timacehualti yn mixteca tlacanechicolti1° yn oynnemactic yn oconanque yncapilla catca tliltique yn oquixtilliloque yn cofradia vmpa quipiaya auh ynic niman yehuantin oynnemactic omacoij. ynin omoteneuh capilla yn omoteneuhque mixteca ynic oncan oquitlallique yncofradia yn itetzinco pohui totlai;onantzin Rosario. ynic otlayahua­ loloc axcan yehuatzin oquimohuiquilliij. omotlayahualhui yn omoteneuhtzino i;an achi tepitzin yn totlai;onantzin Rosario ymaxca macehualti - y_ Auh no yhuan yn ipan in omoteneuh viemes Sancto ye teotlac in Santiago tlatilolco yn imiquiliztlayahualoliztococatzin 11°. Dios. quin iyopa axcan hue! oncan quimaxitillico yn iglesia mayor. ynic otlayahualloque tlatilulca yn aye onca huallacini cecexiuhtica cenca mahuiztic ynic tecpantia muchi ypassiontzin tt 0 . Dios. ynin <;a hue! quitzacuico tla­ yahualoliztli ynic nica quiz,;aco 11 ca achto muchiuh nohuiyan yn izquican nican tenoch­ titlan ye tlayahualoloc. auh ,;an no S. Franco qui,;ato ynic mocuepque ynchan S.tiago I. The portion in the Nahuatl from "ca yqu expa" to "ce xihuitl" and in the English the part within em dashes was added in the margin. 2. Some of these things are doubtless treated differently in standard church writing. 3. The words "inic centlamantli" are marked over what was apparently "izqui tlaman­ tli," "each of the different things." 4. This word is extraordinarily complex and probably barely grammatical; Carochi complained of the excesses of Nahuatl speakers of his time in creating unwieldy com­ pounds when it came to religious matters. It might be possible grammatically, though hardly logically, to construe Mary as the possessor of the compound. 1613 247 taking her along reclining on a carrying platform. It was at 7 o'clock that they got as far as the great church here, the cathedral. It was the first time that there were lined up and they went along carrying all the different great, difficult, splendid marvels and mysteries of the queenly maiden Santa Maria,-it would have been the third time if it had been taken in procession a year ago- 1 !p. 213] by which the Holy Spirit equated and compared for the said queenly maiden, by which he made her see, that belong to the marvels of the­ ology and are mentioned here,2 they went in procession with all the different ones: first,3 tl1e commemoration of the sign and the announcement of [God's) purely taking on the form of flesh and being born,4 called the Immaculate Conception, to which belong 5 the sun, the moon, and the great star that comes out close to dawn [Venus], when the gate of our lord God's temple6 is closing, as a ladder to heaven; the palm tree; the olive tree;7 the cypress; the mirror; the Spanish flower from a broad-leafed water plant, 8 the lily; the rose; the enclosure for a field of green plants, a garden, entirely enclosed; a spring or fountain, fully enclosed; they brought out all this and other things that speak symbolically of the royal maiden of the Conception. And although everything had a splendid appearance 9 in the procession, nevertheless it was not in the permitted time that it all should appear there, because now people were concentrating on remembering the sufferings in death, the passion, of our lord God; but the religious who accepted it know best about how it is to be done and how the said children of our precious mother are to go in procession. They too went around a long route; they went past San Francisco, from where they returned to their home base of Santiago. y_ And also today on the said Good Friday a procession came out from the church of Santo Domingo !p. 214] in the afternoon as is always done every year, in which they buried the image of the death of our lord God that belongs to the Spaniards coming out from there. And also for the first time they put us commoners who were Mixtecs, gathered from var­ ious places,'° in the lead, at the front of the procession. They have been granted and took what used to be the chapel of the blacks, from whom the cofradia they had there was taken away, and then the said Mixtecs were granted and given this said chapel, so that they established there their cofradia, dedicated to our precious mother of the Rosary, so that in the procession today the commoners took along in procession our said precious mother of the Rosary, though rather small, that belongs to them. - y_ And also on the said Good Friday, in the afternoon, there was a procession for the burial of the death of our lord God from Santiago Tlatelolco; today was the first time that the Tlatelolca brought [the image] all the way to the cathedral in procession, as they had never done each year previously. It was very marvelous how the whole passion of our lord God went lined up. This brought to an end all the processions that have passed by" here, for all the different processions here in Tenochtitlan were perfonned first. They too went 5. With which are associated? 6. Meaning the sky? 7. In "azetonasquahuitl," it appears that thee may have been meant to be changed to i, so that aceitunas was intended. 8. The Nahuatl word is literally rush-wide-dark dye-flower. 9. ln "mahuiznec" the c, taken as preceding i, is equivalent to z. 10. Here Ch. says "timacehualti," "we commoners," even though the Mixteca are in­ volved. See also pp. 240--41 at n. 4. 11. For "qui~aco." Ii, 111: :,1:i iii I ,•,, 1: I '' , •,, ' :I! ' ,,1'· '[' \ 248 1RANSCRIPT!ON AND 1RANSLATION tlatilulco - y_ Auh axcan lunes ye omilhuitl xochipascua [p. 215] de Resurreccion ynic .8. mani Metztli Abril de 1613 afios yhcuac ohuallathuic otemictiloc yn carcel de carte ey tlacatl yn omictiloque ome espafiolti ce alcayde ynic ome bastonero. yn iqu ey tlacatl mulato yehuatl in quintlatlaliliaya tepoztli crillos y tlatlacolleque quincallaquia oncar 1 carcel auh yn omoteneuh alcayde ynic quimictique c;an quicocotecque niman onca ye momiquilli auh yn oc omentin c;an quixixilque ynic quinmictique yohualtica auh in temictique c;an timacehualtin ylpiticatca ychtecque yeyntin quinequia yn oncan cholozquia carcel de carte quitlatlapoticauhtiazquia y tlatzacuilotl yntla huel mochihuani auh amo yuh quimone­ quiltitzino yn tt0 . Dios. atle nez y llaue y tlatlapolloni otlihcapa ynic quitlapozquia ynic quic;azquia. ynic c;a oncan omocauhque oanoque ontzacualloque yequene auh ynin aye yuhqui ceppa omuchiuh yn iuhqui oquichiuhque yehuantin in ynic oncan in cenca ye otechtlahuelilocamatque yn espafioles. auh yn omoteneuhque mimieeatzitzinti ye quin martes ypan tocoque yn innaeayo. y_ Auh axcan Juebes ynie ii. mani metztli Abril de 1613 afios. ye teotlac yheuac niean Mexico. moeallaquieo ynie hualmocueptzino in yehuatzin eenca mahuiztililoni in ye teopixcatlahtohuani omochiuhtzinoto elerigo Don Pedro de otalora Presidete audieneia real Mexico. ynic ompa omohuicaya omoteochiuhtzinoto la ciudad de los Angeles cuitlaxeo­ huapan yn ica epistola yhuan yea Euangelio. yhuan yea yn missa oquimoehihuilli c;an oppa yea yn oquimoteochihuilli ynic ee quaresma oquiz yn obispo Don Alonso de la mota y eseobar. ca yuh hualmotlanahuatilli yn Sancto Padre. ynic c;an eilhuitl [p. 216] Teo­ chihualoz. auh macihui yn iuh quihualmotlalili yn ytlanahuatiltzin Sancto Padre. yn iuh ycatzinco muchihuaz Sefior Don Pedro de otalora. yece ca ye quin ipan Dominiga in Passion 2 tlamico yn ineteochihuallitzin ynic missa quimochihuillico vmpa cuitlax­ cohuapan de la compafiia de Jesus yn aye yuhqui oyttoc nican Mexico ce Pressidente ah­ nrn;o ce oydor clerigo omuchiuh yn iuh yehuatzin omuchiuhtzinoco axcan Omoteneuh­ tzino Senor Don Pedro de otalora yhuan amo ye oquimocahuilli yn itequitzin ynic c;an ya Pressidente omochiuhtzinoco audiencia real Mexico ca yuh quimonequiltitzinohua yn to­ hueytlahtocatzin Rey moyetztica espafia. auh yn ixquich ica quaresma yn oquic ayemo tlamia yneteochihualiztzin huel yxquichcauh vmpa moyetzticatca yn cuitlaxcohuapan. c;an ic ompa quihualmihtalhuitehuac in yancuic missa ynic nima ohualmohuicac nican Me­ xico quimochihuillico yn itlahtocatequitzin ynic Pressidente 3 y_ Auh axcan Viernes ynic 12. mani Metztli Abril de 1613 afios. yhcuac piloloq. eintin timacehualtin matlactli tzillini yn tlacah. oquinhualquixtique yn carcel de carte yn omo­ teneuhque ychteque timacehualtin yn oncan omoteneuh tlacpac carcel de carte temictique yn quinmictique yey tlacatl ome espaiiol ce mulato ye omihto yn espaiiolti micque ce alcayde ynic ome Bastonero. auh ynic oncan carcel de carte quinhualquixtique quincuauh­ tlapechhuique4 yhuan caualloti yncuitlapiltitech hualilpitia yn incuauhtlapech ynic quinhuillanq. ynic oncan quimaxitoco tepilolcuauhtitlan tlanepantla ynepantla yn oc cequi tepilolcuahuitl oncan mani chicuetetl, auh yn o yuh oncan quimaxitico ye niman ceceyaca [p. 217] Cecenme yn inyeccancopamacpal quintehtequillique auh achtopa quimiyx­ quimilloque ynic quinmacpaltetecque ynic quinmacpaltlazque, auh in ye o yuh quimonma- 1. For "oncan." 2. Stafford Poole informs us that at this time Passion Sunday was two weeks before Easter. 1613 249 by San Francisco before returning to their home base in Santiago Tlatelolco. - y_ Today, Monday, the day after Easter, [p. 215] on the 8th of the month of April, in the night before morning, there were killings in the court jail; three people were killed: two Spaniards, one a jailer, and the second one a jailer's assistant; the third was a mulatto who used to put shackles on the criminals they put 1 in the jail. They killed the said jailer by cutting his throat; he died of it there immediately. The other two they stabbed. It was night when they killed them. The killers were [ of] us commoners, three thieves who were in custody. They wanted to escape from the court jail; they were going to go leaving the door open, if it had been possible, but our lord God did not want it so. The keys to the outside with which they were going to open the door and come out couldn't be found, so 'they were just left there; finally they were seized and locked up. Nothing like this, like what these fellows did, had ever happened before; because of it the Spaniards thought very badly of us. The bodies of the said dead people were not buried until Tuesday. y_ Today, Thursday the I Ith of the month of April of the year of 1613, in the afternoon, was when the very reverend don Pedro de Otalora, president of the Royal Audiencia of Mexico, who has now become a priestly ruler and a secular priest, entered Mexico here coming back from having gone to the City of the Angels, Puebla, to be ordained as sub­ deacon, deacon, and full priest able to say mass. During the celebration of one Lent the bishop don Alonso de la Mota y Escobar ordained him only twice, for the Holy Father had sent orders that he was to be ordained in only three days. [p. 216] But although the Holy Father issued orders that it should be done so with sefior don Pedro de Otalora, nevertheless it was not until Passion Sunday 2 that his ordination was finished, so that he performed mass in Puebla at the Company of Jesus. It had never been seen before here in Mexico that a president or judge of the Royal Audiencia became a secular priest as the just mentioned senor don Pedro de Otalora did. And he did not thereby relinquish his office that he was appointed to as president of the Royal Audiencia of Mexico, for so our great ruler the king who is in Spain wishes it. As long as it was Lent, before his ordination was finished, he stayed in Puebla; he left only after having said mass for the first time, and then he came back here to Mexico to perform his governmental duty as president.' y Today, Friday the 12th of the month of April of the year 1613, three of us commoners were hanged. At 10 o'clock in the morning the said thieves, [of] us commoners, were brought out of the court jail, the ones mentioned above who killed people in the said court jail, killing three people, two Spaniards and one mulatto; it was already said that the dead Spaniards were a jailer and second an assistant jailer. As they were brought out of the court jail, a wooden platform 4 was used to carry them, and horses went along with their tails tied to their platform to drag them along and bring them in among the gallows, in the middle of the other eight gallows that are spread out there. When they had brought them there, they cut off the right hand of each of them. [p. 217] But first they bound their eyes before they cut off and struck off their hands; when they had cut off their hands, they 3. Compare with the partially identical passage on pp. 236-37. 4. Or separate wooden platforms? ·,1 . ,I Ii l ., 250 1RANSCRIITION AND 1RANSLA110N matecque ye niman pilloloque yehuatl ytech yn omoteneuh tlayolloco tlanepantla mani ye huecauh tepilolcuahuitl yn oncan tecpan quiyahuac yhuan xexeloloque yn innacayo yhuan yn intzoteco quincocotonillique, auh oncan ycpac yn omoteneuh tepilolcuahuitl quintlal­ lique yhuan yn inmacpaepal1 quintetequillique onean ytlan yhuan tepilolcuauhtitech te­ poztica2 quitetetzotzonque auh yn intzonteco oncan cenpohuallonce tonatiuh yn cacatca tepilolcuauhtitech, auh ye ic omilhuitl mani metztli Mayo Juebes ypan yn quintocaco oncan hospital de la misericordia y Axcan Juebes ynic .9. mani Metztli Mayo de 1613. afios yhcuac ,an iciuhca miquiliz­ tica xuxouhcamiquiliztica yxtomamiquiliztica 3 momiquilli yn Secretario Martin de agurto cenca yeyca neyc;ahuilloc - y Axcan 4 Sabado ynic .ii. mani Metztli Mayo de 1613 afios. yhcuac ohualla yancuica tlahtolli yn espafia. yuh machiztico yuh mihto yn tohueytlahtocatzin Rey Don Felipe tercero quihualmotzacuillia yn alla china acalli yn ompa yxquich tlamantli tlatquitl nican Mexico quihualhuicani yn ohualquic;aya oncan huey atenco acapolco. yuh omihto aocmo oncan quic;aquiuh c;a nepa ye ye yaz qui! vmpa quic;atiuh in motenehua Portugal ynic moch ompa yaz espafia in la china tlatquitl quimottiliz yn omoteneuhtzino Rey - ynic c;atcpan nican Mexico huallaz - [p. 218] y Axcan Domingo ynic .12. mani Metztli Mayo de 1613 afios. yhcuac yancuican mote­ nextillitzinoque yn oncan capilla S. Joseph. S. Franco_ ynic hualmocallaquique yn Padre fr. Jua Mac;urra yehuatzin in Capellan mochiuhtzinoco yn oncan omoteneuh S. Joseph. yhuan ytlantzinco oncan quihualla(j. yn telpuchtli padre fr. Sebastian de garibai yn­ temachticauh muchiuh in Mexica, auh yn fr. Jeronimo de c;arate yhcuac quiz yn capillero catca teohuacan yah. auh ynic nican quic in Mexico yn tenochca yuhquin ceuhtiaque yn ipampa yuh omoteneuh tlacpac ynic cenca otlatollinico mexico. ynic nican oyeco to­ ttatzin yn ayac ceppa ce guardian yuh nican otlachihuaco in ye yxquich ica ahcico teopix­ que S. Franco nican ciudad Mexico nueua espafia - y Axcan Viernes ynic 17. mani Metztli Mayo de 1613. afios yhcuac Nican Mexico on­ peuh ynic yauh espafia yn Dofia Maria de dircios ycnocihuatl yn inamic catca Don Jua altamirano comendador S.tiago catca auh ynin omoteneuh cihuapilli ynic ompa yah qui­ hualnotz yn ittatzin tlahtohuani Don luis de Velasco marques de Salinas. yhuan Pressi­ dente muchiuhtica in motenehua del consejo de indias yn ompa espafia, auh ynic quihual­ notz in ychpuch yuh mihto yuh machiztico vmpa quinamictiz yn espafia auh ynin omo­ teneuh cihuapilli ynic ompa yah espafia c;an quincauhtia yeytin yn ipilhuan ynic ce yehuatl yn Don femando altamirano comendador S.tiago. auh yn oc omentin monjastin oncan cate yntlan [p. 219] Yn imahuitzitzinhuan yn oncan monasterio totlac;onantzin Re­ gina Angelorum y Axcan Viernes ynic .31. mani ytlamian yn Metztli Mayo de 1613. afios yhcuac yn omiquico yn Maria ycnocihuatl xocoatolnamacac ynin ynamic yn franCO tlatzonqui Sastre catca nican chaneque ytepotzco yn teopantli yn icaltzin yn notlac;omahuiztatzin S. Antonio Abbad Motenehua tlaxillacalli xulloco. auh yn omoteneuh Maria xucoatol­ namacac ynic miquico ca yuh mihto yuh ypan machoc ytechcopa quihtoque y nican tlaca 1. For "inmacpal." 2. Or something else of iron? 3. See the earlier examples of the use of these words (pp. 172-73, 214-15, 232-33); 1613 251 were hanged on the said gallows that was in the middle and had been there for a long time outside the palace, and their bodies were cut into parts and their heads cut off and placed on top of the said gallows along with their hands 1 that had been cut off, beside them; they hammered them to the gallows with iron [nails].2 Their heads were on the gallows for 21 days, and on Thursday, the 2nd day of the month of May, they were brought to be buried at the hospital of Misericordia. Y Today, Thursday the 9th of the month of May of 1613, was when the secretary Martin de Agurto quickly died an unexpected and premature death,3 about which people were greatly shocked. - y Today, 4 Saturday the 11th of the month of May of the year 1613, was when news came from Spain and it became known and was said that our great ruler the king don Felipe III is closing off the ship to China [the Philippines] that has customarily brought goods of all kinds from there to Mexico here, that docked at Acapulco on the ocean shore. It was said that it will no longer come to dock there, but will go in the other direction and re­ portedly will go to dock in Portugal, as it is called, so that all the goods from China will go to Spain and the said king will inspect them, so that they will be brought to Mexico here afterward. - [p. 218] y Today, Sunday the 12th of the month of May of the year 1613, was when, at the chapel of San Josef at San Francisco, was first revealed the entry of father fray Juan Mazurra, appointed chaplain at the said San Josef, and along with him was brought the young father fray Sebastian de Garibay, who became the preacher to the Mexica. And at that time fray Geronimo de Zarate, the former chaplain, left and went to Teohuacan. When he left Mexico here, it was as though the Tenochca were relieved, because of how, as was men­ tioned above, our father greatly mistreated everyone in Mexico since he came here, as no father guardian had ever done in the whole time since Franciscan friars first reached the city of Mexico here in New Spain. - Y Today, Friday the 17th of the month of May of the year 1613, was when dona Marfa de Ircio, widow, who was the spouse of don Juan Altamirano, late comendador of Santiago, set out from Mexico here to go to Spain. The reason the said noblewoman is going is that her father the ruler don Luis de Velasco, Marques of Salinas, appointed president in the said Council of the Indies in Spain, summoned her from there. The reason he summoned his daughter, it was said and made public, was to marry her [to someone] in Spain. On going to Spain this said lady left behind three children: the first don Hernando Altamirano, comendador of Santiago, and the other two are nuns who are with [p. 219] their aunts at the nunnery of our precious mother Regina Angelorum. y Today, Friday the 31st, the end of the month of May of the year 1613, was when Marfa, a widow and seller of bitter atole, died. She was the spouse of the late Francisco, a tailor, and they lived here behind the church, the house of my precious revered father San Antonio Abad, [in] the tlaxilacalli of Xoloco, as it is called. The reason that the said Marfa, seller of bitter atole, died, as was said and found out about it, and the local people the meaning quick, premature death is very clear here because of the presence of iciuhca, "soon, fast, quick." 4. This paragraph is lightly crossed out in the original. :: ' Ii '-1· ,' 252 1RANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION ypan tlaxillacalli ca ,an icuallantzin y9omaltzin ytetzin ycuauhtzin in tt0 . Dios quihual­ mihualli ypan yn omoteneuh cihuatzintli, auh yehica ypampa ytech tlahtohuaya ytech acia yn imahui9otzin Sancta cruz. ca quimixnamictica amo quinequia ynic oncan qui­ moquechilizque ohtlipan Yn axcan 1 oncan oquimoquechilique ohnepantla yn icaltepa espafiol hernan mm ynin omoteneuhtzino Sancta cruz. ca ymaxcatzin yehuantin yntla­ quetzaltzin yn tocniuhtzitzinhuan yn toteyccauhtzitzinhuan Juan morales yhua yn iyome Bernabe de S. Jeronimo cuechiuhque yhuan incepantlatquitzin oc cequi tlacatl mexica ni­ can chaneque xulloco macihui yn amo muchintin nican ytech pouhticate omoteneuh tla­ xillacalli xulloco. Auh ca yuhqui yn yn omochiuh yn axcan ye caxtolli ypan vierues catca in yehuantin omoteneuhque Juan morales yhuan Bernabe de S Jeronimo yhuan yn oc ce­ qui tlacatl yhcuac on[p. 220]Can quitequipanohuaya. yn imomuz90 yez. yn ipan quimo­ quechilizque omoteneuhtzino Sancta cruz. qui9allohuaya. auh in yehuatl omoteneuh Maria xucoatolnamacac Justicia canato seral moteylhuito yxpan yn coregidor Don Martin ceron quinteylhuito yn omoteneuhque Juan morales. yhuan Bernabe de S Jeronimo ca no90 hue! yehuantin yn ipan muchicahua ynic tequipanohua tla,allohua yn oncan omoteneuh yn cal­ tepa2 ohnepantla. auh ynin ohtli quimaxcatiaya yn omoteneuh cihuatl Maria xucoatol­ namacac ypampa yn moteylhuito. Quito camo vel mochihuaz yn onca moijtzaz cruz ivan quihtohuaya ca ye cualli ytla onca qmoquelizq3 cruz ma ,an itlatzin nechtlaocollican tomintzin cane! naxca n tlalli ypa quitlalia momuztli auh ca amo nelli yn iaxca cane! ohtli auh yece amo nelli yn iaxca ca no,o otli.4 auh yn o yuh moteylhuito omoteneuh cihuatl ye niman ce alguacil espafiol quihualtitlan yn coregidor. quimanaco oncan yn tlatequipanohuaya yn omoteneuhque Juan morales yhuan bernabe de S. Jeronimo. amo yhuiyan yn quimanaco ca quinmamaylpica ymomextin auh ,a yntepantlahtolliztica yn espafioles nican chaneq vezinos5 ynic quintonque ynic c;a matontiaque quinhuicaque Seral vmpa quimi]pizquia. auh in yehuatl omoteneuh Maria xucoatolnamacac cenca quintzatza­ tzillitihuia amo hue! mihtoz motenehuaz yn ixquich acualli ayectli tencuicuitlatlahtolli ye quimahuatihuia cenca quinmahuizpollotihuia cane! cihuatl, auh amo ,an ice! ynin cihuatl yhuan ymon yn moteylhuiij. auh in yehuantin in omoteneuhque ylpilozquia Sera! ,an hualmocuepato Sera! quiyahuac amo hue! quintzacque ytepantlahtolizticatzinco yn Padre fr. Augustin del Spiritu Sancto. y nican quimopiallia teopancalli S. Antonio Abbad. quin­ mottili oncan yn Sera! quiyahuac [p. 221] Yn quinhuicaya yniqu ilpillozquia omoteneuh­ que Juan morales. auh ye niman oncan quinmolhuilli yn coregidor yhuan escriuano Juan Perez de Ribera yhuan nahuatlahtlahto 6 ma xicmomachiltican ca nehuatl nitestigo. ynin cihuatl Maria ca ,an oamechmoztlacahuillico ynic oquitoco yn yaxca ytlatqui yn tlalli ypan quimoquechiliznequi Sancta cruz. Yz cate oanoto. ca ohtlipan ohnepantla yn quitlal­ lia yn qui,allohua momuztli yn 5can ypan quimoquechilizque Sancta cruz. ayac aquin in yaxcapan. ma motta. auh in yehuantin omoteneuhque ylpillozquia ,an ic huallihualloij. quimilhuiij. ayatle xicchihuacan ma oc nenemi n pleyto. auh yn o yuh hualnahuatilloque I. Or recently. 2. One could write "yncaltepa" and translate "their said houses." 3. For "ijmoquechilizq." 4. The portion beginning "Quito camo" and ending "cane! ohtli" in the Nahuatl, and in the English beginning "saying" and ending "is the road" is added between the !mes and m the margin. Hence the repetition. Once again we have an indication that Ch. was copying from something else. 1613 253 here in the tlaxilacalli said in this connection, was that our lord God sent down his anger, wrath, and punishment on the said woman. It was because she talked about [disparag­ ingly] and impinged on reverence for the holy Cross, for she opposed and did not want the erection of the one that has now 1 been erected in the road intersection outside the house of the Spaniard Hernan Martin. This said holy Cross was the property of and was raised by our friends and younger brothers Juan Morales and Bernabe de San Ger6nimo, who are married to sisters and are skirt makers, and it also belonged jointly to some other Mcxica who live here in Xoloco, although not all of them belong to the said tlaxilacalli of Xoloco here. Here is what happened fifteen days ago, on a Friday: at that time the said Juan Morales and Bernabe de San Ger6nimo and the others were working on [p. 220] what was to be the platform on which the said holy Cross was to be erected; they were putting it together. But the said Marfa, seller of bitter atole, went to get the officers of the law. She went to make a complaint at the municipal building before the corregidor don Martin Cer6n; she accused the said Juan Morales and Bernabe de San Ger6nimo of being the very ones who were behind working and setting things up there next to the said houses2 in the road intersection. And the said woman Marfa, seller of bitter atole, claimed this road as her property, which is why she went to make the complaint, saying, "It cannot be done that a cross be erected there." She also said, "Very well, if they erect 3 a cross there, Jet them concede me just a bit of money, since the land on which they are placing the plat­ form is my property." But it is not in truth her property, for it is the road. But it is not in truth her property, for there is no doubt that it is the road.4 After the said woman went to make a complaint, the corregidor sent a Spanish constable who came to arrest the said Juan Morales and Bernabe de San Geronimo, who were working there. They did not take them gently, for they tied the hands of both of them. It was only at the intercession of the Spaniards who live here, the vecinos,5 that they untied them, and it was with hands untied that they took them to the municipal building, where they were going to keep them in custody. And the said Marfa, seller of bitter atole, went along shouting loudly at them; all the bad and filthy language with which she went scolding at them cannot be said or told. She showed great disrespect for them, for she is a woman. But it was not this woman a­ lone; her son-in-law made the complaint along with her. The said [Juan Morales and Bernabe de San Geronimo] were going to be detained in the municipal building, but they were brought back outside the building, and they were not able to lock them up because of the intercession of father fray Agustin del Espiritu Santo, who is in charge of the church of San Antonio Abad here. He saw them outside the municipal building [p. 221] as the said Juan Morales [and Bernabe de San Geronimo] were being taken off to be in custody, and then he said to the corregidor and the notary Juan Perez de Ribera and the interpreter, 6 "May you know that I am a witness that this woman Marfa deceived you when she came saying that the land on which they want to erect the holy Cross is her property. It is in the road, in the intersection that these people here whom they went to arrest are setting up and putting together the platform on which they are to raise the holy Cross. It is not on anyone's property; let it be inspected." And the said people who were going to be detained were sent back; they told them, "Don't do anything yet, let the suit 5. Although meaning only "citizen," the Spanish word vecino was ordinarily used for non-indigenous residents only. 6. For "nahuatlahto." '1',, , I 'I 1:11 ,, i:'1 ,, 1:Ji 'I I I I , 1, I i I :,1 1,1 1.i';I ,I; 1, 11, l,',.''.I ,11, I, 1 11 '''.I' I' I 1!: 11' I 1,1: 11 '.::11111 I ! , I' 'I. I I 1• 11,, ii I ·,, i ' ,I I I I"' jl' !11 I : , r' ' I' ,·, ·I '' 254 1RANSCRIPTION AND 1RANSLATION ye niman yhuicpatzinco Visurrey quinmohuiquilli yn Padre fr. Augustin de! Spm Sancto yn omoteneuhque Jua morales yhuan yn oc cequintin ynic yehuatzin Visurrey don diego fernandez de cordoua marques de guada 1 quimitlanililique yhuellitzin licencia quinmo­ maquilli ynic hue! quiquetzazque S.ta cruz. yn oncan ypan omoteneuh ohtli ynic quimix­ namiquia omoteneuh cihuatl auh yn o yuh hualmotlanahuatilli yn ohualmofirmatitzino Visurrey. ye niman tlanque yn quic;alloque momuztli quicencauhque. auh in quimol­ huichihuillilique y moteochiuhtzino S.ta cruz yancuic nican teopan S. Anton ypan Do­ mingo espm pascua ynic 26. mani Metztli Mayo, yehuatzin quimoteochihuilli yn cenca mahuiztililoni Padre ye omotocateneuhtzino fr. Augustin de! Spm Sancto. cenca tlama­ huiztililiztica tlayahualoliztica yn quimoquechillito oncan omoteneuh ypan omochiuh yancuic momuztli yn ihcuac yn ye mococohua cenca ye tlanahui yn omoteneuh cihuatl xucoatolnamacac. auh yhuan ynic moquetzino ynin omote[p. 222]neuhtzino S. ta cruz. no yhuan yhuellitzin ylicenciatzin quimotemaquilli yn provisor Doctor Don Juan de Sala­ maca. ca quimitlanililique ynic huel moquetzino S.ta cruz. auh yn omoteneuh maria xuco- atolnamacac ynic momiquillico amo huecauhtica quitztia yn imo ytoca catca ____ no momiquilli ca noc;o quipalehuiaya yn omoteneuh ymonnan ynic moteylhuica y_ Auh yn ayemo muchihuaya y yn omoteneuh yn quin tontlami ticpohua yn otocon­ icuilloque neyxnamiquiliztlahtolli muchiuh yn iuh moteylhuica omoteneuh Maria xuco­ atolnamacac yn itechcopa Sancta cruz. auh ca yzcatqui oc no centlamantli achtopa omu­ chiuh c;iino nican ypii tlaxillacalli xulloco yhuan mihtohua acatla yn oc centlapal nepa calnacazco ycalnahuac yn espaiiol diego Senete. in yehuatl in omoteneuh espanol yhuan ynamic ytoca Mariana Rodriguez espanola oquichiuhque neyxnamiquiliztli yn ipehuayan in omoteneuh Metztli Mayo. ynic c;ii no ytechpa tlahtoque ytech acique yn imahuic;otzin oc ce Sancta cruz. ynic ycatzinco. quimixnamicque yn omoteneuh oncan tlaca tlaxillacal­ lcque yn imaxcatzin omoteneuh Sancta cruz. in cenca ye huecauh yn oncan quimoque­ chillitiaque yn inttahuan huehuetque catca. auh in yehuantin omoteneuhque espanol diego Senete yhuan ynamic Mariana Rodriguez. oc cenca yehuatl in yn Senora quimixnamicti. Sancta cruz. amo quinequia yrnomextin ynic oncan yncalnahuac yncaltitlan moquetzino­ ticaz. cruz. auh macihui yn oncan in chaneq. ca ye momati ca ~an calcohuani tel ye hue­ cauh yn oncii cate ynic chancate c;an oc tepitzin y calli ye catca. auh yn axcan ayemo huecauh yn oc cequi miccacalli ynic netech [p. 223] <;aliuhtica yncal oquimonnamaquil­ titevac yhuan yn fray Jeronimo de c;arate yn capillero ocatca S. Joseph S. Franco ayemo huecauh yn ihcuac ayemo yuh quic;a. ynic possesio quinmacaco yn icuac fiscal catca Don Antonio Valleriano yn axcan ye gou0 r azcaputzalco yn ica calli ynic c;a concenmanque ye huecauh yncal, yece amo yhuan quinnamaquilti yhua amo yhuan ypan possesio ye maco­ que yn omoteneuh tlalli yn ipan moquetzinoticac Sancta cruz. auh neh yn omoteneuhque espaiiol diego Senete yhuan ynamic ye muchi quimaxcatia y tlalli ynic ye quincahualtia omoteneuhque tlaxillacalleque quimilhuique xiquixtican yn amocruz. ca ya taxca yn tlalli ypan moquetzinoticac oticohuillique yn fray Jeronimo de c;arate. auh in yehuantin nican tlaxillacalleque amo yuh quimatticatca yntla yhuan oquinnamaquilti tottatzin tlalli c;an ic cuallanque yn quicacque tlaxillacalleque ynic oncan ye quinquixtiliznequi yncruztzin ynic ye mixnamiqui, auh yn oc cenca yehuatl ye tlahtohua moteneuh Senora Mariana Rodri­ guez. in ye quimixnamiqui ye quimahua ye quinmahuizpolohua tlaxillacalleque quexquich 1. For "guadalcac;ar." 1613 255 take its course first." And when they had been dismissed, father fray Agustin del Espiritu Santo took the said Juan de Morales and the others to the viceroy, so that they asked the viceroy don Diego Fernandez de C6rdoba, Marques of Guadalcazar, 1 for his permission, and he gave them permission to erect a holy Cross in the said road, which the said woman had opposed. After the orders had been issued and the viceroy had signed, they finished putting together the platform, they got it ready, and they held a feast day for the blessing of the new holy Cross here at the church of San Antonio on the Sunday of the feast of the Holy Spirit, on the 26th of the month of May. The very reverend father whose name was already mentioned, fray Agustin de! Espiritu Santo, blessed it. It was with great ceremony and processions that they went to raise it on the said new platform that was built. At this time the said woman seller of bitter atole was sick and very near to death. And when this said holy Cross was erected, [p. 222] the vicar general doctor don Juan de Salamanca also gave them his permission, which they had requested, for the holy Cross to be raised. And it was not long after that the said Marfa, seller of bitter atole, passed away; her son-in- law, whose name was ___ , also passed away, because he helped his said mother-in- law in the complaint she had made. y_ Before this that has been told, that we have just finished recounting and writing about the dispute that happened, how the said Marfa, seller of bitter atole, had made a complaint relating to the holy Cross, here is another thing that happened first, likewise here in the tlaxilacalli of Xoloco and in [a section] called Acatlan, on the other side, at the corner and close to the house of the Spaniard Diego de Senete. The said Spaniard and his spouse named Mariana Rodriguez, a Spanish woman, caused a dispute at the beginning of the said month of May, in which they likewise talked [disparagingly] about and touched on the reverence for another holy Cross, because of which they opposed the people of the said tlaxilacalli there, whose property the said holy Cross was, that their forefathers had erected there a long time ago. The said Spaniard Diego de Senete and his spouse, Mariana Rodriguez, especially this Spanish woman, opposed the holy Cross; neither of them wanted the cross to stand there close to, next to their house, And although they are resi­ dents there, it is thought that they just bought their house, although they have been there and made their home there for a long time, but the house was only a little one. Not long ago [fray Geronimo de Zarate] sold them the house of a deceased person adjacent to their house, [p. 223] and it was fray Geronimo de Zarate, who was chaplain of San Josef at San Francisco, not long ago, before he left, who gave them possession of the house, when don Antonio Valeriano, now governor of Azcapotzalco, was fiscal, so that they amalga- . mated it with the house they had had for a long time, but he did not sell them, nor did they receive possession of, the said land on which the holy Cross stands. On the other hand the said Spaniard Diego de Senete and his spouse claimed that all the land was their property, so that they ejected the said tlaxilacalli members, telling them, "Remove your cross, for the land it stands on is our property, we bought it from fray Ger6nimo de Zarate." But the people of the tlaxilacalli here did not know whether our father had sold them the land along with it, and they were angered when they heard that they wanted to take their cross there away from them and were opposing them. And especially the said Spanish woman Mariana Rodriguez talked about it, opposing, scolding, and showing I '! 1 ,1 !, Ill { ,I ,1 ':.!! ,! j ' ii I,, I 256 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLAHON yn acualli yectli 1 tencuicuitlatlahtolli quimilhui yn amo hue! mihtoz motenehuaz. yhua hue! quineltilizyhtohuaya. yn ca quimoquixtiliz cruz. yn oncan moquetzinoticac. quihto oncan mocaltizque ynic niman omoteilhuito tlacpac yn tlaxillacalleque oquihtoto ca ynhuehuetlatqui yn tlalli ypan moquetzinoticac Sancta cruz. oquicac yn Justicia ynic oquitlalilique pleito diego Senete ynic i;an quichtecacuiznequi tlalli ye nemi n pleito, auh yn ipan cemilhuitl y[p. 224]n ihcuac omoteneuh ynic mahuaque mixnamicij. ypam­ patzinco Sancta cruz. ca no niman yhcuac peuh in ye mococohua c;an oqu itzonteco ynic peuh ye quicocohua yn omoteneuh Senora Mariana Rodriguez. auh yn imuztlayoc ye huallathuic ye omotccac ytlapechco yn mococohua matlaltotonqui yn itech motlalli cenca i;a niman chicahuac yhuan niman yglesia mayor quihualmohuiquililique in Sacrameto. ynic niman quimocelili. auh yniqu eilhuitl yhcuac momiquilli yn Senora auh yuh mihto ypan yuh machoc quihtoque y nican tlaca ypan tlaxillacalli. ca i;an ycuallantzin yi;omal­ tzin yn 11°-Dios. quihualmihualli ypan yn omoteneuh Senora. auh ynic otlamico ynic otzonquiz pleyto. yn Justicia i;a oquinmacac in tlalli macehualtin ynic mochipa quipiazque oncan ypii moquetzinoticaz yn Sancta cruz. ayac aquin hue! oncan quinquixtiliz. auh yn mane! oc nen moteilhuiaya omoteneuh diego Senete. i;a nipa hualhuetz. aocmo caquililoc yn ineteilhuil. o yhui yn yn omochiuh ontlamantli tlamahuii;olli nican ypan tlaxillacalli ye omoteneuh xulloco acatla yteopancalnahuactzinco notlai;ottatzin S. Antonio Abbad Mexico yn ipehuayan in omoteneuh Metztli Mayo. auh yn ipampa nican onictlalli o­ niquicuillo nehuatl Don domingo de S. Anton Mufion Quauhtlehuanitzin ypampa ca hue! nixpan yn iyontlamanixti omochiuh hue! oniquittac - y axcan Sabado ynic 22. mani Metztli Junia de 1613 [p. 225] Afios. yhcuac moman tiyanquiztli yn totlai;onantzin Visitacion yhuan mihtohua nuestra Senora de la biedad hue­ huetlii yn oncan moyetzticate teopixque S. Domingo. auh ynin ye moman. ynic mochalli omoteneuh tianquintli 2 yehuatl ypii tlahto yn Padre fr. Juan de Bustamante yhcuac oncan tetlan catca - y Axcan Viernes ynic 28. mani Metztli Junio de 1613. anos. yhcuac nican ciudad Mexico otzatzihuac nohuiyan caltzallan ytlanahuatilticatzinco yn tlahtohuani Don diego fernandez de cordoua Marques Visurrey yn ipampa ye aocac macehualli tlamamaz yxcuatica yn iuh muchiuhtihuiz 3 quinmamaltia huehuey cuauhchiquihuitl yhuan yn i;ai;o tley huehuey tlamamalli oquinmamaltiaya frayles yhuan espanoles. yn hueca oquihuallehualtiaya qui­ mama quihualcahua nican mexico. ahnoce nican oquihuallanaya in cenca yetic ye quihuica cenca quintollinia ynic oconaxitiaya yn canin altepetl ipan tequiuhtillo macehualtzitzinti concahua, auh yn ipampa aocmo yuhqui mochihuac 4 in Pena ye quinmotlalili yn tlah­ tohuani yn frayles. yhuan espafioles. yuh nahuatilloque yn ipan tecpoyotl tzatzic i;a caualloti yn quintlamamalizque ohtlipan yn tleyn canin quinhuiquilizque yuh hualla yamatzin ycedulatzin yuh hualmotlanahuatilli yn tohueytlahtocatzin Rey Don Felipe Tercero in moyetztica espafia - y Axcan miercoles ynic .4. mani Metztli Setiembre de 1613. afios. yhcuac nican tlani5 centlapal ohmac6 hue! yxpan yn iteopancaltzin notlai;ottatzin S. Antonio Ab bad xulloco. 1. For "ayectli." 2. For "tianquiztli." 3. For "muchiuhtihuitz." 1613 257 disrespect for the people of the tlaxilacalli; how much bad, 1 filthy language she used with them cannot be said or told; she said that in all truth she was going to remove the cross standing there, saying that they were going to build a house there. Then the people of the tlaxilacalli above went to make a complaint, saying that the land on which the holy Cross stands is their patrimonial property. The officers of the law heard the complaint, so that they [the tlaxilacalli people] brought suit against Diego de Senete for trying to take the land deceitfully; the suit is now pending. And on the same said day Ip. 224] when they argued and showed opposition about the holy Cross, the said Spanish woman Ma­ riana Rodriguez began to get sick; at first she just began to have a headache, but the next day in the morning she lay down sick in her bed. She got matlaltotonqui, which soon became very strong, and they brought her the Sacrament from the cathedral, and she received it. On the third day the Spanish woman passed away. And it was said and found out about it, and the local people in the tlaxilacalli said that our lord God sent his anger and wrath down upon the said Spanish woman. When the suit came to an end and was finished, the officers of the law gave the land to the commoners to keep forever; the holy Cross will stand on it and no one will be able to take it away from them. And although the said Diego de Senete tried to make a complaint, it fell to one side; his complaint was not heard. Like this, then, occurred two separate miracles here in the said tlaxilacalli of Acatlan in Xoloco, close to the church of my precious father San Antonio Abad in Mex­ ico, at the beginning of the said month of May. And I, don Domingo de San Anton Mufion Quauhtlehuanitzin, set it down here and wrote it because both things happened right before my eyes, I really saw them. - Y. Today, Saturday the 22nd of the month of June of the year 1613, Ip. 225] was when a market was set up at our precious mother of Visitacion, also called Nuestra Senora de la Piedad, in Huehuetlan, where the Dominican friars are. And father fray Juan de Busta­ mante saw to it that the said market2 was set up and inaugurated; at that time he was among the people there. - Y. Today, Friday the 28th of the month of June of the year 1613, was when it was proclaimed through the streets everywhere in the city of Mexico at the order of the ruler don Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, Marques and viceroy, that commoners are no longer to carry loads using their foreheads, as happens3 when they load them with large wooden baskets, or when the friars and Spaniards make them bear any kind of heavy load, that they sent them here from far away carrying, that they deliver here in Mexico, or when they came to get something very heavy to take that greatly afflicts them, that they took to whatever altepetl the poor commoners were given the duty of delivering it to. And so that this will no longer be done,4 the ruler set a fine about it for the friars and Spaniards; they were ordered and the crier proclaimed that only horses are to carry for them on the road whatever they are to take somewhere for them. Thus said the letter that came, the cedula of our great ruler the king don Felipe III who is in Spain; thus he ordered. - Y. Today, Wednesday the 4th of the month of September of the year 1613, was when here below, 5 at one side of the road6 directly facing the church of my precious father San 4. Apparently "mochihuac in" is to be understood as "mochihuaz in." 5. Possibly the phrase means in effect below here, though the normal way of saying that something was below something else involved -tzintlan. 6. It may be that "ohmac" specifically designates the far side of the road. ,··•·i; , ''I I 1' .. , I';•: 11: [,; ,, I 'Iii ,, ' '.,:11 ,, ,I I ::I 258 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION O[p. 226]Quipehualti tepcchtli ynic oncan ye mocaltia yehuatl espafiol ytoca Antonio barreto portugues. ynin omotcneuh tlalli ypan ye mocaltia 9an quicouh quicohuilli ,ano espafiol ytoca diego Senete ca achto yehuatl in in yaxca catca yn tlalli. auh macihui yn iaxca catca ynin omoteneuh tlalli yece ,a atl otentimanca yn oncan cenca achi huecatlah ocatca auh yn o yuh concouh yehuatl omoteneuh Antonio barreto, quin yehuatl oqui­ tlalten ynic oquihuecapano oc cecni oqui,acato yn tlalli oncan oquitetemaco ynic oqui­ po!lo atl oncan omanca auh in ye o yuh quitlalten ,atepa oquicuauhtzotzon miec yn cuamimiltotonti oncan oquicuauhtzotzon ynic chicahuaz tlalli ynic hue! ypan ye mocaltia ,an oc centetl yn ical oncan oconpehualti ye quichihua ytienda yez. auh ynin omoteneuh yancuic tienda ye muchihua, ca ye quin ic ey tlacatl oncan mocaltia yn oncan in omo­ teneuh S. Antonio Abbad. yteopancaltzin yxpan yn iuh nezticatqui axcan. 1 ynic ce tlacatl oncan achtopa ye chanchiuhtica. yehuatl y clerigo ytoca !icenciado dorosa xuchmilcopa y catqui ycall in tienda quipia, auh ynic ontetl ye huecauh ealli onean mani eentetl no tienda muehiuhtiea ye yn oztocaltitlau arcotitlan2 mani ynin ealli ,an tetlaneuhti!lo capellania ye catqui yehuatl yuh quitlalitia yn padre Masares 3 elerigo ea yaxca eatea ynin omoteneuh ealli ynin ohtenco yn mamani calli auh tlanepantla yn oconquetztihuetz ytienda omo­ teneuh Antonio barreto. hue] amo hueeauh yn oeonchiuh ,an ixquich ica ome metztli yn onmocalti 4 auh yn oc cequi tlalli yn iyanca ypa onmocalti yn ayxtlahuatl 5 muchiuhtoc axcan ach quen ipan muchihuatiuh 6 yn iquin canin quemma yn oc ompa ye tonitztihui aquique yn espafioles ypan mocaltitihui auh [p. 227] (,;an ipampa y nican onicmachiyoti ynic 9an oqu excan yn mani calli yxpan omoteneuh yteocaltzin notla,;ottatzin S. Antonio. ypampa quittazque quimatizque. yn aquique yn quin nemiquihui yn quin ye tlacatizque Mexica. yhua yn altepehuaque 7 ca <;an oqu iuhcan in yn ihcuac ye nictlallia ye nicma­ chiyotia yn itlahtollo yn omoteneuh ayxtlahuatl muchiuhtimani axcan yntla <;atepan yttoz yn iquin canin quenma ye teopancalli. ye monasteries. ye calli ypan tentoc ye onoc yn ax­ can ayemo quen neztoc i;an atl oncan tentimani nohuiyan ynin tlahtolli nehuatl onic­ machiyoti Don domingo de S. Anton Mufion Quauhtlehuanitzin, macihui yn amo nolhuil nomacehual ynic nican nitlatequipanotinemi ychantzinco y notla<;ottatzin S. Antonio. ye yxquich ica axcan cenpohualxihuitl yn iuh muchi tlacatl quimati - y_ Axcan Juebes ynic .12. mani metztli Setiembre de 1613. afios yhcuac nican ciudad Mexico S. Franco, ahcico callaquico in yancuic comissario ytoca fray chistoual Ramirez. espafia hualmohuicac. quihualmohuiquilli yn cenca mahuiztililoni Padre fr. Juan torque­ mada yn omohuicaya espafia ,;an oncexiuhtito yn ompa nicau ye mohuicaca - y_ Axcan Viernes ynic 13. mani metztli Setiembre de 1613 afios yhcuac nican ciudad Mexico ahcico callaquico ce tottatzin S. Fran° 0 • cuate<;ontzin vmpa hualla in yancuic Mexico ahno,o huehue Mexico. ynin tottatzin ye hualla ,an hualmochtacatitlan qui­ hualhuicac yntlahtol yn ompa motemachtilia oc cequintin teopixque S. Fran° 0 . ye hual­ moteil[p. 228]huia yxpantzinco tlahtohuani Visurrey yn quenin cenca quintollinia vmpa I. This clause could be interpreted as "as appears now [from what will be said in a moment].'' 2. Literally, next to the arch. 3. Name unconfirmed. 4. The temporal inconsistencies in these annals from parts of passages having been written at a certain time, then added to without thorough revision of what was already 1613 259 Antonio Abad in Xoloco, [p. 226] the Spaniard named Antonio Barreto, who is a Por­ tuguese, began the foundations for the house he is building for himself there. He just bought this said land upon which he is building a house; he bought it from another Span­ iard named Diego de Senete, for first the land was his property. But though this said land was his property, it was full of quite deep water. And after the said Antonio Barreto had bought it, he filled it in with earth and raised it. From another place he transpm1ed the earth that he filled it in with and got rid of the water that was there. And after he had filled it with earth, he drove in wooden piles, he pounded in many small wooden pillars so the earth will be strengthened, so that he can build himself a house on it. He has begun to build another house there that will be his shop. And this said new shop that is being built makes the third person to build a house facing the said church of San Antonio Abad, as things now appear. 1 The first person who has made a home there is the secular priest named licenciado Tolosa; his house is toward the south and has a shop. Second is a house that has been there for a long time, also made into a shop, at Oztocaltitlan Arcotitlan;2 this house is rented out to people; it is under a chaplaincy mrangement; that is what was ordered in his testament by father Masares, 3 a secular priest, for this said house was his property. These buildings are spread out at the edge of the road. It is in between that the said Antonio Barreto has quickly built his shop; he took a very short time to build it, in only two months he built the house.4 The other land, in addition [to what has been built on] is now a lake.5 Who knows what will happen to it6 when sometime in the future some Spaniards build on it? [p. 227] The reason I have recorded here that there are still only three houses facing the said church of my precious father San Antonio is so that the Mexica and the citizens 7 who live and are born later will see and know that it was still just like this when I set down and recorded the account of the said lake that is there now, if it is later seen at some future time that it is filled with churches, monasteries, and houses that are there where now nothing appears yet and it is full of water all around. This account was recorded by me, don Domingo de San Anton Mufi6n Quauhtlehuanitzin, who though I am not worthy of it have been serving here at the home of my precious father San Antonio for twenty years now, as everyone knows. - y_ Today, Thursday the 12th of the month of September of the year 1613, was when there arrived and entered here in the city of Mexico and at [the church ofl San Francisco the new commissary named fray Cristobal Ramirez; he came from Spain. He was accompanied by the very reverend father fray Juan de Torquemada, who had gone to Spain and spent just a year there since he had left here. - y_ Today, Friday the 13th of the month of September of the year 1613, was when there arrived and entered here in the city of Mexico one of our fathers of San Francisco, a lay friar, who came from New Mexico, or Old Mexico. The reason this father of ours came was that he was secretly sent, bringing the statement of the other Franciscan friars who preach there, making a complaint [p. 228] before the lord viceroy about how much the written, are particularly apparent in this section. 5. Literally, a watery plain. 6. Or what will be built on it. 7. These "citizens" seem to be distinguished from the Mexica in general. The term altepehuaque sometimes means the authorities of an altepetl. Conceivably Ch. is even including the Spaniards. :!::· I,'' " :1! ,, i' i' I I C n I p I a k ' ti I p 11 I b J~ fo I cl tl I s VJ Cl I n I c, ' I' . ' :L 111 ,, •' 260 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION Gouemador ynic ce ocalcapozhui 1 tottatzin quicxipopoztec yhuan centlapal quimapoztec yni tottatzin cocoloc ytoca fr. Jeronimo de pedra<;o, yuh machiztico quitlacahualtiayah in teopixque omoteneuh Gouor macayamo cue! ynca mocacayahua macayemo quintollini macehualti cane! yancuique in tlaneltoquiliztica ma oc ceppa mocuepti ma motlapololtihti mano<;e yaoyotl ynpan quichiuhti yn teopixque yhuan yn espafioles. yehuatl in ynic quitlacahualtiaya Gouernador. ,an icuallan quittac ynic cenca oquincocolli teopixque y_ Axcan Juebes ynic 26. mani Metztli Setiembre de 1613 a0 s yhcuac ye yohua ynic hual­ yohuac maxitico ,a mochtacacallaquico y nican ciudad Mexico in cenca mahuiztililoni teoyotica tlahtohuani Doctor Don Juan Perez de la serna ar,obispo Mexico ynin clerigo ,amora ychantzinco ayac quittac in nican tlaca Mexico ynic hualmocallaqui ychantzinco ayac quimonamiquilli, auh yn huallathuic viernes ye ychantzinco moyetztica <;an oc mo­ tzauhctzinoticatca ayemo moteyttitzino, auh ynin omoteneuhtzino teoyotica tlahtohuani yn ompa espafia ye hualmehuiti ayemo hualtlateochihualtitia yn ica ar,;obispoyotl. <;an niman quihualmihualli yn Rey <;an oqu iuhqui hualmacallaquitzino ynic Sacerdote ynic niman omohueyatenquixtico2 auh ye niman oncan maxitico in la ciudad de los Angeles de la puebla cuitlaxcohuapa. ye yohua <;ti no mochtacacallaquico yn oncan ynic niman mo­ cehuitzinoco ychan obispo Don [p. 229] Alonso de la mota y escobar. quin yehuatl in oncan quimoteochihuilli oncan quimomaquilli yn teoyotica ytlahtocayotzin ynic ar<;o­ bispo muchiuhtzino. ,an callihtic ychan yn omoteneuh obispo ypan ylhuitzin Exaltacion Sancta cruz. ca Sabado ypan motlalli ynic .14. mani metztli omoteneuh Setiembre. yn teochihualloc. auh <;an hualmeylhuitiltitiquiz. yn ar,obispo yn oncan moyetzticatca la ciudad de las Angeles cuitlaxcohuapa ynic niman oncan hualmehuiti ye hualmonenemitia ynic niman oncan maxitico totla~onantzin nuestra Sefiora Sancta Maria de Guadalupe tepeyacac. ynic no ceppa oncan ohualmehuiti ynic omaxitico nican mexico yn ipan axcan omoteneuh cemilhuitl Juebes. ynic ,an hualmochtacacallaqui ynic cemilhuitl ypan omo­ teneuh Viernes mocehuitzino yn ichantzinco ,an motzauhctzinoticatca ayemo teytti­ titzino. - y_ Auh ye quin axcan Sabado ynic 28. mani metztli omoteneuh Setiembre in ye yeil- huitiyoc omoteneuh ye hualmocallaqui Mexico yhcuac omotenextillitzinoco omoteytti­ tzinoco yohuatzinco ypan chiuhcnahui tzillini yn 6can yglesia Mayor yhuan missa quimochihuillico yn omoteneuhtzino yehuatzin teoyotica tlahtohuani Doctor Don Juan Perez de la serna ar<;obispo. auh ynin ynic ompa ychantzinco hualmoquixti ynic oncan hualmohuicac omoteneuh yglesia mayor ,an ic ye oncan mocallaquico yn tecpan qui­ yahuacpa yn onca catqui oc ce puerta. auh in yehuantin cabildo tlaca yn Dean yn arce­ diano. yn chantre yn canonigos yn Racioneros. yn oquimottilique oncan ye 6maxitihtiuh ar<;obispo. ye niman quihualmonamictiliaya ce palio cuachcalli ynic quimonamiquiliaya. ynic quimocuachcaltilitiazquia ynic on[p. 230]mocallaquito Teopan auh in yehuatzin omoteneuhtzino teoyotica tlahtohuani ar,obispo. amo quinmocelilili yn omoteneuhque cabildo tlaca yn intenamiquia cuachcalli atle ypan quinmottilili ~an iuh ommocallaqui yn teopan. auh yhuan yn mane! no vmpa quimoyacanilliaya ynic ye 6pa quihualmocalla­ quiliznequia yn ixcopa teopan yn ompa catqui huey puerta yn huell oncan ycatzinco tla­ liloc huey tlacuilolpuerta yn huel tlacencahualli ye tlacuillolli yn hue! ycatzinco quichiuh- 1. The meaning may be that the governor merely clubbed the friar witl1 a musket (har­ quebuse ), not that he actually shot him. 1613 261 governor there mistreats them, that he used a musket on one of our fathers; I he shattered his foot [or feet] and broke one of his arms. This father of ours who was hurt is named fray Ger6nimo de Pedraza. It became known that the said governor had forbidden the friars to cheat the commoners or mistreat them because they are new in the faith and lest they return to confused beliefs or make war on the friars and the Spaniards. That was why the governor held the friars back; they saw nothing but anger from him, he hated them so much. Y Today, Thursday the 26th of the month of September of the year 1613, at dark as night was coming, was when there arrived and secretly entered in the city of Mexico here the very reverend spiritual ruler doctor don Juan Perez de la Serna, archbishop of Mexico. He is a secular priest, from Zamora. None of the local people here in Mexico saw him as he entered his home, no one went out to meet him. On Friday morning he was already in his home, but it was still closed; he didn't show himself yet. When this said spiritual ruler left Spain he was not yet consecrated as archbishop. The king just sent him right away, and he was still unconsecrated when he went on board ship, and as a priest he landed on the seashore [of New Spain].2 Then he reached the City of the Angels, Puebla, at night and likewise entered that place secretly; then he came to the home of the bishop don Alonso de la Mota y Escobar to rest, [p. 229] and only then did the latter consecrate him there and gave him his spiritual rulership by which he became archbishop. It was just inside the said bishop's home, on the feast day of the exaltation of the holy Cross, Sat­ urday the 14th of the said month of September, that he was installed and consecrated. And the archbishop left quickly, after only three days of being in Puebla, after which he left and came traveling along in this direction until he reached [the chapel ofj our precious mother Nuestra Senora Santa Maria de Guadalupe at Tepeyacac, from where he again de­ parted to reach Mexico here today on the said day of Thursday, when he came entering secretly, and on the said day of Friday he rested in his home; he was just shut in and didn't show himself yet. - y_ It was not until today, Saturday the 28th of the said month of September, three days after he entered Mexico, as was said, that, in the morning at 9 o'clock in the cathedral, the said spiritual ruler doctor don Juan Perez de la Serna, archbishop, appeared in public and showed himself, and he came to perform mass. But when he came out of his home and came to the said cathedral, he only entered from the direction of the [archiepiscopal] palace exit, where there is another door, and the members of the cathedral chapter, the dean, archdeacon, choirmaster, and the canons who were full prebendaries saw that he was already arriving; then they were coming to meet him with a canopy, a cloth covering, which they were going to hold over him as he entered [p. 230] the church; but the said spiritual ruler, the archbishop, did not accept the said cathedral chapter members' sign of greeting, the canopy, he ignored them and went into the church just as he was. And though they were leading him and wanted to bring him in from the front of the church, where the great door is, and right there had been placed in his honor a large painted door, 2. The components of this sentence could be put in somewhat different orders with cor­ respondingly different meanings. I , :I. .: ,l I •.1.! I ,; ii ', I I I ': ,, ,, ' ')'' \ I, ::\ I' '' ,, I,! 'i1 ' I!:, ! : 262 TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION que tlacuilloque yntlanahuatiltica yn omoteneuhque Cabildo tlaca canonigos. yn oncan quitlallique quimanque puerta yxcuac anrn;o yxco. yn oncan ye quimochialiaya onmo­ callaquiz teopan an;obispo quimolhuiliaya ynic ye oncan mocallaquiquiuh. auh amo no quimoncquilti i;ii niman amo quimocelili i;a niman amo tle ypan quimottilli yn teoyotica tlabtohuani ynic amo oncan ye mocallaqui. // yhuan y nican ciudad Mexico tlaca in te­ pachohua Regidores espafioles. aocmo oquimonamiquillique yn omoteneuhtzino teoyotica tlahtohuani ari;obispo. yn iuh ohualmocbiuhtihuia yncatzinco yn izquintin ari;obisposme achtopa nican Mexico omotlapachilhuico ynic hualmaxitiaya. , yancuicii yea palio cuachcaltica oquinmonamiquillique, auh yn axcan caocmo yuh namicozque yn ari;obis­ posme. yn iuh axcan ohualmocallaqui omoteneuhtzino teoyotica tlahtohuani Doctor Don Juan Perez de la Serna, ca yuh axcan ohualmotlanahuatilli caocmo yuh quimonequiltia yn tohueytlahtocatzin Rey Don Felipe Tercero moyetztica espafia. aocmo yuh mochihuaz. yn omoteneuhque ciudad tlaca Regidores. aocmo yuh quinnamiquizquc cuachcaltica in ihcuac ynic huallacizque yancuica mexico ari;obisposme. ca quinmoquixtililiaya. auh ca i;a ye­ huantin ynneyxcahuilnemac yez. yn tlahtoque yn Visurreyes [p. 231] Yn ihcuac hualla­ cizque yancuican Mexico ca yehuantin palio yea cuachcaltica namicozque, auh yn itechpa Sancta yglesia yn Cabildo tlaca, ca i;a yehuantin yneyxcahuiltequiuh yez. yn paliotica yn cuachcaltica quinmonamiquilizque yn teoyotica tlahtoque ari;obisposme. yn ihcuac hual­ lacizque yancuican nican Mexico y nican pouhque quimopializque altepetl tenuchtitlan, auh yece yn axcan ytechpa Sancta yglesia yn Cabildo tlaca yn intenamiquia yn incuachcal. amo oquinmocelilili ynin omoteneuhtzino Doctor Don Juan Perez de la Serna, yhuan yn intlacuilolpuerta ynic i;an oc i;eccan puerta omocallaqui ynic quimotlapalhuito ytlai;ona­ mictzin Sancta yglesia, yhuan yhtic ye omihto missa quimochihuillito yhuan quinmot­ tilito quinmotlapalhuito yn itlapacholtzitzinhuan Cabildo tlaca canonigos. 1 auh yn o yuh conmuchihuilli missa tepitzin ye niman hualmocueptzino oc ye oncan hualmohuicac yn tecpan palacio. quimottillico quimotlapalhuico yn tlahtohuani Don diego fernandez de cordoua Marques y Visurrey auh yn oconmotlapalhuico yhuan ynamictzin Virreyna, ye niman mocueptzino motlallitzinoto yn ichantzinco an;obispo. ynic niman oncan ocomo­ pehualtilli ytlamanitilitzin ynic ye quimopialia altepetl tenochtitlan cualtica yectica ynic neci cualli ychcapixqui ynic ye quinmopiallia ychcatzitzinhuan Mexico tlaca espafioles. yhuan timacehualti yn tixquichtin titlapacholtzitzinhuan ma nechmotlai;opialili yn tt 0 . dios. miec xihuitl yhuan ma quimochicahuilitzino miecanemiliztica 2 yn iuh timochintin nohuiyampa titlaca tiquellehuia auh yn oc cenca nehuatl noncua yuh catqui oc achi hue! nonahuatil nomamal ynic niquelehuia Don [p. 232] Domingo de S. Anton Quauhtlehua­ nitzin chimalpahin 3 y_ Auh ynin omoteneuhtzino teoyotica tlahtohuani Don Juan Perez de la Serna ari;obispo ynic nican Mexico omaxitico niman oquinmopatilitacico yn Doctor Don Juan de Sala­ manca prouisor espafioles ocatca. auh yehuatl ye quipatlatacico yn itoca licenciado castro. ynin 4 Prouisor espafioles omochiuh. auh ynic ome quinmotlalilitacico ytoca licenciado Juan Aguado ynin ayemo quichihua missa yn ihcuac toprouisor omuchiuh timacehualti ynin ymomextin espafia quinhualmohuiquilli yn teotica 5 tlahtohuani ari;obispo. no yhuan J. The above account seems quite self-contradictory, but there is relatively little question about what it says. 2. The form seems to contain miec, "much," nemiliztli, "life," and the instrumental -tica, but with the a it does not analyze normally. 1613 263 well prepared with paintings that the painters did precisely in his honor by order of the said chapter members and canons, that they placed and set up there at the portal, or in front of the [main] door, where they waited for the archbishop to go in the church, telling him to come enter that way, nevertheless he didn't want that either, he didn't accept it at all, the spiritual ruler ignored it entirely and didn't go in that way.// And the members of the cabildo of the city of Mexico here, those who govern, the Spanish regidores, did not meet the said spiritual ruler, the archbishop, as had been being done for all the arch­ bishops when they first came here to Mexico to rule, so that when they first arrived they met them with a canopy, a cloth covering. But from now on the archbishops will no longer be met in that fashion, [but] as the said spiritual ruler doctor don Juan Perez de la Serna just now entered, for now orders have been sent that our great ruler the king don Felipe III who is in Spain no longer wants it to be that way, that it will be done no more; the said cabildo members, the regidores, will no longer greet new archbishops of Mexico with a canopy when they get here, he took [that privilege] away from them. It will be the exclusive right of the rulers the viceroys [p. 231] when they first get to Mex­ ico, for they are to be met with a canopy, a cloth covering. And as to the members of the cathedral chapter of the holy church, they will be the only ones who will have the duty of meeting the spiritual rulers, the archbishops, with a canopy, a cloth covering, when they first come here to Mexico and are assigned here to be in charge of the altepetl of Te­ nochtitlan, despite the fact that now relating to the holy church this said doctor don Juan Perez de la Serna did not accept the cathedral chapter members' sign of greeting, their canopy, or their painted door, so that he went in by another door to greet his precious spouse the holy church and went inside, as was said, to perform mass and to see and greet his subjects, the cathedral chapter members, the canons. 1 After he had said a low mass, [the archbishop], before coming back, came to the [governmental] palace to see and greet the ruler don Diego Fernandez de C6rdoba, Marques and viceroy. After he had greeted him and his spouse the virreine, the archbishop came back and settled in at home, beginning right away his government, by which he is now in charge of the altepetl of Tenochtitlan in a good and proper fashion and appears as a good shepherd, taking care of the people of Mexico as his sheep, Spaniards and us commoners, all of us his subjects. May our lord God deign to guard him for me for many years, may he give him good health and a long life,2 as we people everywhere wish, and especially to me separately it is an even greater obligation and duty that I, don [p. 232] Domingo de San Anton Mufi6n Quauhtlehua­ nitzin Chimalpahin, wish it.3 Y. When this said spiritual ruler don Juan Perez de la Serna, archbishop, arrived here in Mexico, he right away replaced doctor don Juan de Salamanca, who was vicar general for the Spaniards, and the person he replaced him with on arrival was named licenciado Castro, 4 who became vicar general for the Spaniards. And on arrival he installed a second person, named licenciado Juan Aguado, who does not say mass yet, who became at that time the vicar general of us commoners. The spiritual 5 ruler, the archbishop, brought 3. The last sentence is a version of a common polite Spanish formula. 4. Here the words "ayemo quichihua missa yn ihcuac y" are marked out in the Nahuatl. They are virtually repeated just below, another indication of copying from an earlier text. 5. For "teoyotica." jl ., ' ·1, .. 1 '.·,II ,i i 'I ' ' : :·! ,,, ,; ' ' !i ,, 1.' ',!l·'i' :1 264 1RANSCRIPTION AND 1RANSLATION yn opa espafia quihualmohuiquilli Masescuela I ytoca Don Melchior arindez. nican mexico pouhqui yn.2 auh <;lino ycuac yn mochintin hualmocenhuicaque yn espaiia in ceca ma­ huiztililo teotica 3 tlahtohuani Doctor Juan gutierrez flores ynquisidor menor ytemana­ huicatzitzinhuan yn cenquizcacualtlaneltoquiliztli La fee in nican Mexico no yhcuac yn Maxitico yniqu inehuantzin onmotlalitzinoque in yehuatzin ye huecauh nican moyetztica inquisidor mayor Gutierre Bernardo de Quiros.4 // auh ,anno yhcuac yn yancuican ahcico hualla nican Mexico in yancuic coRegidor hualla espafia ytoca Don Alonso tello de guzman. yhcuac quicauh yn itequiuh yn Don Martin Ceron coRegidor catca quipatlatacico. y_ Auh yn axcan Domingo ynic 29. mani metztli Setiembre ynic ye nahuilhuitl omaxitico nican Mexico in yehuatzin omoteneuhtzino teoyotica tlahtohuani don Juan Perez de la Serna ar,obispo. yhcuac yn otlayahuallo yn Bulla axca ypan ylhuitzin S. Miguel archagel vmpa omanato teopan S. Franco_ niman yehuatzin vmpa yn yomatzinco [p. 233] Quima­ nillito yn omoteneuhtzino teotica 5 tlahtohuani arcobispo. 6 mochi quimotlalilitia yn teotlatquitl yn itlahtocamahuiznechichihualtzin conmotlalilitia yn iMitratzin yhuan Capa quimotlalilitia ye yancuica quinmottititzino yn muchintin nican altepehuaque auh ytloc­ tzinco mantiaque yn Doctor Saucedo arcediano yhuan Doctor Don Juan de Salamanca chantre capa quitlalitiaque - y_ Axcan Domingo ynic .10. mani Metztli Nouiembre de 1613 aiios. yhcuac oncan huey teopan yglesia mayor Mexico otcochihualloc macoc yn teoyotica ytlahtocayotzin yn cenca mahuiztilliloni Maestro Don fray Diego de contreras. ynic ar,obispo muchiuhtzino. ynin teopixqui S. Augustin auh vmpa pouhqui vmpa ytequitzin motlalia vmpa mohuicaz quimopialitiuh yn altepetl ayhtic yn motenehua S. Domingo la ysla, ynin nican motlaca­ tilli nican tepiltzin Mexico criyoyo. auh yehuatzin oquimoteochihuilli yn cenca mahuiz­ tililoni Don Juan Perez de la Serna ar,obispo Mexico. quimopalehuillique yn Doctor Saucedo arcediano yhuan Doctor Don Juan de Salamanca chantre Mitra quitlallique yhuan capa de Choro. auh yPadrinotzin muchiuh yn tlahtohuani visurrey Don diego femandez de cordoua Marques de Guadalca,ar - y_ Axcan Domingo ynic 17. mani Metztli Nouiembre de 1613. afios. yhcuac yn oma­ chiztic y nican Mexico. in yehuatzin teoyotica tlahtohuani Don Juan Peres de la Serna ar,obispo Mexico omentin clerigos S. Pedro ypilhuatzitzin quinmihualia cecen yn ompa ypan ome alte[p. 234]petl ce tetzcoco conmotlalilia ynic ompa teoyotica Sacramentotica 7 quinmocuitlahuitiuh yn ixquichtin vmpa onoque yn ompa chanchihua espaiioles. aocmo yehuantin frayles teoyotica Sacramentotica quinmocuitlahuizque quimoquixtililia yn espafioles. auh ,a techixcahuizq yn frayles timacehualti techmocuitlahuizque. ce tullocan conmotlalilia clerigo. ynic no vmpa teoyotica Sacramentotica quinmocuitlahuitiuh espa­ fioles ca no c;.enca miequintin yn 6pa onoque. c;.a c;.e ynic ye nohuian yn izquican ypan huehuey altepetl yn itlapacholpantzinco ar,obispo Mexco8 in motenehua Ar,obispado. yn ipan izquican in omoteneuh huehuey altepetl yn campa cenca ye miectin onoque espafioles in ye ompa chanonoque nohuiyan vmpa yntlan cecen clerigos quimonmotlaliliznequi ynic 1. For "Maesescuela." 2. Presumably this means he was born in Mexico (Tenochtitlan). 3. For "mahuiztililoni teoyotica." 4. Although this passage seems not to make sense, very likely Quiroz had gone back briefly to Spain to negotiate for his new position after a long time in New Spain. 1613 265 both of these people from Spain, and also brought from Spain the maestrescuela, 1 named don Melchor Arfndez, who belongs to Mexico here.2 And at the same time there came all together from Spain: the very reverend spiritual3 ruler doctor Juan Gutierrez Flores, lesser inquisitor, [one of the] protectors of the perfect right belief, the faith, here in Mexico; also at that time arrived the main inquisitor, Gutierre Bernardo de Quiroz, who has been here for a long time, so that they were both installed together.4 // Also at the same time there reached Mexico here and came for the first time the new corregidor who came from Spain, named don Alonso Tello de Guzman; at that time don Martin Cer6n, the former corregidor, relinquished his office; [Tello de Guzman] replaced him on arrival. - y_ Today, Sunday the 29th of the month of September, the fourth day after the said spir­ itual leader don Juan Perez de la Serna, archbishop, reached Mexico here, was when a procession, today on the feast day of San Miguel Arcangel went to the church of San Francisco to get a papal bull. The said spiritual5 ruler, the archbishop, 6 went there in person [p. 233] to get it. He went wearing all the holy gear, his splendid attire as a ruler; he went wearing his miter and cape, which is how he showed himself for the first time to all the citizens of the altepetl here. Next to him went doctor Salcedo, the archdeacon, and doctor don Juan de Salamanca, the choirmaster, wearing capes. - y_ Today, Sunday the 10th of the month of November of the year 1613, was when at the great church, the cathedral of Mexico, the very reverend master [ of theology] don fray Diego de Contreras was consecrated and given the spiritual rnlership by which he became archbishop. He is an Augustinian friar, and he is assigned to, his office is established in, he will go to take charge of the altepetl out in the ocean called Santo Domingo de la Isla. He was born here, he is the child of people here in Mexico, a criollo. The very reverend don Juan Perez de la Serna, archbishop of Mexico, consecrated him; doctor Salcedo, the archdeacon, and doctor dun Juan de Salamanca, choirmaster, assisted him. They put on him the miter and the choir cape. The lord viceroy don Diego Fernandez de Cordoba, Marques of Guadalcazar, became his sponsor. - y_ Today, Sunday the 17th of the month of November of the year 1613, was when it became known here in Mexico that the spiritual ruler don Juan Perez de la Serna, arch­ bishop in Mexico, is sending out two secular priests, children of San Pedro, one of them each to two altepetl. [p. 234] One he is stationing in Tetzcoco to take care of all the Spaniards who Jive there and make their homes there in matters of the holy sacraments;7 no longer are the friars to take care of them in matters of the sacraments, he is taking the Spaniards away from them. The friars will deal exclusively with us commoners and take care of us. One secular priest he is stationing in Toluca, so that he too will take care of the Spaniards there with the holy sacraments, for there are a great many who live there, and everywhere all around in all the large altepetl in the area ruled by the archbishop in Mexico, 8 called the archbishopric, in all the said large altepetl, where a great many Spaniards live and have already established homes there, he wants to station a secular 5. For 1'teoyotica." 6. For "an;obispo." 7. The words "teoyotica" and "Sacramentotica" are probably synonymous here. 8. For "Mexico." • r 11 1; :II 'ii " .. ,jl I, ' ! : ,,: . 11 .I' '' " '. '. ' 266 TRANSCR!Pf!ON AND TRANSLATION teoyotica Sacramentotica quinmocuitlahuitihui espafioles. ca ~an ic pehua yn axcan o­ machiztic ynic i;an oc omentin quinmihualia clerigos ce tetzcoco conmotlalilia yhuan ce tullocan conmotlalilia. auh yn oquimatque yn yn ixquichtin frayles y Francos. yn Domi­ nigos. yn Augustinos. cenca ye omotequipachoque. ynic niman pleyto oquimotlalililique an;obispo. yn oncan audiencia real ymixpantzinco yn Visurrey yhuan oydores omotlalli yn pleyto ye quinemiltia ye quitepotztoca yn iexcampayxti cecenyaca cecemme frayles Procuradores. in ye quinamiqui ari;obispo. in ye quimocuitlahuia Pleyto. amo quinequi ynic cecen clerigos ye quinmihualiznequi nohuiyampa ypa ari;obispado motlalitihui contraticion ye ye quichihua y frayles. ach quen tzonquii;az yn inneteylhuil tla oc ye­ huatzin quimomachiltia yn tt0 . Dios. ca oc ye nemi yn tlahtolli Y. Axcan Domingo ynic 24. mani metztli Nouiembre [p. 235] de 1613 afios. yhcuac oncan teopan S. Augustin omacoc palio yn cenca mahuiztililoni teoyotica tlahtohuani maestro Don fr diego de contreras ari;obispo yn ompa ayhtic S. Domingo la ysla. yehuatzin oncan in yacolpan quimotlalililico in palio in cenca mahuiztililoni teoyotica tlahtohuani Don Juii Perez de la Serna arcobispo 1 Mexico. cenca huey tlamahuiztililiztica yn quimotlalilili ca yuh monequi ynin motenehua Palio. ynic tlachiuhtli yuhquin ma i;an nelpiloni ypan pohui yn motenehua faxas tepitoton achi onmapilli ynic patlahuac yn moteca quiyahua­ liuhcaahcitoc yn necoccampa acollipa auh yn itepotzco tlanepantla yn icampa achi hueyac cemiztitJ2 ynic huiac. auh yn ixpan i;a ye no yxquich huiac ca tell achiton ynic tepiton, auh ynon yuhqui nelpilloni faxas quicepanpachohua yn acolli yn ica oc cequi faxas yn quiyahuallotoc ytepotzco quechtli, auh ytech quipia ytech tlatlalili ey tepozhuitzmalotl agujas, ahnoi;o alfileres ca quihtonequi3 quinezcayotia tlamahuii;olli. auh yn ipipilcaya palio ytech quipia ytech cahca quezquitetl telolototonti temetztli amo hue! yztac teocui­ tlatl yez. auh yhuan ytech quipia ytech cahca cruz chichiltic chicuacen ynitlamellauhyan auh i;an ome tlatlapotzco <;an itech tlatlamachiuhtli. ynin miec ytech ca quinezcayotia miec teotlamahuii;olli. auh yece yn hue! ye tachcauh ynic huey ynic tlateomania4 cerimo­ nia yn ica an;obispo ytto ynic mahuiztillillo ca yehuatl yea yn palio quitlalia quinemitia auh amo i;an ixquich yehuatl ycel yn quihualhuica. ca i;an no yhuatl5 yn Patriarcha yhuan yn motenehua primato auh ca yn ixquich ye huey yn Palio. ca ayac aquin hue! quimoto­ cayotiz Patriarcha ahno<;o primato. ahnoc;o Ari;obispo ytlacamo achtopa quipiaz yn Palio, amo hue! ypampa ye quichichihuaz yn iteoyotica yteopixcatlahtocatequiuh 6 in mane! i;an obispo tlateochihualli amo no hue! teotequitiz, yhua yntla ce tlacatl ye opepenaloc ynic ari;obispo omochiuh nican Mexico [p. 236] auh yn itech pouhqui nican Sancta yglesia palio maco y nican yancuic arcobispo7 omotlalli, auh yntla mopatlaz nican mexico ari;o­ bispo. yntla oc cecni conicuanica i;an no ari;obispoyotl ypan ytla ompa ayhtic S. Do­ mingo la ysla, anoi;o manilla china, ca yuh mihtohua ca quicuitiuh quicelitiuh yn ompa yancuic teopan Sancta yglesia oc ce yancuic palio, auh amo no hue! mochihuaz inic ye quicuitaciz ytech quimopohuiliz quitlaliz amo ye hue! teoyotica teopixcatlahtocatiz. yn I. For "ar<;obispo." 2. Distance between outstretched thumb and forefinger. 3. For "quihtoznequi." 4. Reflexive teomania is in Molina's dictionary as "to contemplate, meditate, pray." Perhaps the meaning is that the ceremony induces people to holy thoughts, or simply is impressive, making them think. 1613 267 priest among them in each place everywhere to take care of the Spaniards with the holy sacraments. It only begins with what was announced today, that for now he is sending only two secular priests, stationing one in Tetzcoco and one in Toluca. When all the friars, the Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians found out about this, they were very worried by it, so that they brought suit against the archbishop in the Royal Au­ diencia; the suit was brought in the presence of the viceroy and the civil judges; all three groups [of friars] are now involved in it and following it up, each one with its friar as legal representative, opposing the archbishop and taking care of the lawsuit; they do not want that he should try to send out a secular priest who would go to be stationed in each place all around the archbishopric, and the friars contradict it. Who knows how their complaint will end? Only our lord God knows, for the case is still pending. Y. Today, Sunday the 24th of the month of November fp. 235] of the year 1613, was when in the church of San Agustin the very reverend spiritual ruler the master of theology don fray Diego de Contreras, archbishop out in the ocean, at Santo Domingo de la Isla, was given a pallium. The very reverend spiritual ruler don Juan Perez de la Serna, archbishop' in Mexico, came to place the pallium on his shoulders; he did it with very great ceremony, for so it must be. This item called a pallium is made as follows: it can be looked upon almost as something you tie around you, [ consisting of] what they call small sashes, about two inches wide, which spread out so that they reach around the shoulders on both sides; in the back, in the middle, it is rather long, a span2 long, and in front it is the same length, but a bit smaller. And that thing like a sash to tie around one entirely covers the shoulders with other strips that go around the back of the neck. It has on it, placed on it, three metal needles or pins which mean3 and signify miracles, and hanging down from it it has and there are on it a few lead pellets, it does not seem to be real silver. It also has and there are on it some red crosses, six in front, and only two behind, embroidered on it; the many that are on it signify many miracles. Although the ceremony by which the archbishop is seen and honored is very preeminent in its greatness and [how it makes people contemplate],4 because he wears and displays the pallium, it is not just he alone who wears one, but also5 a patriarch and what is called a primate. So great is the pallium, that no one can be called patriarch, primate, or archbishop if he doesn't have the pallium first; for that reason he cannot carry out his various spiritual duties as priestly ruler.6 Even though he has been consecrated just as a bishop, he cannot operate in spiritual matters either. And if a person has been chosen and appointed archbishop here in Mexico [p. 236] and the holy church here is assigned to him, the new archbishop 7 here is given a pallium when he is installed, but if the archbishop here in Mexico is replaced, if they move him to an archbishopric in another place, out in the ocean at Santo Domingo de la Isla, or Manila in China, it is said that when he gets to the new church he will get and receive another new pallium. Nor can it be done that he should on arrival take, that he should assign to himself, wear, and be able to be a spiritual priest- 5. For "yehuatl." 6. The words should run either "yn iteoyoticateopixcatlahtocatequiuh" or "yn teoyotica yteopixcatlahtocatequiuh." 7. For "an;obispo." 1:,' I 1: '1 r 1! ,' I' ,,: ,' 268 1RANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION ipalio catca yn quihualtoquilli yntla omomiquilli an;obispo ocatca oncan, auh ca <;ii hue! yancuican quitlaniz oc ce yancuil 1 palio. auh ca macoz auh yntlacamo, amo huel tepachoz aino hue! tehuillanaz. amo hue! ytlatititzaltlapachol 2 mochihuaz yn oc cequi altepetl in yehuatl on huey tzontecoaltepetl muchiuhtica yn oncan ca ar,obispo motenehua Metro­ poli, yhuii amo no hue! tenechicoz amo hue! tecentlaliz yn teotlaneltililiznenonotzaliztli concilio ye muchihuaz, yhuan amo no hue! oncan teteochihuaz yn teopixcayotica. yn ipan Ar,obispado yniqu iuh teoyotica tetzonteco onean Sancta yglesia. ca yn aqui ye omochiuh Ar,obispo. ca niman quimitlanililiz yn palio Sancto Padre. hue! yehuatl yaz. ano<;o yte­ pantlahtocauh yprocurador ,an quititlaniz ,an ixquich ica chicuacenmetztli quihual­ huiquilizij palio auh ynin ca hue! yacica ytzonmanca3 y arcobispoyotl - y_ Auh ,an acame i;an quezquintin yn obisposme oncate y quitlalia yn quinemiltia ,an teycneliliztica yn palio yn iuh yehuatl vmpa obispo yn itocayocan luca ypan tlalli Italia, yhuii yehuatl yn obispo Pauia ypan tlalli L5bardia, auh yn ipan tlalli Alemania yehuatl yn obispo ytocayocan Biiberga, yhuii in yehuatl obispo vmpa ytocayocan Ostiense yntla hue! yehuatzin Sancto Padre ymaticatzinco quimoteochihuillia, auh yn francia yehuatl yn obispo ytocayocan Eduense auh amo hue! quitlalizij yn yehuiltin in obisposme yn mane! yehuiitin Ari;obisposme yn palio yntlacamo i;an huell oncan ynteteopan yn intlatlapachol­ pan yhuii amo quezquipa. auh ca i;an hue! ye yzquipa ypii yazq. ynic hue! quitlalizque [p. 237] Y n iuh quinmotlatlalilia quinmocuaxochtilia yn itech quihualhuica ytech yetihuitz yn iamatehuelitiliztzin yn iamatlacuiloltehuelitiliznemactzin Sancto Padre ynic <;an ic cen quihualhuica palio yn ihcuac quinmotitlanililia, auh yn amo hue! oncan ye quipanahuizq. yn izquilhuipan machiyotic ca yhcuac yn quimochihuilitihui missa yn ica ynteotlatqui­ tlahtocanechichihualtzin motenehua homamentos Pontifical - y_ Axcan Sabado ynic .30. mani Metztli Nouiembre de 1613. afios yhcuac ypan ylhuitzin S. Andres Apostol yn oncan teopan S. Franco. ye omotemachtilli yn padre fr. Buenauen­ tura de paredes Guardian nican Mexico. oquinmomachiztilli yn espai'ioles ynic ompa espa­ fia ohualla huelitiliztli licencia yn ipampa yn aquique namiqueque4 quinequi moyollehuaz­ que vezinoz mexico. hue! macozque yn habito. yn oncan teopan S. Franco. quicuiquihui ypan i;an inchanchan5 ye quimotlayecoltilizque yn tt0 • dios. yn iuh tlamani vmpa espafia. auh macihui yn centlamantli y ye neci omoteneuh habito. yn axcan ye omotemachtilli Padre Guardian macozque namiqueque yece ca i;an no ytetzinco pouhqui ,an ye no yhabi­ totzin yn totlai;ottatzin S. Franco quitocayotia ye quinotza la harden de la Penitencia yhua ynic ontlamantli quitocayotia la tercera harden de S. Franco yn ompa castillan quinto­ cayotia tercerones. miec yn inmonasterios vmpa quipia yn aquin quinequi motzacuaz quimotlayecoltiliz 11°. dios teopan i;an intlanequiliztica yn iuh muchihua motzacua. auh Y nican Mexico ynic motlalizque ynic quicuizque ynin omoteneuh tlaquentli yn aquin quinequi ynin quitepotztocaz. yn iuhqui yn teotlamahuiztiliznemiliztli, ca yehuatzin quinmomaquili[p. 238]tiaz yn habito yn omoteneuhtzino Padre Guardian yhuan no yehuatzin quinmopachilhuiz. auh yn ihcuac y ca ,an oqu ice! ye quipia ye quimaquia yn habito yn quitocayotia hermano Alfonso la Tercera hmden de S. Franco. ynin hualla espafia- 1. For "yancuic." . . . 2. This word has an unusual ltl sequence, but Ch. does wnte 11 occasionally. . 3. The form "ytzonmanca" has not been satisfactorily identified or analyzed, castmg doubt on the exact meaning of this clause. 1613 269 ly ruler with the pallium of the former archbishop there, whom he succeeded, if he has passed away. He has to start all over requesting another new 1 pallium. It will be given to him, but if not, he cannot rule and govern, the other altepetl cannot become his juris­ diction,2 that is, a great head-altepetl where an archbishop is, called a metropolis. Nor can he gather and assemble people to make a consultation for verifying divine matters, a council. Nor can he ordain priests in the archbishopric as spiritual head in the holy church there. For whoever is appointed archbishop is right away to request the pallium from the holy Father; he himself will go, or he will just send someone to speak for him, his legal representative, and within six months they will bring him back the pallium, and this is the true completion and final touch3 of the archbishopric. - y_ There are just a few bishops who wear and display the pallium by special privilege, like the bishop at the place called Lucca in the land of Italy, and the bishop of Pavia in the land of Lombardy, and in the land of Germany the bishop of the place called Bamberg, and the bishop of the place called Ostia, if the holy Father in person consecrates him by his own hand, and in France the bishop at the place called Autun. But those bishops, and even archbishops, cannot wear the pallium unless they are right where their churches are, in their various jurisdictions, and not just sometimes, but each time they go in it and can wear it, [p. 237] it is as the holy Father establishes it for them and sets borders for them in his written authorization, the documentary permission granted by him, that they bring along with and comes with the pallium at the same time it is sent to them, and they cannot exceed the number of days designated for them to go to perform mass with the holy gear that makes their ruler's attire, called pontifical ornaments. - y_ Today, Saturday the 30th of the month of November of the year 1613, on the feast day of San Andres Apostol, was when at the church of San Francisco father fray Buenaventura de Paredes, father guardian here in Mexico, preached about and announced to the Spaniards that permission had come from Spain that married people,4 citizens of Mexico, who want to and are so inclined, can be given the habit. They will come to the church of San Fran­ cisco to get it, but they will serve our lord God with it just at their various residences, 5 as is the custom in Spain. Although the said habit about which the father guardian just preached and which will be given to married people has a single appearance, the habit of our precious father San Francisco also belongs to what they call the order of Penitence, and secondly to what they call the Tercera Orden de San Francisco, that in Spain they call Tercerones; they have many monasteries there; for whoever wants to be enclosed and serve our lord God in church, if such is his will it is done and he is enclosed. Here in Mexico, as to how those who want to follow such a life of honoring the divine will have arrange­ ments made and wear the said garment, [p. 238] the said father guardian will go along giving them the habit and he will also guide them. At present there is still only one person who has and wears the habit, whom they call brother Alfonso of the Tercera Orden de San Francisco; he came from Spain. - 4. The Nahuatl is not specific as to the gender of the married people; an entry for the beginning of 1615 (pp. 294-95) makes it clear that they were both men and women. 5. For "inchachan" or "inchahchan." ·'',I ; 1 ' 1' ! ! I' ,, I,:, 270 1RANSCRIPI10N AND TRANSLATION 1614. 1 .v. Tochtli xihuitl yn ipan in xihuitl ,an ya oc yehuatl Gouernador yn Juan Perez de monterrey y nican tenochtitlan Auh yn Alklesme motlallique S. Juan Moyotlan ,;an quitlamellahualti yn diego de S. franc 0 . chane tequicaltitlan. yhuan Balthasar hernandez chane xihuitonco. ynin quininyopa alkle omuchiuh // auh yn alklesme motlalliij S Pablo teopan franc 0 Martin chane ,oquipan. yhuan Pablo Damian chane ometochtitlan // auh yn alklesme motlallique S. Sebastian atzacualco Melchior xuarez chane tomatla <;an qui­ tlamellahualti yn alkleyotl yhuan Sebastian Miguel chane cuitlatlahuactonco. 2 // auh yn allaesme motlalliij Sancta maria cuepopan ,an quitlamellahualti yn xpoual pascual chane copolco yhuan diego xuarez chane tlocalpan ynin ayac ceme y ytechcopa qui<;a y nican mexico tlahtocatlacamecayotl - y_ Axcan Lunes ynic .13. mani Metztli henero de 1614 afios. yhcuac yohuatzinco y omixiuh yn cihuapilli Virreyna Dofia Mariana Riedre Marquesa. cihuatl yn quichiuh ytoca Dofia brianda ye ome ypilhuantzitzin in ye quinchihua nican ciudad Mexico yn ipil­ huantzitzin tlahtohuani Visurrey Don diego fernandez de cordoua Marques de guadalca,ar y_ Axcan Sabado ynic 18. mani metztli henero de 1614 afios. yhcuac muchiuh Capitulo. yn xuchmilco. yehuatzin oncan IJJ. 239] quiz muchiuhtzino prouincial yn cenca mahuiz­ tililoni Padre fr. Juan de torquemada, quipatlac oncan quicauh yn itequiuh fr. hernando Duran ynic prouincial catca - y_ Axcan Domingo ynic .2. mani Metztli febrero de 1614 afios. yhcuac hue! ypan ylhui­ tzin totla,onantzin de la furipicacion de la candelaria yohualtica ypan ce tzillini ynic ye tlathuitiuh axcan omoteneuh Domingo yn oquitlallique oncan escuellas real ynic oqui­ macaque yn latintlahtolcopa yn teoamoxtemachtilamapohualiztli yn Padre maestro fr. Gon<;alo de hermosillo. teopixqui S. Augustin ynic Cathetradico de escriptura omochiuh yxiptla ypatca muchiuh y yn cenca mahuiztililoni teoyotica tlahtohuani maestro Don fr. diego de contreras ar9obispo omochiuhtzino yn ompa ayhtic S. Domingo la ysla, cathe­ tradico moyetzticatca, auh yn omoteneuh Padre maestro fr. Go9alo de hermosillo ynic quicuic hue! yaoyotica yn aye yuhqui oyttoc in ye yxquich ica onca escuella Mexico. auh ynic hue! omacoc 9an iceltzin quimopallehuilli, yn tlahtohuani Visurrey. 3 ah90 hue! cax­ tolilhuitl4 yn momuztlaye ye nenque tlapohuaya oc cequintin Doctoresme teopixque cleri- gos. in motlatzohuilique oc cenca. yehuatl ynehuan monamiquia yn fr. ___ Sisneros comendador yn totla9onantzin nuestra Senora de las mercedes de Redempcion de Captivos. yntepachocauh yn iztac habito quimotlalilia teopixque ynin hue! yehuatl macozquia yn omoteneuh la catreda. ypampa muchintin ypan mocuepaya quimopalehuiliaya. yn audien­ cia real tlaca tlahtoque oydores. ynic yehuatl yez. cualli ynic tlapouh latintlamachiliztica, auh yece ach quenin ,a conchiuhque ynic concuillique Sisneros auh yn omoteneuh IJJ. 240] Padre fr. Go<;alo de hermosillo, ye omihto ca <;an iceltzin quimopalehuilli yn tlahto­ huani Visurrey yhuan miequintin clerigos estudiantes. Auh in ye o yuh quiz in ye o yuh motlalli omoteneuh fr. Go<;alo de hermosillo cathetradico. in yohualtica niman yhcuac peuh in ye tlatzitzillica vmpa teopan S. Augustin, yhuan yn izquican ye cate Mexico I. The number is preceded by a precontact-style frame with a rabbit inside and five dots above. 2. For "cuitlahuactonco." 1614 271 1614, 1 5 Rabbit Year. In this year the governor here in Tenochtitlan was still Juan Perez de Monterrey. The alcaldes installed for San Juan Moyotlan were Diego de San Francisco, from Tequicaltitlan, who went straight on from before, and Baltasar Hernandez, from Xihuitonco, who became alcalde for the first time.// And the alcaldes who were installed for Sa