Instrumentation Discussion

For each DQ elaborate within 260-300 words. Use in-text citations accordingly. Use
scholarly reference(s). Use and cite references using APA 7th Style Guide accordingly.

DQ 1) Refer to the potential research topic you used during Residency. Identify an instrument used to measure one or more of the variables in the potential study. How does the theoretical framework support the use of the selected instrument? Why is it necessary for the theoretical framework and selected instrument to align with one another? Explain.

DQ 2) Using the instrument identified in the previous discussion question in this topic, briefly describe how at least one of the study variables is scored (What is the number of items on the scale? What type of scale is used for each item (e.g., Likert scale from 1 to 5)? What is the level of measurement for the scale?). What is the meaning of a score near the top of the scale for that variable? A score near the bottom? Why is it important to understand the meanings of the scores? Explain.


Field Work I: Selecting the Instrument for Data Collection


Bastos, J. L., Duquia, R. P., Gonzales-Chica, D. A., Mesa, J. M., Bonamigo, R. R. (2014). Field work I: Selecting the instrument for data collection. Epidemiology and Biostatistics Applied to Dermatology, 89(6), 918-923.

Survey Instrument Validity Part I: Principles of Survey Instrument Development and Validation in Athletic Training Education Research


Burton, L. J., & Mazerolle, S. M. (2011). Survey instrument validity part I: Principles of survey instrument development and validation in athletic training education research. Athletic Training Education Journal, 6(1), 27-35.

Survey Instrument Validity Part II: Validation of a Survey Instrument Examining Athletic Trainers’ Knowledge and Practice Beliefs Regarding Exertional Heat Stroke


Burton, L. J., & Mazerolle, S. M. (2011). Survey instrument validity part II: Validation of a survey instrument examining athletic trainers’ knowledge and practice beliefs regarding exertional heat stroke. Athletic Training Education Journal, 6(1), 36-45.

Scale Construction: Developing Reliable and Valid Measurement Instruments


Hinkin, T. R., Tracey, J. B., & Enz, C. A. (1997). Scale construction: Developing reliable and valid measurement instruments. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 21(1), 100-120.

Developing Instruments to Measure the Quality of Decisions: Early Results for a Set of Symptom-Driven Decisions


Sepucha, K. R., Levin, C. A., Uzogara, E. E., Barry, M. J., O’Connor, A. M., & Mulley, A. G. (2008). Developing instruments to measure the quality of decisions: Early results for a set of symptom-driven decisions. Patient Education and Counseling, 73(3), 504-510.

College of Doctoral Studies

RES-842 Alignment Table

Complete the Alignment Table and the subsequent Reflection for the Topic 3 assignment.

Alignment Table

Alignment Item

Alignment Item Description

Problem Space (Need):

The HR department of an organization has had a high staff turnover rate and more complaints of poor team performance.

Problem Statement:

The development of a cohesive team is essential in increasing the performance of an organization. The low retention and decreasing job satisfaction that has been observed within the last 5 fiscal years shows that the trend has to be halted.

Purpose of the Study:

To identify the organization’s cross-cultural issues that affect performance and job satisfaction among the employee


The number of employees, the number of years employees have worked in a company, the rate of satisfaction that an employee has in their work, the number of successful projects by a team, the ethnicity of employees

Research Questions:

Does organizational cross-cultural impact affect performance and employee turnover?

What impact do personal relationships at work and cliques have on job satisfaction?

What impact does an organization’s cross-culture affect job teamwork?

What impact does psychology affect job satisfaction?

What is the relationship between job satisfaction and retention

Methodology/ Research Design:

Quantitative research using interviews/questionnaires and work environment observations

Reflection (maximum 250 words)

The research study works on developing an insight into the environmental conditions that may lead to poor indicator performance within an organization. Given this, the alignment provided the opportunity to understand the elements that look at the bigger picture by pointing out the necessary key variables. The fact is that cross-cultural impact research seeks to assess the impacts of different cultures on each other. The identification of the potential areas of conflict, cooperation, and cultural understanding has been well aligned. There is an acute awareness that there is a need to recognize that different organizational cultures, values and beliefs affect the interaction between employees and their job satisfaction rates.

The research problem space is specifically pointing to the area that wants the answers is the R department, hence tracking the human resource. It supports the question of cohesiveness in the organization as a necessary employment for success. Thus, there is a recognition of cultural diversity, the need to respect cultural differences and the deeper meaning behind a culture’s behaviors and beliefs for better performance due to harmony at work. The research is based on a diverse grouping by using people and their characteristics as instrumental in categorical placement. As such, the quantitative elements allow for an accurate assessment of culture on turnover b actionable and meaningful findings from both questionnaire and observation.

© 2020. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

© 2020. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.




Understanding the Impact of Team Cohesion on Performance Improvement in the Workplace

Your Name Goes Here

Grand Canyon University


Topic of Research

Hermida, Y., Clem, W., & Güss, C. D. (2019). The inseparable three: are how organization and culture can foster individual creativity. 
Frontiers in Psychology, 
10, 2133.

Right from the start, the paper talks about creativity as an element of productivity pointing out that there has been research that has shown this. It continues to emphasize that creativity as a measure of productivity is influenced by interaction in the organization, individuals and cultures. Therefore, these influences form the foundation on which the potential for innovation to stay in competitive markets is built among team members. The categorical use of individual, organization, and culture as a triple factor that influences creativity introduces factors like forwarding flow and structural concepts that allow proactiveness of a task coemption. As such the authors point to the heavy influence of individuality on the respectability of the support system and knowledge transfer within management. Therefore, they bring to attention the aspect that affects performance and the direction for which task competition can take. In this way, creativity as a tool within the triple factor cannot function alone if the individual and organization are not in line with how to meet its objectives.

Riggio, R. E. (2017). 
Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. Routledge.

Understanding concepts within organizational psychology is made easier within this book by bringing to attention the different individual elements that allow the foundation of the theoretical framework to be logical. By use of classical theories, the author draws attention to the development and innovations that have been observed with time. These observations have been connected to aspects that bring practicality to theoretical concepts and with that expand comprehension of work setting and expectations. The author uses examples and scenarios that bring to attention the topics that have emerged and become instrumental in problem-solving in any organization. As such, there is an implementation context to informed decision-making that has been matched to the structures of control that influence the fundamental concept of organizational psychology. Written easily, the book thus allows featurettes in form of topics to cater to a different perspective of looking at expectations and familiarity of workspaces as affected by behavior and attitudes.

Gelfand, M. J., Aycan, Z., Erez, M., & Leung, K. (2017). Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey. 
Journal of Applied Psychology, 
102(3), 514.

The culture within any setting is informed by what is considered to be norms in the larger society and thus derivatives of control for behavior are established with that in mind. The authors focus on expanding the discussion based on this concept with an emphasis on organizational behavior. Looking at earlier cultures and connecting the reason for evolution through time, the authors discuss the different stages that have influenced general culture. As such, they draw attention to the highlights of trends and acceptance of specific norms as evolutionary or acceptable. They thus point out the important milestones that lead to change and how that perception shifts to behavior within organizations. It is thus recommended by the authors that change can be motivational based on an individual look at what values matter the most and by this a trigger to potential change. They thus point out that a combination of environmental and innate importance is necessary for cross-culture association of behaviors.

Button, J. W. (2014). 
Blacks and social change: Impact of the civil rights movement in southern communities (Vol. 1029). Princeton University Press.

Following on the conversation of culture influencing the evolution of behavior and perception of what is acceptable or not, the author discusses the impact of civil rights in the 1960s on changing the organizational culture. As such, there is continuously pointing out of the individual change that is expected to be instrumental in guiding team building. At the same time, the author points out that change allowed the opportunity for both the stereotypes to be defined and within that bring attention to the critical discussion over human rights. Therefore, there is a look at race as a tool for both positive and negative change and thus a reason that could be used to influence behavior within a smaller culture. In recognition of this, the discussion centers on the systemic foundation of civil rights as the reason for the introduction of competencies within the workspace that could hinder and support multicultural cohesion and thus the reason for increased performance.

Latham, G. P. (2019). Perspectives of a practitioner-scientist on organizational psychology/organizational behavior. 
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 
6, 1-16.

The author takes a stance to disagree with many previous organizational behavior discussions bringing dissent to a generalized concept of individuality as the main contributor to organizational behavior. They point out that deductive theory can be built on the foundation that mentors are responsible for how the behavior of an individual may be. Taking into consideration that leadership of the mentor is the factor responsible for influencing the perception of the workplace, the author points out that the advancement of careers would use the same tools. This takes away the possibility of behavior from the individual bringing to attention the direct shaping and influence to be external. Basing this from the learned theory perspective, the discussion calls for improvement of the practitioner practice to create a ripple effect that would allow better and easier prediction of positivity within the perception of organizational behavior. Using the doctoral program as an example, the discussion builds on a qualitative foundation through teaching.

Lee, C., Huang, G. H., & Ashford, S. J. (2018). Job insecurity and the changing workplace: Recent developments and the future trends in job insecurity research. 
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 
5, 335-359.

The article was written with the intention of the educator and the reader on the way forward following job insecurity and the growing needs that come along. The analysis and review of different concepts that lead to job insecurity are taken into account by the author. They are then used to mark the antecedents and consequences across the board in a different setting that are catalysis to the lack of jobs. At the same time, there is recognition that a loss of talent can be influenced by poor relationships in the workplace. Suing different regions in the world, there is recognition of externalities that are driving forces behind job insecurity and this converging school of thought. The theoretical perspectives that have been used aim at defining the relationship as an instrument in cross-cultural reference to behavior and behavioral changes. Therefore, the importance of value is given to the predominating issue that employment is more than just getting the job but also developing relationships that allow performance to be team-focused.

Mutonyi, B. R., Slåtten, T., & Lien, G. (2020). Empowering leadership, workgroup cohesiveness, individual learning orientation and individual innovative behaviour in the public sector: empirical evidence from Norway. 
International Journal of Public Leadership, 
16(2), 175-197.

The paper looks at fostering individually motivated behavior and the impact in examining its role in building a cohesive team. By looking at the effects of individual behavior on task coemption and coemption, the paper directly focuses on leadership as part of the main tool in steering complementary attitudes. As such, the authors orient the mediating roles of support for individual strengths as structural equations that are necessary for success. The approach of the authors thus allows for the development of learning orientation a strategic look at behavioral change or steering within any work setting. By using the public sector, the paper gives a critical example that cohesiveness is instrumental in the formulation of relationships that are building and thus a positive environment that is sure to improve performance in an organization. However, empowerment is also considered as necessary and within the discussion leading to this the authors point out that individual behavior has to be supported by the innovative characteristics of a workgroup and the specific persons.

Knein, E., Greven, A., Bendig, D., & Brettel, M. (2020). Culture and cross-functional coopetition: The interplay of organizational and national culture. 
Journal of International Management, 
26(2), 100731.

The paper recognizes cooperation and competition as intricate aspects of a work environment that cannot be avoided. As elements that go hand in hand, the authors view them as necessary to ensure that there is optimal performance within a group and thus cross-functional culture with defined roles. The result is an introduction to intentional management strategies that highlight individual, organizational, and cultural needs as the triads of performance management. There is thus a dimensional look at the roles of each of the three ins way that allows for the enhancement of social values necessary for successful performance. With the strong value of individualism intricately defined within the cultural mechanism in the discussion, there is a significant allusion to humans as resources. Being resources, they can be optimized through cohesive relationships among them and thus the formation of an organizational culture that is both intricate and success oriented in any work setting and within the group.

Lysova, E. I., Allan, B. A., Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Steger, M. F. (2019). Fostering meaningful work in organizations: A multi-level review and integration. 
Journal of Vocational Behavior, 
110, 374-389.

Derivation of meaning in the work done is the main focus of the discussion by the authors in this paper. Taking into consideration crucial engagement as being the one that gives meaning to engagement in task implementation. The authors demonstrate that organizational culture is built on the examination of individual and societal factors. This is to build the experiences on which there can be the promotion of meaning in each activity carried out. This means that with individual investment into the actual task, there is the facilitation of design and fit so that process of task completion is intentional. The intentionality thus works best in the provision of opportunities to support the whole team in getting decent work and within that a promotion of individual growth. Therefore, individual behaviors are perceived as important and must be carefully selected, uniquely appraised, and meaningfully developed. This points to targeted personalities during talent assessment hence resource acquisition and performance appraisal.

Polychroniou, P., & Trivellas, P. (2018). The impact of strong and balanced organizational cultures on firm performance: Assessing moderated effects. 
International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences.

Strength and organizational balance are weighed in the discussion with these authors as they focus on performance based on both the interaction of the individuals and the facilitators that drive them. Using competing model values, the authors establish a discussion around investigating organizational culture leading to impacted performance. However, organizational culture is built on individual input together with societal norms and thus controlling factors are within the strengths of each. Personalities, introversion and extroversion are used as examples to point out the different expectations from each and thus perception of shared culture. Pointing this out, the authors consider that in the formation of cultures and subcultures, personalities should be determined as the dictate the expected outcomes resulting due to the four archetypes of leadership. The intensity of culture within a workplace is thus alluded to be made of each member’s shared value hence a cumulative experience of support for specific behavioral drivers.


My program is Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology with an emphasis in Industrial Organizational Psychology –
Quantitative study*

Research Focus

The research focus is on the understanding impact of team cohesion on performance improvement in the workplace. It aligns with my program by tackling the related issues in physical and mental capacity and well-being of employees regarding organization attitude and behavior.

Feasibility of Research Problem

The goal of this research is to understand the behavior of humans at the workplace and thus how it affects the completion of tasks. It is feasible to research as it not only allows insight into various team-building aspects within any group but is applicable and relevant in today’s environment. Following the shift in climate to the integration of virtual workspaces as equally important in organizational structure, I-O psychology helps to facilitate workplace productivity. There are research and case studies that have already been done on this topic and thus proximity to data sources is easy.

Problem Statement

The evolution of human relations has since grown with the introduction of the civil rights movement in the early 1960s and has since capitulated to recognition of fundamental concepts of psychology in problem-solving strategizing (Button, 2014). As such, recognition of productivity as instrumental in the improvement of income, it is important to understand the individual and group mentality when it comes to team and task management. The purpose of this project is to discuss the impact of cohesion of personality attributes among members of a team on performance at the workplace. Individual traits combined within a group setting could lead to the adoption of a specific trait among members hence the formation of cliques that in turn become work culture. As such, a look at different types of traits allows for the recognition of potential cross-cultural adoption of attitude and thus behavior (Gelfand et al., 2017). This is relevant for the recognition of patterns to inform Performance appraisals, key indicators strategy development, and team development. Necessitating for successful management.

Defense of Article Selection

The conversation on psychology affecting performance and mental health is covered widely by different research schools of thought. However, this discussion looks at the five articles that stand out in supporting the project starting from the general to the specific elements. Riggio (2017) as a text provides insight into the classical theories and development within the I-O field. It thus gives the theoretical frameworks for the discussion in a more explicit way to allow for the familiarization of approaches to daily work and organization structure within any workplace. This is supported by the recognition of social change as instrumental in understanding cultural dynamics and prioritization of team structures in the workplace (Gelfand et al., 2017).

Gelfand et al., (2017) emphasize that societal development affects societal norms which in turn puts importance on certain perceived attributes as beneficial or detrimental to team placement. In recognition of these, there are organizational cultures that would foster specific behavior or seek such behavior (Mutonyi et al., 2020). This gives insight into the discussion of the impact of stereotypes on work culture development and thus influences individual behavior and dynamics within a team. It is thus important that perspective is a major part of the discussion as it allows for deductive reasoning to leadership and leadership controls that may influence the adoption of specific behaviors (Latham, 2019). According to Lee et al. (2018), the influence could result in increased turnover and thus loss of talent in the workplace if there is a greater conflict between individual and group values.


Riggio, R. E. (2017). 
Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. Routledge.

Gelfand, M. J., Aycan, Z., Erez, M., & Leung, K. (2017). Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey. 
Journal of Applied Psychology, 
102(3), 514.

Button, J. W. (2014). 
Blacks and social change: Impact of the civil rights movement in southern communities (Vol. 1029). Princeton University Press.

Latham, G. P. (2019). Perspectives of a practitioner-scientist on organizational psychology/organizational behavior. 
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 
6, 1-16.

Lee, C., Huang, G. H., & Ashford, S. J. (2018). Job insecurity and the changing workplace: Recent developments and the future trends in job insecurity research. 
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 
5, 335-359.

Mutonyi, B. R., Slåtten, T., & Lien, G. (2020). Empowering leadership, workgroup cohesiveness, individual learning orientation and individual innovative behaviour in the public sector: empirical evidence from Norway. 
International Journal of Public Leadership, 
16(2), 175-197.

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