Inventory Reflection

Style Matters: Inventory Reflection Paper Assignment Instructions




Understanding your default approach to conflict will help you understand and identify your own behavioral patterns as well as the behavioral patterns of the other party involved. It has taken a while for us to understand that we all have a pattern when we get into conflict. Usually we try resolve every conflict using the same strategies every time. The Style Matter Inventory has allowed you to see the comprehensive makeup of your approach both in calm and stressful situations.




You will create a reflection paper of the Style Matters Inventory Results consisting of at least a 900 words (3 pages) to submit as a Microsoft Word document following the format for the degree program in which you are enrolled (including an appropriate title page and bibliography/reference page). The paper should describe the following:




· What impressions you have about the inventory and/or your personal results.

· What was most surprising?

· What was most obvious?

· What does it motivate you to do?

· How does it correlate to the other elements of the course?

· How do the results of the Style Matters Inventory provide insight on your approach to



Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.









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This report tallies your answers to describe your patterns in conflict. It’s designed around two key choices:

Goals Relationship

How hard do we push for things we want? We can have high focus on goals (regarding an issue, decision, or task) or low focus.

How hard do we try to please others and keep relationships strong? We can have low focus on relationships or high focus.

These two factors interact to give five styles of responding to conflict. Note how they interact and the five styles that result in the circle chart below. Each style has important benefits; each also has significant costs if over- used. In conflict you use one or more of these styles, depending on your focus. Your scores below indicate the styles you use most and least. If you’re online, you can view a short visual presentation of the styles here and review the benefits and dangers of each style here.


You chose Instruction Set A, which directed you to think about responses that would be typical of you in a variety of situations. The Calm Scores reflect your responses in the early stages of conflict when emotions are not yet high. Storm Scores reflect your responses after there has been effort to resolve things without success and tension is rising.


The table above groups your scores in Calm and Storm. The following graphic arranges scores by conflict style.

Calm When differences first arise

and emotions are mild.

Storm When early efforts have failed

and anxiety has increased.



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YOUR PREFERRED STYLE: We pay greater attention here to your numbers in Storm rather than calm, as Storm is when emotions are high and strengths and weaknesses stand out most clearly. The style you use the most in Storm is the Cooperating style (score of 12).

YOUR LEAST PREFERRED STYLE: The style you use the least in Calm is the Avoiding style (score of 8).

YOUR STORM SHIFT: The style that changes most for you when you shift from Calm into Storm mode is: Directing Style goes down by 4.

INTERPRETING YOUR SCORES As background to this report, we recommend that you take a few minutes and view several short video presentations of key concepts of conflict styles by Dr. Ron Kraybill, author of Style Matters. You’ll get more from the report with this info in mind.

Take the numbers lightly. You are more than whatever was in your mind when you answered the twenty questions and you know yourself better than this test. Use the scores to think about your choices in conflict, not to define who you are. Better yet, ask family and friends who know you well for feedback.

Your Scores in the Five Conflict Styles

Calm Score – 10 Storm Score – 6

Calm Score – 11 Storm Score – 12

Calm Score – 10 Storm Score – 10

Calm Score – 8 Storm Score – 6

Calm Score – 9 Storm Score – 7



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YOUR RESPONSES IN STORM (HOW COVID19 AND CONFLICT CONNECT) The circle chart above shows your conflict style scores in two settings, Calm and Storm. We’ll look first at your Storm numbers, when early resolution of conflict has failed and stress is high.

For everyone, when emotions rise, upper brain activities like rational thinking and problem-solving get harder. Lower brain instincts to fight, flee, or freeze get stronger. The Storm numbers reflect your responses when the lower brain is becoming active.

Green Zone vs. Red Zone responses. In the image at right, the stress of conflict moves you from rational Green Zone functioning towards Red Zone reactions. Those Red responses are useful occasionally, but only in unusual circumstances. Aim to choose them, not fall mindlessly into them. If you are easily pushed into Red reactions in conflict, you lose out on the power of the Green responses.

Stress adds up and pushes you towards Red. You’ve probably noticed that interpersonal conflict – and incidents of violence – have increased sharply in this time of pandemic. That’s because the emotional affects of stress of all kinds are cumulative. From all sources, they add up and push us towards Red behaviors. COVID is one such “chronic stressor”; as are environmental threats, social polarization, economic worries, and more.

Self-management starts with self-monitoring. When total stress from all sources in our lives is high, even small conflicts can push us “over the edge” into thoughtless Red Zone responses. In these times, it’s important to have strategies for self-management. Monitor yourself – and others around you – for signs of high stress. If you’re edgy and reactive, recognize it. Describe how you feel to a trusted friend, a private journal, or an email to yourself. When you can, choose the issues and the timing of confrontations with care. For now, this score report will help you examine how you function and what you need in times of stress and conflict; just reading and discussing it will strengthen your Green Zone functioning.

If you’re less than pleased with your scores, remember that you benefit from neuroplasticity. Humans can develop new patterns at any age. In times of calm, expand the power of your upper brain by trying new responses to conflict. Don’t expect instant mastery of new responses; just persist and you’ll be surprised at how soon you’ll improve. Conversation with others really amplifies this – ability to cope well with stress rises quickly when we feel we have allies. You can of course read this report and put it away. But if you discuss it with even one other person who knows you well you can probably double its impact on you. See the section on Partner Support for ideas on this.



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You Scored High in Cooperating in Storm This suggests that when things get tense you try to create a discussion in which both sides openly present their views and then search together for solutions that fully address needs of both. More than any other style, Cooperating is useful in bringing positive outcomes in conflict. But it also has critical limitations you should be aware of.

Cooperating has Valuable Uses. Strengths associated with wise use of this style include:

Confidence and optimism. People who favor Cooperating have unusual confidence in working things out together. Their hopefulness can be a gift to others. Leads to strong teams. Cooperating is committed to both task and relationship. Partners and teams who use it well become strong units. The issues gets discussed, the work gets done in a thorough way and the people involved enjoy good relationships. Innovation and creativity. Solutions that nobody had thought of before often emerge in the interactive, respectful probing typical of this style. Skill at talking things through. It’s impossible to use Cooperating well without strong skills for talking things through. Though not always aware they have them, people good at Cooperating often possess these skills, learned from the modeling of parents or teachers, by trial and error, or training in conflict resolution or communication. Endurance. People who score high in Cooperating often have unusual stamina for talking things through. They know it takes time to find solutions that work well for everyone and they exercise patience in hearing out those they disagree with. They have confidence to present their own views and courage to keep talking even when others disagree. Their example can help others not to lose hope of finding peace in the midst of big differences. Personal growth. Since they engage deeply, people who use Cooperating a lot are constantly exposed to new ideas and perspectives. They learn and grow from these and develop confidence in themselves. Trust between people. When teams or groups use Cooperating successfully, confidence in each other grows. The shared feeling is: We know how to work through our issues.

But Don’t Over-Use It. Though it has wonderful strengths, Cooperating also has limits. Overuse of this valuable conflict style can bring:

Failure to defend people or principles that require protection. Sometimes it’s important not to cooperate, and instead to confront wrong. Failure to get other important things done. Cooperating takes time and energy. Not all conflicts merit the investment it requires. Applied to many trivial issues, Cooperating backfires, as people weary of “too much processing”. Discouragement, low morale, sense of failure, exhaustion, or burnout, if attempted without realistic awareness of the costs.No matter how good the intention or skill, intense problem-solving with others requires time, attention, and energy. You may run low on the personal resources for the intense conversations required. Sometimes it is necessary to protect your core mission by limiting your use of Cooperation. Increased conflict and misunderstanding, if used without consideration of power and status. This style involves being “up front” about what you want. A junior secretary should be cautious about using it with the company CEO. A CEO should not assume others will feel free to use it with him or her. Cooperating requires trust and a track record, especially when power and status are unequal. A bad name for conflict resolution, dialogue, or peace processes. If Cooperating is pursued too long with an opponent who takes an unyielding Directing or Avoiding stance or with people who don’t have the time and skills required, it may create “evidence” that talk and problem-solving don’t work. Yes, a patient Cooperating approach often brings forth a Cooperating response in others, but it does not always do so. If you persist anyway and hold out unrealistic expectations, you and others may lose confidence in Cooperating as a useful response to any conflict. Over-using Cooperating may thus damage the cause of peace.

Steps You Can Take to Maintain Balance with Cooperating. You can take special measures so you experience the benefits of wise use of Cooperating and avoid the costs of overuse:

Expand your skills in use of other styles so you are less likely to over-use Cooperating. Choose your battles. Think carefully about which issues, relationships, and situations deserve the time and effort required for Cooperating. If you use it too often you’ll run out of time and energy for people and causes you truly care about and you could even be in danger of burnout. Consider dynamics of status and power. To the extent inequality is present, use a two-step approach. If you are a higher status person in a given conflict, begin with affirmation or appreciation of the other person. As a lower status person, thank or otherwise acknowledge your senior for being willing to meet to resolve things. Only after these preliminaries should you move to the open discussion typical of Cooperating. Pay careful attention to timing and readiness. Recognize when the skills and attitudes required for Cooperating are present, and when they are not. Then choose your response style appropriately. Sometimes it is better to use a different strategy for a while until you or others are ready for Cooperating.



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Do good process design. If the conflict involves numerous people, plan the process together. Usually it it not hard to agree on with whom, where, when, in what sequence things will be discussed. This “agreement on the process” will ease the discussion. Monitor the length and intensity of discussion. People who favor Cooperating tend to have more energy for intense discussion than others (with the exception of Directors, who may equal Cooperators in this). Monitor your volume and intensity; offers breaks during long exchanges; arrange discussion across several rounds.

Support Strategies for Cooperators. The most disruptive conflicts often come with those close to us, our partners and colleagues. The support strategies below are addressed to partners who want to help you function at your best. In negotiating with you, they are more likely to get a favorable response if they will:

Seek both/and approaches in discussion. Even if discussion starts out like a battle, look for ways to turn it into a joint discussion of wants and needs. One simple way to do that: Agree to take turns talking and listening. Another: Switch from debate mode to joint analysis and problem-solving. Provide good listening. Feeling heard helps all styles, but Cooperators respond particularly well to efforts to structure conversation around listening. Hear them out fully and you are likely to be surprised at how well even an angry Cooperator will listen in response. If you know the skill of “active listening” or paraphrasing, use it. Be candid, without being rude or insulting. Most Cooperators respect directness and candor in others so long as it is polite. Saying what you want and need will be appreciated, particularly if you manage to say it in an attitude of “providing information about what matters most to me” rather than criticizing or making demands. Stay connected and do not back down too quickly. Cooperators are assertive and make themselves heard. But this is only one part of the process. They truly want to hear other voices too. If you are silent or too quick to agree, the Cooperator ends up seeming to be a Director, which is not at all the intention. Colleagues and friends, especially those who favor Harmonizing and Avoiding and thus tend to step back from confrontation, should resist the inclination to quickly back down from an assertive Cooperator. Make both task and relationship a priority. Where Directors give priority to task and Harmonizers to relationship, Cooperaters give priority to both. Aim for this yourself. Separate these two in your thinking and figure out ways you can strategically support each. Provide information about your needs in a non-dramatic way. Like the Directing style, Cooperators seek info about what is happening with others and tend to become anxious in the absence of it. They’ll respect you for giving it so long as you don’t dramatize. Share info about yourself and your needs as calmly as you can. Eg: If you’re getting very upset, say so, but avoid theatrics to get the point across. If you need some time and space to think, ask for it (rather than storming out the door) but signal your commitment to keep talking. “I want to go for a walk for half an hour to think things through. Then I’ll come back and we can talk some more.” Communicate your needs proactively. For example, in conversation with a Cooperating, an Avoider who needs to step back and think things through might say, “I recognize we need to talk. I want to be at my best when we do that. Could we discuss it tomorrow at 2 after the staff meeting? That will give me a chance to sort out my thoughts.” Signal continuity of discussion. If you need a rest or time to think, assure the Cooperator you’re committed to the discussion. Eg: “I’m worn out by this discussion. Could we take a break and continue tomorrow evening?”

YOUR RESPONSES IN CALM Now we turn to settings of Calm, when differences are apparent but emotions are not yet greatly stirred. Here we pay special attention to your lowest scores. These suggest “low-hanging fruit” for expanding your options and sense of control in the midst of differences.

Each of the five styles has a valuable role to play in the life of every person. When you score low in a style, you may be under-using that style.

The Calm stage of conflict is a great time to experiment with responses different from your usual ones. We normally function “on autopilot” in this stage and respond from habit. Yet since we are not highly stressed we have access to our best inner resources of reflection. Change is relatively easy when we switch off autopilot and consciously choose our response. By experimenting with greater use of styles you are less comfortable with, you can increase your sense of control in the midst of differences.

In your case, you have a tie or near-tie for lowest between the styles of Avoiding (8) and Harmonizing (9). This gives you opportunity to experiment with responses you may not have been using much. Study the styles below for ideas to try.

Try Using Avoiding More



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You scored lower in this style in Calm settings than in other styles. This suggests that, in early stages of conflict when things are not yet emotional, you use Avoiding less than other styles. This spares you some of the weaknesses of Avoiding. For example, if people habitually avoid difficult discussion in a long-term partnership, bad feelings fester and grow. Energy and enthusiasm fades and the relationship may be endangered.

But Avoiding has important uses you may be missing out on. You’ll be most effective in conflict if you are good at all five styles. So increased use of the arts of stepping back and avoiding conflict might benefit you, especially if there is a gap of 3 points or more between your lowish Avoiding score and your highest score in Calm.

When to Avoid. In Avoiding, you respond to differences by withdrawing from interaction. Neither person gets what they want; you just avoid the topic or the person. Although it has limits, Avoiding is wise, and indeed necessary, at times.

Conflict takes time and energy, and it’s stressful. If we take on every battle, we run out of time and energy for the things most important to us. Avoiding is useful when:

The topic is too trivial to merit an argument. You have no time or energy to talk things through. The conflict is with someone you have no long-term relationship with on an issue of minor importance. Why waste the energy? Key people are stressed or anxious. High stress reduces ability to think well and self-regulate emotions. Sometimes it’s wise to delay till people are able to use their best inner resources. When you’re not powerful or strong enough to actively resist the demands of a more powerful party, yet need a passive form of resistance. When it might be dangerous physically or emotionally to get in an argument. When timing or sequence is wrong for discussion. Eg: Maybe you need to review the budget before debating a controversial purchase. When you need time to think things through, gather more information, consult with others, etc., in preparation for discussion.

Ways to Strengthen Avoiding. Since Avoiding seems not to come naturally for you, you might try experimenting with avoidance responses. For example:

Look before you leap into intense exchanges with people. Consider: 1) Whether you have the time and energy required to talk things through; 2) Whether the issue is worth the time and energy required. Dial back responsiveness. It’s not necessary to accept every invitation to an argument, or to always match the level of intensity directed towards you. Experiment with simply sitting in thoughtful silence as others express views you disagree with. If a reply seems necessary, try, “I need to think about that.” Delay or schedule conflict. For example, “Interesting idea, but could we talk about that some other time?” Or “Could I give you my views on that when we’ve got the time to really thresh it out?” Agree that certain topics are off-limit in certain times or places. Agree to discuss certain conflictive topics, such as finances in a domestic partnership, on a regular basis, such as every second Saturday morning, but not at any other time. Learn verbal responses for Avoiding. Memorize some diplomatic crutch phrases for Avoiding: “You know, I see it a bit differently, but I respect where you are coming from….” Or “I agree we need to discuss this, but could we set this topic aside until tomorrow morning so we can focus on other things right now?” Or “You see things one way and I see them a different way. Let’s just leave it at that for now.”

As you ratchet up your use of Avoiding, you’ll have fewer difficult conversations to deal with and more time and energy for things you care about.

Try using Harmonizing more You scored lower in this style in Calm settings than other styles. This suggests that in early stages of conflict, when it’s just an everyday disagreement and things are not yet emotional, you use Harmonizing less than other styles. This helps you avoid possible weaknesses of the Harmonizing style (such as difficulty in taking a stand on things that matter, or inability to press ahead with important tasks if others challenge you).

But Harmonizing has important strengths you may be missing out on. You’ll be most effective in conflict if you are good at all five styles. So increased use of Harmonizing might be beneficial, especially if the gap between your lowish Harmonizing score and your highest score in other styles is 3 or more.



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Benefits of Harmonizing. In Harmonizing, you give high priority to the relationship and keeping the other person happy, and a lower priority to tasks or your own agenda. You set aside your own preferences as necessary in order to please the other person and keep the relationship strong. It’s not right for all circumstances, but Harmonizing is a wise response sometimes. For example:

When the other person cares a great deal more about getting their preferences than do you. When insisting on your own preferences will damage relationships that are important to you. To maintain a balance of give-and-take in a long-term partnerships. If a partner in work or life feels there is not a balance of give and take, resentment creeps in. You can help balance things by using Harmonizing responses more, especially on issues that are not so important to you. To bring warmth and joy to any long-term relationship.

Ways to Strengthen Your Use of Harmonizing To Harmonize you give good attention and support to others and their needs and less to your own. Ways to do that:

Work on listening skills. Learn “Active Listening” or paraphrasing, and practice until you are good. When you listen well, harmonizing is easier. Lighten up. Slow down and inquire about others. Ask questions about things others are likely to enjoy talking about. Smile. Show a sense of humor. Build in some moments for chit-chat or relaxing along with serious discussion. Do conflict analysis from the perspective of your counterpart. As sympathetically as you can, make a list in private of your best guess as to the preferences, needs and challenges of a person you are in conflict with. Then look for ways to address them. Work on both task and relationship. If you scored low in Harmonizing in Calm, you are probably pretty task focused. To balance this, recognize two challenges in conflict: a) the tasks or issues the conflict is about; and b) the relationship. Make special efforts to support the relationship. For example… In negotiations, use a two-step approach to establish a connection before serious work with others. First, connect as people by asking your counterpart how they are doing, inquiring about a family member, thanking them for something, etc. Then, and only then, settle down to business.

Continue to use the other styles as well. But you may wish to experiment with getting more comfortable with Harmonizing, especially in relationships important to you or where connecting has been difficult.

YOUR STORM SHIFT Your Storm Shift is 4, Which is Just Big Enough to Pay Attention to It.

Scores in Calm reflect behavior in dealing with differences when anger and frustration are low. Scores in Storm reflect behavior when disagreements persist, when you are frustrated and probably angry. Your “Storm Shift” is the change in your behavior from Calm to Storm.

As a general principle, the bigger your Storm Shift, the more attention you should pay to it, for a large Storm Shift means that other people are probably surprised, shocked, or hurt by unexpected changes in your behavior.

The biggest shift for you in the transition from Calm to Storm conditions, your score in Directing Style goes down by 4 points. This is moderate, just big enough that you may benefit from the suggestions on the Riverhouse website about Weathering the Storm Shift.

FOR FURTHER STUDY There are numerous resources on the Riverhouse ePress site for further study:

Compendium of tips for all five styles. Tutorial on conflict styles. Interpreting scores – assistance in understanding scores. Support strategies for each style. MySupport -Tool to easily create a list of support strategies tailored to you. Guidelines for Weathering the Storm Shift. Tips on choosing the right style. Web resources on conflict styles. Anger Management. Principles underlying conflict style management and this inventory.



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Discussion questions for groups large or small on conflict styles. Essay on culture and conflict.

Conflict is a social experience and we learn best about it in a social environment. Conversation about conflict styles with people you live or work with is especially valuable. It’s far easier and more rewarding than having an argument!

To prepare, mark in the report those points that seem especially true for you and ideas in the Partner Support section that you like. Then talk about the things you marked up. To make this a two-way exchange, your partner can click here to purchase Style Matters for themselves at modest cost. See these discussion questions and exercises on conflict styles you can use as a trainer, team leader, or participant.

© Ron Kraybill 2020. User is authorized to reproduce freely for personal or organizational use but not to disseminate or sell this report without permission.

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Personality Assesment


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Studies show that there are sixteen work personalities. Those personalities are known as the type of table, which the Publisher wrote, Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc. Palo Alto, Ca 94303. It shows how important it is to know identify your work type for a healthy, happy, and fulfilled work environment for yourself and others.






Introverts, extroverts, sensors, intuitive






Personality Assessment

Part 1: Jung and Briggs Myers personality results analysis

My personality test based on Jung and Briggs Myers typology indicated that I have an INTJ (introverted (38 percent), Intuitive (19 percent), thinking (6 percent), and judging (25 percent) type of personality. My results indicate that I have a moderate preference for introversion over extroversion. I have a slight preference for intuition over sensing, a slight preference for thinking over feeling, and a mild preference for judging over perceiving. As INTJ, my primary mode of living is known to be focused intrinsically; I take things and decisions based on my intuition. My secondary way of living is external, where I deal with situations rationally and logically. INTJ is known as masterminds; they live in a world of ideas and plan strategically rather than following their emotions. I value competence, intelligence, and knowledge as an INTJ person, and I have similar expectations to other people I work with currently and in the past. Since I am more of an introvert, I channel my energy into observing the world to generate potential ideas and possibilities which may turn out to be innovative. According to David Keirsey, a psychologist, and developer of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, nearly 1 to 4 percent of the world’s population has an INTJ personality type. Keirsey’s four temperaments are better known as their subdivided sixteen kinds of personalities. The four-character types, according to Keirsey. The sixteen personality types include guardians, Artisans, Rationales, and Idealists; there are four personality types (Daniel, 2017).


Because I am more introverted at 38 percent, I am less likely to interact with others and share my ideas. I spend much of my time on my mind thinking about new ideas and how to plan strategically. As a result, I usually have little interest in the thoughts and feelings of other people.

Therefore, other people will perceive me as a reserved person who is often isolated and less likely to share ideas. However, I am open to welcoming ideas from other people that I perceive as critical and logical since my primary focus as an INTJ person is to uncover innovations. As an introvert, I prefer working by myself ad strongly prefer solo work to group work. People find it hard to know me because I see little value in social events such as partying and small talk and thus making it difficult for people to get to know me. As a result, I have reserved interaction with a small circle of friends and family members.

A person with INTJ personality traits tends to have difficulty establishing intimate solid relationships. I find it hard to show affection to other people. I do not feel the need to express appreciation to other people. People in a romantic relationship with an INTJ person may feel as they are not loved due to the type rarely showing respect. They are less likely to give positive support and praise as other partners desire, which I know significantly demonstrates in my personality (Daniel, 2017). I do not find it necessary to keep praising my partner, and I rarely use words of affirmation to other people, which makes them think that I am not romantic. In terms of career, I have great interest and passion in pursuing what I live to become more skilled and knowledgeable in my field of study. I have high expectations, and I see it as my responsibility to become the better version of myself.

I -Intuitive

Based on the personality test, my score for intuition was 19 percent. As an intuitive person, I slightly prefer intuition over sensing. I tend to rely on imagination on the potential outcomes rather than sense. I am more focused on tangible facts and more specific results. I tend to discuss and assess different views and options of what the world would look like in the future. I am interested in the future rather than the current moment. For example, I would like to think of where I will be in five years and how that will influence my personal and professional growth. In addition, I tend to exercise my imagination to seek new ideas and possibilities.


I have a slight preference for thinking over feeling. According to Keirsey’s four temperaments, my INTJ personality falls under the rational category as a mastermind. Masterminds are planners, self-confident, systematic, utilitarian, willful, and ingenious (Keirsey, n.d). Under planning, they understand the logical outcomes of each move, and their decisions do not influence by the current situation but the consequences of the action. They quickly understand how a particular decision affects the next step. They foresee what will be the outcome of the present action. In addition, masterminds are self-confident and thus quickly make decisions because they believe in their intuitions and knowledge. When it comes to making decisions, I rarely waste time because I am self-confident that I am making the right decision. I have unparalleled certainty of my ability to overcome barriers and achieve excellent outcomes.

Furthermore, INTJ’s personality confronts challenges head-on and acts as a stimulant for the mastermind to dig deep to uncover innovations. INTJ personality follows a systematic approach to a problem. In addition, a mastermind believes that every situation exists for a reason, and thus every issue must have a solution. They are interested in using ideas and their utility in reality, not merely concerned about the pictures.

NTS value knowledge and competence over everything else and seek to make sense of the world around them so that they can help improve it. However, they are not generally interested in taking care of details but instead are focused on seeing the big picture, discovering ideas, and recognizing patterns. Other people may find a person with an INTJ personality as a rigid person because they are committed to implementing their ideas. Other people may find it hard to understand a person with an INTJ personality.

J- Judgment

From the personality test, I score 25 percent in judgment. This score implies that I prefer judging over perceiving. For example, I like gathering information from the external world and analyzing it to gather new insights to make informed judgments rather than perceiving a situation.

Part 2: Relationship of various personality types at work

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a practical framework that shows how different personality types work together. A workplace cannot be effective with too many people sharing the same personality. The workplace will not be effective because there are too many of the same character traits, and they do not benefit from different input from people with other character traits. For example, INTJ people are all rational masterminds and not input from a person with ISTP personality traits. An organization with an accurate mixture of different personalities will perform better if it has idealists, rationalists, guardians, and artisans. All these personality types interact to bring out the best results. For example, ENFP personality types are regarded as imaginative motivators, while ENSTJ personality types are considered efficient organizers (Thompson, 2022). As a result, a company needs efficient organizers and creative motivators to perform to its full potential. If an organization only has employees with ESTJ personality type, it will have a workforce full of efficient organizers.

However, unfortunately, it will be missing employees with ENFP personality types who are imaginative motivators. Different personality types bring various talents and ensure the team generates a broad spread of ideas and solutions. However, with team members having diverse personality traits can be hard to synchronize the differences into something that can work for the better of the company. However, it is not impossible if all team members respect the boundaries of others. For example, if a person is an introvert and prefers email, approaching their workstations may make them uncomfortable (Kroeger, Thuesen & Rutledge, 2009). It is also imperative to come to people with different personalities in different ways. For example, guardian types prefer facts and patience. Therefore, it is essential to approach the points and have plenty of time for them to make decisions.

Based on the personality test results, I have learned the impacts that my personality type, both positive and negative, can have on an organization. One of the traits I have a person with an INTJ personality type is that I can easily make a decision because I can project the future outcomes, and thus, I am confident with the decision I make. I can predict how the future will unfold, and therefore, I can make strategic decisions for an organization that will place the company in a better position. As a mastermind, I am driven to achieve the result and always watch the long-term consequences of a given action. Therefore, I am now better positioned to avoid decisions that may have adverse outcomes for an organization. INTJs are about strategy, and organizations are about strategic planning. As an INTJ, one of my biggest strengths is strategy. I approach situations in terms of problem-solving by looking at the bigger picture and the outcome of a given case. Businesses miss out because of a lack of visionary leaders who can strategize effectively (Kroeger, Thuesen & Rutledge, 2009). In addition, as an INTJ, I am independent and have self-confidence about myself. Self-confidence helps a leader take more bold moves that can take the organization far ahead. However, one of the weaknesses of INTJs is that they like working in solitary; this can be a disadvantage, especially for projects that require teamwork. I prefer working on projects alone. However, it can be hard when I am supposed to team with other employees to complete a task.









Kroeger, O., Thuesen, J. M., & Rutledge, H. (2009).  Type talk at work (revised): How the 16 personality types determine your success on the job. Delta.

Thompson, J. (2022). How to work with all the Myers-Briggs personality types.

Keirsey. (n.d). Learn about the rational mastermind. mastermind/

Daniel. (2017). Keirsey temperaments. temperaments/







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Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students ……………………………… 6

Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7 ………………………………………………………………………………… 8

Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract …………………………………………………………………………. 9

Basic Formatting Elements …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Font ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Line Spacing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Spaces After Punctuation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Footnotes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

Heading Levels—Level 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Level 2 Heading …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

Level 3 Heading ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one

space, and begin your content on the same line as shown here. ………………………………… 13

Level 5 Heading …………………………………………………………………. 13

Specific Elements of Academic Papers ……………………………………………………………………………. 13

Tables of Contents and Outlines …………………………………………………………………………… 13

Annotated Bibliographies ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14






Crediting Your Sources………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes ……………………………………………………………………………. 15

Paraphrasing ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

Block Quotes …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph ………………………………………………… 17

Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication ……………………………………………………………… 17

Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations ………………………………………………. 17

Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year …………………………………………………. 18

Two Works by Two Different Authors with the Same Last Name ……………………………. 18

Three or More Authors Cited In-Text ……………………………………………………………………. 18

Number of Authors in the Reference List ………………………………………………………………. 19

Numbers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Displaying Titles of Works in-Text …………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources ……………………………………………………………………… 20

Personal Communications ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Resources Canonically Numbered Sections (i.e., the Bible and Plays) …………………………………. 21

Bible and other Classical Works …………………………………………………………………………… 21

Plays …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Lectures and PowerPoints ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Dictionary Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

Changes in Reference Entries …………………………………………………………………………………………. 23






Electronic Sources ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Adding Color ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Self-Plagiarism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Final Formatting Tweaks ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Exhaustive Reference List Examples & Additional Helpful Resources ………………………………… 26

Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40










Begin your abstract at the left margin. This is the only paragraph that should not be indented.

Unless otherwise instructed, APA recommends an abstract be no more than 250 words. It should

generally not contain any citations or direct quotes. This should be a tight, concise summary of

the main points in your paper, not a step-by-step of what you plan to accomplish in your paper.

Avoid phrases such as “this paper will,” and just structure your sentences to say what you want

to say. The following three sentences exemplify a good abstract style: There are many

similarities and differences between the codes of ethics for the ACA and the AACC. Both include

similar mandates in the areas of —-, —, and —. However, each differs significantly in the areas

of —, —, and —. For more detailed information, see “Writing an Abstract” at

Writing_an_Abstract_Revised_2012.pdf (note that you would not include any links in your

abstract). This is just now at 168 words, so eyeball how brief your abstract must be. Think of

your paper as a movie you want to sound enticing, and the abstract as the summary of the plot

you would share to draw people’s interest into wanting to come and see your movie. You want to

really hook and intrigue them. What you have to say is important! Remember to stay under 250,

words. Keywords highlight the search terms someone would use to find your paper in a database.

Keywords: main words, primary, necessary, search terms






Sample APA Paper: Professional Format for Graduate/Doctoral Students

The title of your paper goes on the top line of the first page of the body (American

Psychological Association [APA], 2019, section 2.11). It should be centered, bolded, and in title

case (all major words—usually those with four+ letters—should begin with a capital letter)—see

p. 51 of your Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association: Seventh Edition

(APA, 2019; hereinafter APA-7). It must match the title that is on your title page (see last line on

p. 32). As shown in the previous sentence, use brackets to denote an abbreviation within

parentheses (bottom of p. 159). Write out the full name of an entity or term the first time

mentioned before using its acronym (see citation in first sentence in this paragraph), and then use

the acronym throughout the body of the paper (section 6.25).

There are many changes in APA-7. One to mention here is that APA-7 allows writers to

include subheadings within the introductory section (APA, 2019, p. 47). Since APA-7 now

regards the title, abstract, and term “References” to all be Level-1 headings, a writer who opts to

include headings in his or her introduction must begin with Level-2 headings as shown above

(see section 2.27) for any divisions within the introductory section.

If you do choose to include headings in your introduction section (which is optional), be

sure to include two or more subheadings, since APA (2019) forbids stand-alone heading levels.

A second notable change in APA-7 is that writers are no longer required to cite their source every

single sentence that content from it is mentioned (section 8.1). As demonstrated in this paper,

since all of the content (other than the examples included for illustration and reference-entry

variation purposes) comes directly from the APA-7 itself, citations to the APA-7 are only

included for the first instance in each paragraph. Section and/or page numbers are included

parenthetically throughout for the sake of students who desire to know exactly where the stated






rule appears in the APA-7 itself. In your academic papers, however, it is critical to include the

required author(s) and year, as applicable, for all citations that are included; this may include

more than one citation for each resource per paragraph, as required to avoid any confusion about

the source of that content.

Basic Rules of Scholarly Writing

Most beginning students have difficulty learning how to write papers and also format

papers correctly using the seventh edition of the APA manual. However, the Liberty University

Online Writing Center’s (OWC) mission includes helping students learn how to be autonomous,

proficient writers. The OWC also provides students with templates to help them with basic

formatting elements, but this sample paper is designed to help graduate and doctoral students

learn to master APA rules and formatting on their own, which will prove helpful as they progress

in their studies and work toward future publication in scholarly journals.

For the purpose of instruction, this paper will use second person (you, your), but third

person (this author) must be used in most student papers. First person (I, me, we, us, our) is not

generally permitted in academic papers. Students should refrain from using first or second person

in college courses (even though the APA manual encourages this in other writing venues) unless

the assignment instructions clearly permit such (as in the case of personal reflection sections or

life histories). If in doubt, students should clarify with their professors.

APA-7 delineates separate rules and guidelines between “student” and “professional”

writers (APA, 2019). Because a primary purpose of graduate and doctoral studies is to prepare

those students to publish professionally, Liberty University has decided to have undergraduate

students follow APA-7’s guidelines for “student papers,” and graduate/doctoral students follow

APA-7’s guidelines for “professional papers.” Separate templates are available for each level.






This sample paper illustrates and discusses the rules and formatting of professional papers, as

required for all Liberty University graduate and doctoral courses using APA-7 style.

Brief Summary of Changes in APA-7

Most of these changes will be discussed in more detail below; this is just a very brief

overview here. APA-7 reverts back to only one space after closing punctuation in the body of the

paper (APA-6 required two spaces; APA, 2019, section 6.1). Student (undergraduate) papers no

longer include a running head or abstract (sections 2.2 and 2.8); professional (graduate/doctoral)

papers require an abstract but the running head is now the same on all pages (the added phrase

“Running head:” from APA-6 has been eliminated; see section 2.8). Title pages are different for

both student and professional formats. The title of a paper is no longer limited to 12 words

(section 2.4).

Citations of all resources with three or more authors now use the first author’s last name

and the term et al. (APA, 2019, section 8.17). Reference entries must name up to the first 19

authors before adding an ampersand and ellipsis (up from APA-6’s six authors; section 9.8).

APA-7 omits the phrase DOI and instead standardizes DOIs to be presented in hyperlink format

(i.e.,; section 9.35). Formatting guidelines for

annotated bibliographies are included in APA-7 (section 9.51), as well as expanded and

standardized reference entry examples. As discussed above, it is no longer necessary to cite a

source every single time you refer to content gleaned from it as long as it is clear the content

comes from that source (section 8.1); APA-7 also expanded the specific location noted in the

citation to include page, paragraph, section (as used throughout this sample paper, to direct the

student to the exact relevant content), chapter, timestamp, etc. (section 8.13).

APA-7 allows for “self-plagiarism” (clarified and defined below). It also invites writers to






highlight the most relevant work first, rather than just present all works in alphabetical order

(APA, 2019, section 8.12).

Heading-level formatting has changed, and APA-7 provides more flexibility in font and

line spacing (APA, 2019). The Bible must now be included in the reference list and its citations

must include the editor’s details and year (section 8.28); there are also new rules for dictionary

entries. Publisher city and state details are omitted from all reference entries except those

involving presentations or conferences, as is the phrase “retrieved from.” Hyperlinks should be

live, but they may be either presented as blue underlining or plain black text.

Running Head, Author Note, and Abstract

APA (2019) delineates separate formatting requirements for what it terms “student” and

“professional” papers. Its descriptions for those labels, however, suggests that it regards

undergraduate-level writing to fall within the student purview, and graduate/doctoral-level

writing (including dissertations and theses) to fall within the professional purview. Since a

significant goal in graduate and post-graduate studies is preparing those students to publish in

scholarly journals at and beyond graduation, it makes sense to train those students in the

formatting that is required for professionals. As such, Liberty University has opted to require the

APA-7’s “student” version format for all undergraduate assignments using APA, and its

“professional” version for all graduate and doctoral assignments. To that end, this being the

sample paper for professional formatting, it includes the additional elements required for such: a

running head (same on all pages), an author’s note, and an abstract. Graduate and doctoral

students will use this format. Note that the first “paragraph” under the author’s note is generally

only included if the author has an ORCID number, which most students will not have. However,

it is included in this sample paper and the corresponding template because the purpose of these






resources is to prepare students to publish manuscripts post-graduation. The student’s full

address, however, is intentionally omitted from the Liberty University template and this sample

paper for privacy and safety reasons, since student papers are often unfortunately published

online and disclosing their home addresses could pose safety risks.

Basic Formatting Elements


APA-7 does not prescribe a specific font or size (APA, 2019, section 2.19) but rather

allows for some choice (e.g., 12-point Times New Romans, 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 11-

point Georgia, or 10-point Lucinda Sans Unicode). Most journals and academic institutions will

have a preference, however, as even APA-7 acknowledges on p. 44. For this reason—and

because font size can easily be changed if an editor interested in publishing a student’s work

prefers a different font—Liberty University recommends that students use 12-point Times New

Romans or 11-point Calibri font for the body text in all academic papers. Data in charts, figures,

and tables should be presented in 8- to 14-point size in either Calibri, Arial, or Lucinda Sans

Unicode font. Students are not permitted to use any fonts such as script, calligraphy, poster,

decorative, or others not found in published scholarly journals. Since APA-7 itself authorizes a

variety of fonts and sizes, assignments will be gauged by word count rather than page count.

Word count constitutes the number of words within the body of the paper, and excludes the title

page, abstract, reference list, appendices, and other supplemental resources.

Line Spacing

APA-7 adds extra/blank lines on the title page (APA, 2019, sections 2.5, 2.7, 2.21). It also

specifies that spacing in tables and figures may be single-, 1-1/2-, or double-spaced; equations

can be triple- or quadruple-spaced. Footnotes, when used at the bottom of a page, should be






single-spaced (section 2.21).

Spaces After Punctuation

APA-7 reverts back to just one space after closing punctuation in the body of the paper, as

well as in reference entries (APA, 2019, section 6.1). Ordinarily, it would be improper to have a

paragraph with only one sentence, though APA itself asserts that for its purposes “sentences and

paragraphs of any length are technically allowed.”1


This leads to another new rule in APA-7, one allowing the inclusion of footnotes (APA,

2019, section 2.13). Footnotes should be use very sparingly and are appropriate to include

information such as that in the prior section to alert the reader to supplemental material that is

available online for that thought. Though APA-7 authorizes placement of footnote content either

at the bottom of the page (as in this sample paper) or on a separate page after the reference list

(section 2.21), Liberty University recommends that student place them, when used, at the bottom

of the page, as shown here.

Heading Levels—Level 1

This sample paper uses primarily two levels of headings (Levels 1 and 2). APA style,

however, has five heading levels, which will be demonstrated briefly for visual purposes. See

section 2.27 of your APA-7 (APA, 2019) for more details on heading levels and formatting. In

APA-7, all heading levels are now bolded and in title case (capitalize each major word—usually

those with four or more letters, including hyphenated compound words). Do not capitalize

articles (a, an, the) in headings unless they begin a title or follow a colon. Level 1 headings are

centered, with the content falling on the line beneath each, in standard paragraph format.

1 See






Many students misunderstand that you progress from Level 1 to Level 2 to Level 3 to

Level 4 to Level 5, but that is not correct. In fact, your paper may have only Level 1 headings, or

just Levels 1 and 2. The rule of thumb is that you must have at least two of each heading level

that you use, otherwise omit that heading level.

Headings are basically styling ways of organizing your paper, without using an outline

format. APA specifies five levels of headings; you would likely never use Level 5 and only very

rarely use Level 4 as a student. Think of each level as the different levels in an outline. Roman

numerals, for example, would be Level 1 headings. Capital letters would be Level 2 headings.

Numerals would be Level 3 headings. Lowercase letters would be Level 4. And lowercase

Roman numerals would be Level 5. You must always have two or more of each subheading, but

you do not need every level. You start with Level 1 and work down from that (but not

consecutive 1-2-3-4-5). Under a Level 1, you would either have two+ Level 2 headings or none

at all (just one big section in paragraphs before the next Level 1 section).

Special note about conclusion sections: Please note that some of the sample papers

published by APA to demonstrate proper APA-7 format (including the “professional” sample on

pp. 50-60 of the APA-7 manual) depict the “Conclusion” section with a Level-2 heading. This is

limited to empirical papers that are being submitted for publication in scholarly journals, as those

conclusions pertain to the “Discussion” sections in such papers and are not conclusions of the

overall papers themselves. Conclusions in academic papers at Liberty University will be Level 1

headings (including dissertations and theses, which are divided by chapters, unlike journal article


Level 2 Heading

Level 2 headings are left-justified (APA, 2019, p. 48). The supporting information is






posed in standard paragraph form beneath it. Never use only one of any level of heading. You

must use two or more of any level you use, though not every paper will require more than one

level. The heading levels are simply demonstrated here for visual purposes, but you would

always have two or more of each under a larger heading, as shown throughout all the other

sections of this sample paper.

Level 3 Heading

Level 3 headings are bolded, left-justified, and italicized; the content falls on the line

underneath, as with Levels 1 and 2.

Level 4 Heading. Must be bolded and indented ½”. Add a period, one space, and begin

your content on the same line as shown here.

Level 5 Heading. Same as Level 4, but also italicized. Despite heavy writing experience,

this author has never used Level 5 headings.

Specific Elements of Academic Papers

Tables of Contents and Outlines

APA (2019) does not regulate every type of paper and some elements in various

assignments are not addressed in the APA-7 manual, including outlines and tables of content. In

those cases, follow your professor’s instructions and the grading rubric for the content and

format of the outline or annotations, and use standard APA formatting for all other elements

(such as running head, title page, body, reference list, 1″ margins, double-spacing, permitted

font, etc.). Note that most academic papers will not require a table of contents, nor would one be

appropriate. One was included in this paper simply for ease-of-access so students could go

directly to the content they want to see. Generally speaking, no table of contents would be

necessary for papers less than 20 pages of content, unless otherwise required by your professor.






That being said, when organizing outlines in APA format, set your headings up in the

proper levels (making sure there are at least two subheadings under each level), and then use

those to make the entries in the outline. As discussed above, Level 1 headings become uppercase

Roman numerals (I, II, III), Level 2 headings become capital letters (A, B, C), Level 3 headings

become numbers (1, 2, 3), Level 4 headings become lowercase letters (a, b, c), and Level 5

headings become lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii, iii). Many courses now require “working

outlines,” which are designed to have the bones and foundational framework of the paper in

place (such as title page, abstract, body with title, outline/heading divisions, supporting content

with citations, and references), without the full “meat” that fills out and forms a completed paper.

Annotated Bibliographies

Many Liberty University courses also now require students to prepare and submit an

annotated bibliography as a foundational step to building a research paper. There is significant

merit in these assignments, as they teach students to critique the resources they have found and

rationalize why each is relevant for their paper’s focus. APA (2019) includes a section on

annotated bibliographies (9.51; see the example provided on p. 308). The appendix attached to

this sample paper also includes a sample annotated bibliography.


Appendices, if any, are attached after the reference list (APA, 2019, section 2.14). You

must refer to them (i.e., “callout”) in the body of your paper so that your reader knows to look

there (see the yellow-highlighted callouts to Table 1 on p. 54 and to Footnote 1 on p. 55 of your

APA-7 for visuals on how this should appear in your paper). The word “Appendix” is singular;

use it to refer to individual appendices. APA-7 regards it as a Level 1 heading so it should be

bolded. I attached a sample Annotated Bibliography as a visual aid (see Appendix). You will see






that I included the title “Appendix” at the top of the page and formatted it in standard APA

format beneath that. Because I only included one appendix, it is simply titled as such. If there are

more appendices, assign a letter to each and denote each by that: “Appendix A” and “Appendix


Crediting Your Sources

Paraphrasing and Direct Quotes

Paraphrasing is rephrasing another’s idea in one’s own words by changing the wording

sufficiently without altering the meaning (remember not to just change a word here or there or

rearrange the order of the original source’s wording). Quoting is using another’s exact words.

Both need to be cited; failure to do so constitutes plagiarism. Include the author(s) and year for

paraphrases, and the author(s), year, and page or paragraph number for direct quotes. APA-7 also

expands this to include figure number, time stamp, etc.—whatever detail is necessary to get the

reader directly to that content. Page numbers should be used for any printed material (books,

articles, etc.), and paragraph numbers should be used in the absence of page numbers (online

articles, webpages, etc.; see APA, 2019, section 8.13). Use p. for one page and pp. (not italicized

in your paper) for more than one (section 8.25). Use para. for one paragraph and paras. (also not

italicized in your paper) for two or more (section 8.28). For example: (Perigogn & Brazel, 2012,

pp. 12–13) or (Liberty University, 2019, para. 8). Section 8.23 of the APA (2019) manual

specifies that it is not necessary to include a page or paragraph number for paraphrases (just for

direct quotes), but writers may choose to do so to help their readers find that content in the cited


When naming authors in the text of the sentence itself (called a narrative citation), use the

word “and” to connect them. For example, Perigogn and Brazel (2012) contemplated that . . .






Use an ampersand (&) in place of the word “and” in parenthetical citations and reference lists:

(Perigogn & Brazel, 2012).


Only use quotes when the original text cannot be said as well in your own words or

changing the original wording would change the author’s meaning. You cannot simply change

one word and omit a second; if you paraphrase, the wording must be substantially different, but

with the same meaning. Regardless, you would need to cite the resource you took that

information from. For example, Benoit et al. (2010) wrote that “although, a link between

attachment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has been established, the

mechanisms involved in this link have not yet been identified” (p. 101). A paraphrase for that

quote might be: A link between dysfunctional attachment and the development of PTSD has

been made, though there is insufficient data to determine exactly how this mechanism works

(Benoit et al., 2010).

Block Quotes

Quotes that are 40 or more words must be blocked, with the left margin of the entire

quote indented ½ inch. Maintain double-spacing of block quotes. APA prefers that you introduce

quotes but note that the punctuation falls at the end of the direct quote, with the page number

outside of that (which is contrary to punctuation for non-blocked quotes). For example, Alone

(2008) claims:2

Half of a peanut butter sandwich contains as much bacteria as the wisp of the planet

Mars. Thus, practicality requires that Mrs. Spotiker nibble one bit at a time until she is

assured that she will not perish from ingesting it too quickly. (p. 13)

2 Note that there are no quotation marks for block quotes, as shown in the example.






Usually quotes within quotes use single quotation marks; however, use double quotation marks

for quotes within blocked quotes, since there are no other quotation marks involved. Also

understand that direct quotes should be used sparingly in scholarly writing; paraphrasing is much

preferred in APA format (APA, 2019, section 8.23), as it demonstrates that you read, understood,

and assimilated other writers’ content into one cohesive whole.

How Often to Cite Your Source in Each Paragraph

As already mentioned above, APA’s (2019) new official rule is that you no longer must

cite your source every single time you refer to material you gleaned from it (section 8.1). It is

now acceptable to cite your source the first time you refer to content from it in your paragraph,

and then not again in that same paragraph unless your phrasing does not make the source of your

content clear. This is demonstrated throughout this sample paper.

Rule for Omitting the Year of Publication

That being said, APA (2019) has clarified its special rule that excludes the year of

publication in subsequent narrative in-text citations (when you name the authors in the text of the

sentence itself), after the first narrative citation in each paragraph. It should continue to appear in

all parenthetical citations (see section 8.16). For example, Alone (2008) portrays imagery of Mrs.

Spotiker. This includes her devouring a peanut butter sandwich (Alone, 2008). Alone conveys

this through the lens of astronomy. Note that the year of publication was omitted from the second

narrative citation (underlined for visual purposes).

Arranging the Order of Resources in Your Citations

If the material you cited was referred to in multiple resources, separate different sets of

authors with semicolons, arranged in the order they appear (alphabetically by the first author’s

last name) in the reference list (i.e., Carlisle, n.d.-a; Prayer, 2015) (APA, 2019, section 8.12).






APA-7 now invites writers to prioritize or highlight one or more sources as most prominent or

relevant for that content by placing “those citations first within parentheses in alphabetical order

and then insert[ing] a semicolon and a phrase, such as ‘see also,’ before the first of the remaining

citations” (APA., 2019, p. 263)—i.e., (Cable, 2013; see also Avramova, 2019; De Vries et al.,

2013; Fried & Polyakova, 2018). Periods are placed after the closing parenthesis, except with

indented (blocked) quotes.

Two Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

Authors with more than one work published in the same year are distinguished by lower-

case letters after the years, beginning with a (APA, 2019, section 8.19). For example, Double

(2008a) and Double (2008b) would refer to resources by the same author published in 2008.

When a resource has no date, use the term n.d. followed by a dash and the lowercase letter (i.e.,

Carlisle, n.d.-a and Carlisle, n.d.-b; see APA, 2019, section 8.19).

Two Works by Two Different Authors with the Same Last Name

Citations in the body of the paper should include only the last names, unless you have

two or more resources authored by individuals with the same last name in the same year (or are

citing a personal communication). When there are two different authors with the same last name

but different first names who published in the same year, include the first initials: Brown, J.

(2009) and Brown, M. (2009) (APA, 2019, section 8.20).

Three or More Authors Cited In-Text

When referring to material that comes from three or more authors, APA-7 now requires

that all citations name just the first author’s last name followed by the words et al. (without

italics) (APA, 2019, section 8.17). Et al. is a Latin abbreviation for et alii, meaning “and others,”

which is why the word “al.” has a period, whereas “et” does not. Alone et al. (2011) stipulated






that peacocks strut. Every single time I refer to their material, I would apply APA-7’s rule: Alone

et al. (2011) or (Alone et al., 2011). Since et al. denotes plural authors, the verb must be plural to

match, too: Alone et al. (2011) are… This applies to all citations within the body of the paper

with three or more authors.

Number of Authors in the Reference List

For resources with 20 or fewer authors in the reference list, write out all of the authors’

last names with first and middle initials, up to and including the 20th author (APA, 2019, section

9.8). APA-7 has a special rule for resources with 21 or more authors: Write out the first 19

authors’ last names with initials, insert an ellipsis (…) in place of the ampersand (&), and finish

it with the last name and initials of the last author. See example #4 provided on page 317 of your

APA-7, as well as this paper’s reference list for visuals of these variances (Acborne et al. 2011;

Kalnay et al., 1996).


Numbers one through nine must be written out in word format (APA, 2019, section 6.33),

with some exceptions (such as ages—see section 6.32). Numbers 10 and up must be written out

in numerical format (section 6.32). Always write out in word format any number that begins a

sentence (section 6.33).

Displaying Titles of Works in-Text

The names of journals, books, plays, and other long works, if mentioned in the body of

the paper, are italicized in title case (APA, 2019, section 6.17). Titles of articles, lectures, poems,

chapters, website articles, and songs should be in title case, encapsulated by quotation marks

(section 6.7). The year of publication should follow the author’s name, whether in narrative or

parenthetical format: Perigogn and Brazel (2012) anticipated…, or (Perigogn & Brazel, 2012).






The page or paragraph number must follow after the direct quote. Second (2015) asserted that

“paper planes can fly to the moon” (p. 13). You can restate that with a parenthetical citation as:

“Paper planes can fly to the moon” (Second, 2015, p. 13). Second (2011) is another resource by

the same author in a different year.

Primary Sources versus Secondary Sources

APA (2019) strongly advocates against using secondary sources; rather, it favors you

finding and citing the original (primary) resource whenever possible (section 8.6). On the rare

occasion that you do find it necessary to cite from a secondary source, both the primary (who

said it) and secondary (where the quote or idea was mentioned) sources should be included in the

in-text citation information. If the year of publication is known for both resources, include both

years in the citation (section 8.6). Only the secondary source should be listed in the reference

section, however. Use “as cited in” (without the quotation marks) to indicate the secondary

source. For example, James Morgan hinted that “goat milk makes the best ice cream” (as cited in

Alone, 2008, p. 117). Morgan is the primary source (he said it) and Alone is the secondary

source (he quoted what Morgan said). Only the secondary source is listed in the reference section

(Alone, and not Morgan) because if readers want to confirm the quote, they know to go to page

117 of Alone’s book.

Personal Communications

APA (2019) rationalizes the exclusion of references for information obtained through

personal communication (such as an interview, email, telephone call, postcard, text message, or

letter) in the reference list because your readers will not be able to go directly to those sources

and verify the legitimacy of the material. Instead, these items are cited only in the body of the

paper. You must include the individual’s first initial, his or her last name, the phrase “personal






communication” (without the quotation marks), and the full date of such communication (section

8.9). As with other citations, such citations may be either narrative or parenthetical. For example,

L. Applebaum advised him to dip pretzel rolls in cheese fondue (personal communication, July

13, 2015). The alternative is that he was advised to dip pretzel rolls in cheese fondue (L.

Applebaum, personal communication, July 13, 2015). Note that there is no entry for Applebaum

in the reference list below.

Resources Canonically Numbered Sections (i.e., the Bible and Plays)

These resources should be cited in book format (APA, 2019, Section 9.42). The Bible and

other religious works are generally regarded as having no author; an annotated version would be

treated as having an editor. Include republished dates as necessary. The OWC will publish a list

of reference entries for various Bible versions on its APA Quick Guide webpage.

Bible and other Classical Works

Works such as the Bible, ancient Greek or Roman works, and other classical works like

Shakespeare must be cited in the body of the paper (APA, 2019, section 8.28). APA-7 now also

requires that they be included in the reference list, too (section 9.42), which is a significant

change from APA-6. Republished dates are included as well (see section 9.41). As such, you

would add a parenthetical phrase at the end of your reference entry with the original publication

details; note that there should be no punctuation following such parenthetical content at the end

of a reference entry (the reference entries depicting this in the reference list below are correctly


Citations for the Bible will include the Bible version’s name in the author’s position (as

an anonymous work), original and republished years, and then the book chapter/verse (spelled

out) in place of the page number (i.e., King James Bible, 1769/2017, Genesis 3:8)—see sections






8.28 and 9.42. Note that APA (2019) requires book titles to be italicized in every venue,

including citations and reference entries. Because Liberty University is a distinctly-Christian

institution and many of its courses require biblical integration, most if not all of its students will

cite the Bible in virtually every course. The examples provided on pp. 274 and 325 of APA-7 are:

(note the italics in each)

 Narrative citation: King James Bible (1769/2017)

 Parenthetical citation: (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6)

 Reference entry: King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)


When citing plays, “cite the act, scene, and line(s), in a single string, separated by

periods. For example, ‘1.3.36-37’ refers to Act 1 Scene 3, Lines 36-37” (APA, 2019, section

8.28; see also example #37 on p. 325).

Lectures and PowerPoints

APA (2019) has expanded and standardized its rules for citations and reference entries in

an effort to best credit the original sources. It now includes rules for crediting content in course

or seminar handouts, lecture notes, and PowerPoint presentations (see #102 on p. 347). When

citing a PowerPoint presentation, include the slide number rather than the page number. For

purposes of Liberty University course presentations and lectures (which are not readily available

to the public), reference each as a video lecture with the URL (if available) for the presentation,

naming the presenter(s) in the author’s position. Include the course number, lecture title, and

enough details for others to identify it within that course, in a sort of book format, naming

Liberty University as publisher. Peters (2012) is an example of this in the reference list of this






paper. If the presenter for a Liberty University class lecture is not named, credit Liberty

University as the author; see Liberty University (2020) in the reference list below as an example.

Dictionary Entries

In keeping with its efforts to standardize reference entries, APA (2019) now requires

citation and referencing of word definitions from dictionaries to follow the same rules for

chapters in an edited book (see #47 and #48 on p. 328; section 8.13). As such, you will now

name either the individual, group, or corporate author of the dictionary in the author’s place (e.g.,

Merriam-Webster, n.d.). If you searched online, include the retrieval date and the URL to the

exact webpage. If you used a hard copy book, include the publisher details. The in-text citation

in the body of the paper would follow standard author/year format (e.g., Merriam-Webster, n.d.).

Changes in Reference Entries

There are a number of notable changes in APA-7 from past versions. For the most part,

these simplify and unify the formats to be more consistent across the different resource venues.

Some of these have already been discussed above (i.e., naming up to 19 authors’ names before

adding an ellipsis, and crediting authors and editors of classical works and dictionaries). Other

changes include italicizing names of webpages and website resources in the reference list (APA,

2019, section 6.22), as well as book titles even when named in the author’s position (such as

King James Bible). The city and state locations of publishers are no longer required; only include

those details “for works that are associated with a specific location, such as conference

presentations” (p. 297, section 9.31). Issue numbers are required for all journal articles that have

such, regardless of what page number each issue begins with (section 9.25). If two or more

publishers are listed on the copyright page, include all of them in the order listed, separated by

semicolons (section 9.29). Omit the word Author in the publisher’s place when it is the same as






the author (section 9.24).

Electronic Sources

Note that since the APA 6th edition was published in 2010, great strides have been made

in online and electronic resource accessibility, and APA’s position on electronic resources has

shifted to embrace this. More and more resources are available electronically through the

Internet. The advent of this increased availability has resulted in APA-7’s effort to standardize

the formatting of resources, which in turn simplifies them to some extent. All reference entries

follow the same basic details: Author(s), year of publication, name of resource, and location

details (i.e., either journal name/volume/issue/page numbers, or book publisher, or webpage).

APA (2019) requires inclusion of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in the references

whenever available (section 9.34); if not, then a webpage, if available. In keeping with its

unification of resources, APA-7 now standardizes all DOIs and URLs to be presented in format. The phrase “Retrieved from” is now

excluded except when the content may have changed (such as dictionary entries, Twitter profiles,

Facebook pages; see section 9.16). APA-7 requires all hyperlinks to be active (so your reader can

click on one to go directly to that webpage), but they may appear as either blue-underlined text

or simple black text (section 9.35). There should be no period after any URL. APA-7 no longer

requires authors to break long URLs with soft returns (hold down the Shift key and press the

Enter key) at forward slashes, periods, or underscores to avoid unsightly spacing gaps, but it may

be best to do so in academic papers.

Adding Color

Though APA (2019) authorizes writers to include the use of color in photographs and

figures (section 7.26), Liberty University discourages this in academic papers. It risks becoming






distracting for both students in their quest to be creative, and professors in their quest to focus on

academic content.


APA (2019) also invites writers to repurpose some of their work in future papers.

Specifically, APA-7 states that:

In specific circumstances, authors may wish to duplicate their previously used works

without quotation marks or citation …, feeling that extensive self-referencing is

undesirable or awkward and that rewording may lead to inaccuracies. When the

duplicated material is limited in scope, this approach is permissible. (p. 8.3)

APA-7 adds “Do not use quotation marks or block quotation formatting around your own

duplicated material” (p. 256).

Liberty University, however, has stringent rules against self-plagiarism, as do many

scholarly journals. Liberty University students receive grades for their class papers; those who

have received feedback and a grade from a prior professor on a prior paper have an advantage

over their classmates, both in having the benefit of that feedback/grade and in not having to write

a whole paper from scratch during the subsequent class. Student papers are also submitted to

SafeAssign to deter plagiarism. For these reasons, Liberty University expressly forbids students

using significant portions of a prior paper in a subsequent course (either a retake of the same

course or a new class altogether). It is conceivable that students who are building their

knowledge base in a subject matter—particularly at the graduate and post-graduate levels—

would reasonably justify incorporating brief excerpts from past papers into current ones. In such

case, Liberty University authorizes students to utilize APA-7’s disclosure (i.e., “I have previously

discussed”), along with a citation to the prior class paper and a reference entry (i.e., Owen, 2012;






Yoo et al., 2016). Such self-references and re-use of content from prior papers should be used

sparingly and disclosed fully in the current paper; that content should not constitute a significant

portion of any academic assignment, however.

Final Formatting Tweaks

The templates provided by Liberty University are already formatted with proper spacing,

margins, heading level structure, and hanging indents, as necessary. With the exceptions of the

title page, figures, and equations, papers in APA format should be double-spaced throughout,

with no extra spacing between lines. Academic papers at Liberty University should also be in

one of the accepted fonts throughout (recommended: Times New Romans, 12-point font).

Sometimes when you format your paper or cut-and-paste material into it, things get skewed. One

quick way to ensure that your paper appears correct in these regards is to do a final formatting

tweak after you have completed your paper. Hold down the “Ctrl” button and press the “A” key,

which selects and highlights all of the text in your paper. Then go to the Home tab in Microsoft

Word and make sure that whichever acceptable font/size you choose to use is selected in the Font

box. Next, click on the arrow at the bottom of the Paragraph tab. Set your spacing before and

after paragraphs to “0 pt” and click the “double” line spacing. The extra spacing required on the

title page is already programmed into the template and should not change even when you

complete these actions.

Exhaustive Reference List Examples & Additional Helpful Resources

The reference list at the end of this paper includes an example of a myriad of different

sources and how each is formatted in proper APA-7 format. One example of each of the primary

types of resources will be included in the reference list, as cited in the body of this paper.

Remember that, for purposes of this paper only, many of the sources cited in the body of the






paper were provided for illustrative purposes only and thus are fictional, so you will not be able

to locate them if you searched online. Nevertheless, in keeping with APA-7 style, all resources

cited in the body of the paper are included in the reference list and vice versa (except for personal

communications, per APA-7’s published exceptions). Be absolutely sure that every resource cited

in the body of your paper is also included in your reference list (and vice versa), excepting only

those resources with special rules, such as personal communications and primary sources you

could not access directly.

The reference list in this paper is fairly comprehensive and will include a book by one

author who also appears as one of many authors in another resource (Alone, 2008; Alone et al.,

2011); chapters in edited books (Balsam et al., 2019; Haybron, 2008; Perigogn & Brazel, 2012;

Weinstock et al., 2003); electronic version of book (Strong & Uhrbrock, 1923); electronic only

book (O’Keefe, n.d.); edited books with and without DOIs, with multiple publishers (Hacker

Hughes, 2017; Schmid, 2017); work in an anthology (Lewin, 1999); journal articles (Andrews,

2016; Carlisle, n.d.-a, n.d.-b; De Vries R. et al., 2013; McCauley & Christiansen, 2019);

newspaper article (Goldman, 2018; Guarino, 2017); online webpages (Liberty University, 2019;

Prayer, 2015); resource with corporate author as publisher (American Psychological Association,

2019); resources by two authors with the same last name but different first names in the same

year of publication (Brown, J., 2009; Brown, M., 2009); two resources by same author in the

same year (Double, 2008a, 2008b; Carlisle, n.d.-a, n.d.-b); two resources by the same author in

different years (Second, 2011, 2015); resource with 20 authors (maximum allowed by APA-7

before special rule applies) (Acborne et al., 2011); resource with 21 or more authors (Kalnay et

al., 1996); dictionary entries (American Psychological Association, n.d.; Graham, 2019;

Merriam-Webster, n.d.); Liberty University class lecture using course details (Peters, 2012);






PowerPoint slides or lecture notes, not including course details (Canan & Vasilev, 2019); citing a

student’s paper submitted in a prior class, in order to avoid self-plagiarism (Owen, 2012);

unpublished manuscript with a university cited (Yoo et al., 2016); code of ethics (American

Counseling Association, 2014); diagnostic manual (American Psychiatric Association, 2013);

religious and classical works, including the Bible (Aristotle, 350 BC/1994; King James Bible,

1769/2017; Shakespeare, 1623/1995); dissertation or thesis (Hollander, 2017; Hutcheson, 2012);

review of a book (Schatz, 2000); video (Forman, 1975); podcast (Vedentam, 2015); recorded

webinar (Goldberg, 2018); YouTube or other streaming video (University of Oxford, 2018); clip

art or stock image (GDJ, 2018); map (Cable, 2013); photograph (McCurry, 1985); data set (Pew

Research Center, 2018); measurement instrument (Friedlander et al., 2002); manual for a test,

scale, or inventory (Tellegen & Ben-Porah, 2011); test, scale, or inventory itself (Project

Implicit, n.d.); report by a government agency or other organization (National Cancer Institute,

2018); report by individual authors at a government agency or other organization (Fried &

Polyakova, 2018); annual report (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2017); conference

session (Fistek et al., 2017); and webpages (Avramova, 2019; Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention, 2018; National Nurses United, n.d.; U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.).

Lastly, below are a few webpages that address critical topics, such as how to avoid

plagiarism and how to write a research paper. Be sure to check out Liberty University’s Online

Writing Center ( for more tips and tools, as

well as its Facebook page ( Remember

that these links are only provided for your easy access and reference throughout this sample

paper, but web links and URLs should never be included in the body of scholarly papers; just in

the reference list. Writing a research paper (






or and avoiding plagiarism



The conclusion to your paper should provide your readers with a concise summary of the

main points of your paper (though not via cut-and-pasted sentences used above). It is a very

important element, as it frames your whole ideology and gives your readers their last impression

of your thoughts. Be careful not to introduce new content in your conclusion.

After your conclusion, if you are not using the template provided by the Online Writing

Center, insert a page break at the end of the paper so that the reference list begins at the top of a

new page. Do this by holding down the “Ctrl” key and then clicking the “Enter” key. You will go

to an entirely new page in order to start the reference list. The word “References” (not in

quotation marks) should be centered and bolded. Items in the reference list are presented

alphabetically by the first author’s last name and are formatted with hanging indents (the

second+ lines of each entry are indented 1/2” from the left margin). APA authorizes the use of

singular “Reference” if you only have one resource.3 Students would, of course, NOT include

any color-coding or footnotes in their reference entries. However, for the sake of clarity and

ease in identifying what each entry represents, each one included in the reference list of this

sample paper is color-coordinated to its corresponding footnote, with a brief description of what

each depicts.








Acborne, A., Finley, I., Eigen, K., Ballou, P., Gould, M. C., Blight, D., Callum, M., Feist, M.,

Carroll, J. E., Drought, J., Kinney, P., Owen, C., Owen, K., Price, K., Harlow, K.,

Edwards, K., Fallow, P., Pinkley, O., Finkel, F., & Gould, P. P. (2011). The emphasis of

the day after tomorrow. Strouthworks. 4

Alone, A. (2008). This author wrote a book by himself. Herald Publishers. 5

Alone, A., Other, B., & Other, C. (2011). He wrote a book with others, too: Arrange

alphabetically with the sole author first, then the others. Herald Publishers. 6

American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. 7

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(5th ed.). 8

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Positive transference. In APA dictionary of

psychology. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from

transference 9

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (7th ed.). 10

4 Resource with 20 authors (maximum allowed by APA before special rule applies).

5 Entry by author who also appears as one of many authors in another resource (single author

appears first in list).

6 Multiple authors appear after same single-author resource.

7 Code of ethics.

8 Diagnostic manual.

9 Entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia, with group author.

10 Resource with corporate author as publisher.






Andrews, P. M. (2016). Congruence matters. Educational Leadership, 63(6), 12-15. 11

Aristotle. (1994). Poetics (S. H. Butcher, Trans.). The internet Classics Archive. (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.) 12

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, heathy life? Think age-positive.


intl/index.html 13

Balsam, K. F., Martell, C. R., Jones, K. P., & Safren, S. A. (2019). Affirmative cognitive

behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G. Y. Iwamasa & P. A.

Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice a supervision

(2nd ed., pp. 287-314). American Psychological Association. 14

Benoit, M., Bouthillier, D., Moss, E., Rousseau, C., & Brunet, A. (2010). Emotion regulation

strategies as mediators of the association between level of attachment security and PTSD

symptoms following trauma in adulthood. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 23(1), 101-118.

Brown, J. (2009). Ardent anteaters. Brockton.

Brown, M. (2009). Capricious as a verb. Journal of Grammatical Elements, 28(6), 11-12. 15


11 Journal article without DOI, from most academic research databases or print version.

12 Ancient Greek or Roman work.

13 Webpage on a news website.

14 Chapter in an edited book with DOI.

15 Resources by two authors with the same last name but different first names in the same year of

publication. Arrange alphabetically by the first initials.






Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for

Public Service. 16

Canan, E., & Vasilev, J. (2019, May 22). [Lecture notes on resource allocation]. Department of

Management Control and Information Systems, University of Chile. https:// uchilefau. 17

Carlisle, M. A. (n.d.-a). Erin and the perfect pitch. Journal of Music, 21(3), 16-17. http:// make-

sure-it-goes-to-the-exact-webpage-of-the-source-otherwise-don’t-include 18

Carlisle, M. A. (n.d.-b). Perfect pitch makes sweet music. Journal of Music, 24(8), 3-6. http://


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of

developing flu-related complications. 19

De Vries R., Nieuwenhuijze, M., Buitendijk, S. E., & the members of Midwifery Science Work

Group. (2013). What does it take to have a strong and independent profession of

midwifery? Lessons from the Netherlands. Midwifery, 29(10), 1122-1128. 20

Double, C. (2008a). This is arranged alphabetically by the name of the title. Peters.

Double, C. (2008b). This is the second (“the” comes after “arranged”). Peters. 21

16 Map.

17 PowerPoint slides or lecture notes.

18 Online journal article with a URL and no DOI; also depicts one of two resources by the same

author with no known publication date.

19 Webpage on a website with a group author.

20 Journal article with a DOI, combination of individual and group authors.

21 Two resources by same author in the same year. Arrange alphabetically by the title and then

add lowercase letters (a and b, respectively here) to the year.






Fistek, A., Jester, E., & Sonnenberg, K. (2017, July 12-15). Everybody’s got a little music in

them: Using music therapy to connect, engage, and motivate [Conference session].

Autism Society National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, United States. 22

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest [Film]. United Artists. 23

Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council.

against-disinformation/ 24

Friedlander, M. L., Escudero, V., & Heatherton, L. (2002). E-SOFTA: System for observing

family therapy alliances [Software and training videos] [Unpublished instrument]. 25

GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart. 26

Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric


ActivityID=6172 27

Goldman, C. (2018, November 28). The complicate calibration of love, especially in adoption.

22 Conference session.

23 Video.

24 Report by individual authors at a government agency or other organization.

25 Measurement instrument.

26 Clip art or stock image.

27 Webinar, recorded.






Chicago Tribune. 28

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy

(Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. 29

Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some

predictions. The Washington Post.


predictions/ 30

Hacker Hughes, J. (Eds.). (2017). Military veteran psychological health and social care:

Contemporary approaches. Routledge. 31

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J.

Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). Guilford Press. 32

Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons

from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation,

University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. 33

Hutcheson, V. H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and

lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master’s thesis, The College

28 Newspaper article without DOI, from most academic research databases or print version

29 Entry in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia, with individual author.

30 Online newspaper article.

31 Edited book without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version.

32 Book chapter, print version.

33 Doctoral dissertation, from an institutional database.







of William & Mary]. William & Mary Digital Archive. 34

Kalnay, E., Kanimitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S.,

White, G., Whollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J.,

Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., … Joseph, D. (1996). The

NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological

Society, 77(3), 437-471. fg6rf9 35

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online.

(Original work published 1769) 36

Lewin, K. (1999). Group decision and social change. In M. Gold (Ed.), The complex social

scientist: A Kurt Lewin reader (pp. 265-284). American Psychological Association. (Original work published 1948) 37

Liberty University. (2019). The online writing center.

writing-center/ 38

Liberty University. (2020). BIOL 102: Human biology. Week one, lecture two: Name of class

lecture. 39

34 Thesis or dissertation, from the web (not in a database).

35 Resource with 21 or more authors. Note the ellipse (…) in place of the ampersand (&).

36 Religious work.

37 Work in an anthology.

38 Online webpage with URL.

39 Liberty University class lecture with no presenter named.






McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-

linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. 40

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg 41

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Heuristic. In dictionary. Retrieved 01/02/2020,

from 42

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication

No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of

Health. 43

National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika.

from-zika 44

O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. http:// www.

showitem.asp?itemID-135 45

40 Typical journal article with doi.

41 Photograph.

42 Dictionary entry.

43 Report by a government agency or other organization.

44 Webpage on a website with no date.

45 Electronic only book.






Owen, C. (2012, Spring). Behavioral issues resulting from attachment have spiritual

implications [Unpublished manuscript]. COUN502, Liberty University. 46

Perigogn, A. U., & Brazel, P. L. (2012). Captain of the ship. In J. L. Auger (Ed.) Wake up in the

dark (pp. 108-121). Shawshank Publications. 47

Peters, C. (2012). COUN 506: Integration of spirituality and counseling. Week one, lecture two:

Defining integration: Key concepts. Liberty University.

concepts/id427907777?i=1000092371727 48

Pew Research Center. (2018). American trend panel Wave 26 [Data set]. 49

Prayer. (2015). http:// www exact-webpage 50

Project Implicit. (n.d.). Gender–Science IAT. 51

Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social

life of information, by J. S. Brown & P. Duguid]. Science, 290, 1304. 52

Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we

reorganize ad adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De

46 Citing a student’s paper submitted in a prior class, in order to avoid self-plagiarism.

47 Chapter from an edited book.

48 Liberty University class lecture using course details.

49 Data set.

50 Online resource with no named author. Title of webpage is in the author’s place.

51 Test, scale, or inventory itself.

52 Review of a book.






Gruyter Mouton. 53

Second, M. P. (2011). Same author arranged by date (earlier first). Journal Name, 8, 12-13.

Second, M. P. (2015). Remember that earlier date goes first. Journal Name, 11(1), 18. 54

Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B. A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.).

Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1623) 55

Strong, E. K., Jr., & Uhrbrock, R. S. (1923). Bibliography on job analysis. In L. Outhwaite

(Series Ed.), Personnel research series: Vol. 1, Job analysis and the curriculum (pp. 140-

146). 56

Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porah, Y. S. (2011). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2

Restructured Form (MPI-2-RF): Technical manual. Pearson. 57

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce.

Retrieved July 3, 2019, from 58

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2017). Agency financial report: Fiscal year 2017. 59

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. 60

53 Edited book with a DOI, with multiple publishers.

54 Two resources by the same author, in different years. Arrange by the earlier year first.

55 Shakespeare.

56 Electronic version of book chapter in a volume in a series

57 Manual for a test, scale, or inventory.

58 Webpage on a website with a retrieval date.

59 Annual report.

60 YouTube or other streaming video.






Vedentam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.

series/423302056/hidden-brain 61

Weinstock, R., Leong, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and

responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd

ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press. 62

Yoo, J., Miyamoto, Y., Rigotti, A., & Ryff, C. (2016). Linking positive affect to blood lipids: A

cultural perspective [Unpublished manuscript]. Department of Psychology, University of

Wisconsin-Madison. 63


61 Podcast.

62 Chapter in an edited book without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print


63 Unpublished manuscript with a university cited.







Annotated Bibliography

Cross, D. & Purvis, K. (2008). Is maternal deprivation the root of all evil? Avances en

Psycologia Latinoamericana, 26(1), 66-81.

Weaving spiritual applications throughout the article, the authors incorporate a plethora

of references to substantiate that maltreatment has a direct connection to attachment

disorders. They provide articulate and heavily-supported reasoning, detailing the specific

causes of maternal deprivation individually and then incorporating them in a broader

sense to answer the article’s title in the affirmative.

Feldman, R. (2007), Mother-infant synchrony and the development of moral orientation in

childhood and adolescence: Direct and indirect mechanisms of developmental continuity.

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 582-597.

This longitudinal study tracked 31 Israeli children from ages 3 months to 13 years

(infancy to adolescence). There were direct parallels noted between increased

attachment/coherence and the child’s moral cognition, empathy development, and verbal

IQ. Toddlers who were able to regulate their own behavior later proved to excel in lead-

lag structures and language skills.






Criteria Ratings Points

Reflections 70 to >63 pts


The paper superbly describes the following: • What impressions you have about the inventory and/or your personal results. • What was most surprising? • What was most obvious? • What does it motivate you to do? • How does it correlate to the other elements of the course? • How do the results of the Style Matters Inventory provide insight on your approach to conflict?

63 to >58 pts


The paper adequately describes the following: • What impressions you have about the inventory and/or your personal results. • What was most surprising? • What was most obvious? • What does it motivate you to do? • How does it correlate to the other elements of the course? • How do the results of the Style Matters Inventory provide insight on your approach to conflict?

58 to >0 pts


The paper is lacking one or more related to the following: • What impressions you have about the inventory and/or your personal results. • What was most surprising? • What was most obvious? • What does it motivate you to do? • How does it correlate to the other elements of the course? • How do the results of the Style Matters Inventory provide insight on your approach to conflict?

0 pts

Not Present

70 pts

Formatting 30 to >27 pts


Format, Title page and Bibliography are free from grammar/spelling errors and are consistent with formatting of the student’s program (e.g. Turabian, APA and AMA formatting guides are provided by Liberty University). Minimum of 900 words (3 pages).

27 to >24 pts


Format, Title page and Bibliography have 6 – 10 grammar/spelling errors and are inconsistent with formatting of the student’s program (e.g. Turabian, APA and AMA formatting guides). Less than 900 words (3 pages).

24 to >0 pts


Format, Title page and Bibliography have more than 10 grammar/spelling errors and do not correlate with formatting of the student’s program (e.g. Turabian, APA and AMA formatting guides). Less than 900 words (3 pages).

0 pts

Not Present

30 pts

Total Points: 100

Style Matters: Inventory Reflection Paper Grading Rubric | LEAD610_D01_202330

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