Capital punishment 

Graduate Capstone


The Deterrence
Effect that Body Worn Cameras have on

Police Officers in Helping Victims of Domestic Violence

University of Memphis

Criminal Justice Department

Graduate Capstone

March 27, 2022


The use of BWC has become a significant concern when it comes to the legitimacy and accountability of police officers across the nation. In 2015, $23 million was funded by the Department of Justice to test the use of body-worn cameras (Justice, 2015). Police body cameras have helped to shed light on the high prevalence of police brutality. In addition, police officers attitudes are hypothesized to change when being video recorded (Coudert, Denis, & Metayer, 2015). Many people attempt to change their behavior once they are aware of themselves being watched in which they desire others to see the good in them (Letourneau, 2015). For police officers, one theory that underpins how their behavior is altered with the use of BWC is the Deterrence Theory. However, there has not been much research pertaining to the efficacy of body-worn cameras. In regard to the main use of BWV (Body Worn Video), there are many ways in which these devices can serve an even greater purpose within the criminal justice system when addressing police interaction with the public. With the help of police body cameras, there could be a significant deterrence effect in domestic violence cases. This phenomenon is compared to the “Hawthorne Effect,” when individuals alter their behavior because they are being observed (Stanley, 2013). Electronic devices that record video and audio footage can stop offenders from remaining anonymous. It makes it quite difficult for them to hide from the truth and criticism in attempts to get away with deviant behavior (Woods, 2016).

Over the years, domestic violence cases have increased significantly and can be quite difficult to prosecute due to the amount of evidence presented and the cooperation of the victims. Many times, after a victim has made a 911 call about their domestic violence incident, there is a possibility of them choosing not to go forward with the case. There could be several reasons why they decide not to testify in court against their perpetrator. Not only are the issues surrounding the perpetrator, but also due to how police officers handle the incident. With the lack of help from law enforcement, victims tend to feel as though they cannot rely on officers for help, therefore they do not go through with any legal assistance. To keep such incidents from reoccurring, the theoretical perspective of deterrence emphasizes how the placement of body-worn cameras on officers can ensure police officers follow proper protocol on domestic violence calls. (Braga, Jr., Sousa, Rodriguez, & Alper, 2017). This paper examines how the use of body worn cameras can deter police officers from neglecting and understanding what victims need during a traumatizing event.

Literature Review

Domestic Violence

Domestic abuse has become a large focus area within the last forty years that has caused major concerns on public and political views. However, domestic abuse was not really considered a crime to a certain extent before the 20th century, only a private matter that should be handled between the family (Dempsey, 2002). According to Sir William Blackstone, who analyzed the early English laws, stated that when a wife is married, she is considered to be property of her husband. Consequently, the wife had to receive any physical punishment that was too excessive given by the husband for behavior he felt was unruly. Although domestic violence against women wasn’t as much importance to the law and not seen as a crime, unless the wife was beaten severely, the role of the police officers where only to enforce the physical abuse limitations based on the chastisement laws (Dempsey, 2002).

Beginning in the 1970’s, domestic violence was seen to be more of a serious social problem rather than a private matter and became worthy of domestic victims receiving interventions, resources, and attention from the public to enact policies to support DV victims. Many researchers have examined how society failed to notice the negative impact of domestic violence due to cultural and social norms. (Dobash & Dobash, 2004) study revealed that since there were many misconceptions from practitioners and citizens pertaining to what defines domestic violence, caused a lot of confusion and misjudgments that led to a decrease in public support. According to the European Commission, it was found that close friends and family members knew of the domestic abuse that was transpiring with the victim but choose not to intervene or get the police involved (Commission, 2016).

Speaking of the issue about domestic violence isn’t just about bring awareness to individuals within the communities, it is also about society accepting the truth behind it and being supportive of the matter which will in turn let victims know they are willing to help. The negative attitudes behind domestic violence such as “it’s none of my business, it’s their privacy”, “if he keeps abusing her, why does she continue to stay with him, or “I can’t help nobody who’s not trying to help themselves” shows that there is a lack of understanding towards domestic abuse. Likewise, along with overlooking the seriousness of domestic violence and sexist views, victims believe that they are helpless and placed in a lose-lose situation. Under cultural and societal norms, individuals are not considered victims unless they find a way to leave their abuser for good. It has been known by (Monckton-Smith, Williams, & Mullane, 2014) that victims are not always deemed safe in most domestic violence incidents after they leave their abusers or home, because they either end up being stalked, kidnapped, or killed during or after the breakup. Therefore, it is important to understand that it is not always possible, easy, or safe for a victim to leave the situation, especially if they have children with their abuser.

(Chambers & Miller, 1983) found that women who have been abused and did not go forward with criminal proceedings made society question their integrity, dignity, and character. Their research showed that some police officers lacked empathy and sympathy for the victims by saying “it’s not that serious”, calm down and go back in the house”, or “don’t get upset”. (Smith, 1989) emphasized several different factors as in why most victims do not reach out to the police for help or even report the domestic violence incidents. For instance, for every domestic violence situation to be quite different, but it is known for abusers to use multiple tactics to control the victim. Another factor associated with victims not reaching out for help is due to low self-esteem and a lack self-confidence. The most significant factor is fear, which keeps the victim from leaving. Fear can range from losing their family, spousal support, their home, and most importantly, the fear and judgements of people not believing they’ve been abused.

Policing domestic violence

Previous literature (Dobash & Dobash, 2004), found that when police responded to domestic violence calls, they were very erratic. (Chambers & Miller, 1983) study showed that many police officers did not quite understand the dynamics of domestic violence, along with how serious the crime was. As a result, many practitioners believed domestic violence was not a crime and prevented officers from answering to more serious calls other than DV. Edwards study also found that although physical violence occurs within many of the incidents, police officers commonly viewed domestic violence as family disputes rather than serious assaults that would lead to officers making arrest and further criminal proceedings. In regard to how law enforcement and society viewed domestic violence in the 1980s, there have been a significant difference in how much support victims receive, more positive attitudes towards DV, and better responses from police officers. One of the most drastic improvements were placing expert police officers who understand the dynamics of domestic violence on the most serious cases of DV. To ensure that domestic violence calls are responded to immediately, 1st responders are sent out to the scene regardless of how small or big the incident could be (Gover, Paul, & Dodge, 2011).

In addition, since 2014, reports have been published in order to in order to examine the changes in police attitudes and how they respond to all domestic abuse. (Gover, Paul, & Dodge, 2011)found that despite the major improvements seen in law enforcement, the procedures taken are still inadequate. For example, the report shows that almost half of the senior officers do not prioritize domestic violence in practice, they more so believe that there’s a high chance of not being able to protect the victims and attempting to target and prosecute the perpetrators. On the contrary, another report reveals that good policing is still on the rise due to the high level of domestic abuse being recorded alone with a significant increase by 88% (Gover, Paul, & Dodge, 2011). For example, domestic violence victims are participating with their statements and ensuring the proper steps be taken in order to protect themselves and their families. Likewise, police officers have started to report and record the domestic violence incidents more accurately. However, it has been shown by (Gover, Paul, & Dodge, 2011), that police officers cannot distinguish between a perpetrator being controlling towards the victim or using coercive behavior when a physical altercation has not occurred. For example, domestic violence incidents are categorized by most police officers as a victim not having an abusive partner or husband, but rather one that have defiant ways (Myhill, 2017). Female victims experience either controlling or coercive behaviors the most by their perpetrators, therefore it will be much easier for officers to identify what has been done to the victims once the incident is recorded accurately.

Evidence shows that when it comes to training officers, having efficient equipment and following the proper procedures, some law enforcement agencies are more exceedingly more than others in responding to domestic violence. For example, it was found that out of 43 law enforcement agencies only 2 of the agencies did not use body cameras and over 40 % of officers refuse to use the technology believing there was legitimate reason for its use (Gover, Paul, & Dodge, 2011). (Robinson, Myhill, Wire, Roberts, & Tilley, 2016) found similar findings which revealed that officers did not find the Dash risk model to be effective, which resulted in some officers not consistently using the survey for domestic violence cases when using the Dash survey, some officers either changed or decided not to answer certain questions intentionally, while others used the discretion to measure the weight of the risk instead of using the survey. These findings make it difficult to show that police officers are being persistent in the use of the risk assessment tools (Myhill, 2017) in many domestic violence incidents, many victims choose to receive help is at the end of the list. Therefore, police officers should treat domestic violence as important cases and provide safety measures for all victims. If officers fail to put victims first and protect them, it shows that they are sympathetic towards the victims which causes the victims to stop depending on officers for help due to the lost hope in receiving support from officers and the criminal justice system.


Police use of discretion

Several studies have examined how police officers use a significant amount of discretion when interacting with society. Their discretion is formed based on either their police culture and /or their encounters with the citizens (McLaughlin, 2007). McLaughlin stated that:

“the police must transform the precepts of criminal law into criminal law ‘in action’.

The low visibility of police work, with little direct supervision or monitoring by senior

officers, means that patrol officers have considerable operational discretion regarding

the ‘when, how, where, and who’ to monitor, stop, search, arrest [or] charge” (McLaughlin, 2007).


(McLaughlin, 2007) states that although police officers are able to use their discretion, before enforcing the law they have to be certain that an individual disobeyed any law. The discretionary powers that law enforcement officials have been sometimes based on their cultural beliefs rather than the policy standards and legal principles, which could be the main issues in why many arrest are not made when responding to domestic violence calls (Dobash & Dobash, 2004). However, in order for reports to be accurate police officers must examine and gather all factors of any domestic abuse case, due to the victims making false statements against the accused for their own personal reasons (Gover, Paul, & Dodge, 2011).

Police Body Cameras

A body-worn camera is a small piece of equipment that comes in different forms attached to police officers’ uniforms (Coudert, Butin, & Métayer, 2015). Body-worn cameras provide footage of an officer’s daily interactions with the public (Woods, 2016). Although research is still being gathered, the benefits of police body cameras is to shed light on police legitimacy, improve transparency, reduce complaints against officers, visual of officers and citizens behavior, and use of force (Ready & Young, 2015). There have been few studies that show how effective police body cameras haven been and will be in the near future for policing. The use of BWCs in Phoenix, Arizona have shown the arrest have increased by 17% along with police complaints being reduced by 23% (Katz, Choate, Ready, & Nuno, 2014). Officers who still received a complaint while wearing a body camera where most likely to get their complaint dismissed and not held accountable for it due to the lack of evidence. There is other literature with similar results regard police complaints and their use of force in Rialto, CA (Barak, Farra, & Sutherland, 2015) and Meza, AZ (Rankin, 2013).

Despite police body cameras being used as a tool to hold police accountable for their actions against citizen, it could also help to prosecute individuals in cases where it is quite difficult to obtain evidence. The evidence collected at the scene of the crime with police body cameras would possibly result in conviction of domestic violence cases by not only video recording the victim’s statement while they are in an emotional and scared state, but also the physical turmoil (signs of abuse and property damage), capturing of witness statements, and the suspect’s behavior in that moment. With a limited amount of research, (Owens, Mann, & Mckenna, 2014) were able to find that the use of police body worn cameras does effectively help with prosecution of the suspects. Within the treatment group, 81% of domestic violence cases resulted in suspects being found guilty, whereas on 72% in the controlled groups where charged of the domestic violent crime. Police officers believed that the utility of BWCs is an effective measure in capturing the important parts of the incident which would lead to the proper conviction and apprehension of the suspects (Owens, Mann, & Mckenna, 2014).

Victims’ Perception of Body Worn Cameras

In cases of domestic Violence, it is very common for victims to perceive police actions negatively due to the level of care that some officers give. Many victims do not receive the help they need from officers when being a part of domestic violence. The purpose of police responding to calls about domestic violence is to reduce the likelihood of the victim getting hurt again. Depending on how small or big the incident is, it is left up to the police discretion as to how to handle it. Officers would either separate the victim and the suspect, talk the issue out, make an arrest of just the suspect along, or arrest both parties. Domestic violence victims have had negative encounters with officers who do not listen or understand the abuse that has happened to them. Victims more so want the police officers to not judge them based on their situation and just show that they are there to provide encouragement and the services to stay protected.

Deterrence Theory

The deterrence theory suggests that crimes are preventable if the risk outweighs the cost/benefits of the crime for the offender. The deterrence theory is also broken down into two components: specific and general deterrence. The concept of general deterrence proposes that the entire population will be deterred from committing any criminal acts in the future after witnessing the apprehension and punishment of others.

Deterrence theory has been a part of the many classical theories of criminology. Not only does the theory explain why individuals commit a crime, but it also presents solutions to prevent it (Tomlinson, 2016). The theory focuses on three aspects: (1) relaying the message to a targeted population, (2) targeted population receives the message and believes it is a threat against them if a crime is committed, (3) the population then make rational decisions before attempting to commit a crime based on the threat, they have received (Tomlinson, 2016).

Much of previous scholarly literature suggests that individuals can experience specific and general deterrence at once (Stafford & Warr, 1993). According to (Stafford & Warr, 1993), they have argued that individuals can be affected by both specific and general deterrence through indirect and direct encounters with punishments. Depending on the severity, swiftness, and certainty of the punishment, many individuals become affected after seeing the degree of the punishment given to others, although they have committed a crime before. (Paternoster & Piquero, 1995), found in their study that specific and general deterrence can happen simultaneously through their self-report measures of deviant and criminal behavior and the perceptions of punishments. Their research findings showed that “the overall deterrent effect of perceived risk to self was due to a combination of personal (specific deterrence) and vicarious (general deterrence) experiences (Paternoster & Piquero, 1995)”.

In addition to the concurrent effects of specific deterrence and general deterrence, punishment avoidance also plays a significant role in the level of deterrence. Punishment avoidance occurs when individuals commit a crime without being caught and punished. (Stafford & Warr, 1993) constructed a model in both general and specific deterrence that included punishment avoidance. “Indirect experience with punishment and punishment avoidance and specific deterrence refers to the deterrence effect (Tomlinson, 2016). Offenders who continuously commit criminal offenses have experienced punishment avoidance due to their perception of rarely being caught by law enforcement. In order to understand how BWCs can affect an offender’s choice in domestic violence situations, the reconceptualization model includes four different effects: personal encounters with sanction threats, direct experience with punishment avoidance, indirect experience with punishment, and indirect experience with punishment (Stafford & Warr, 1993).

There has been a lack of research that supports the celerity (swiftness) of punishment. After a criminal act has been committed, it is vital to quickly apprehend and punish the criminal for their wrongdoings (Howe & Loftus, 1996). Some researchers have argued that celerity does not have an effect on deterrence, yet it is more so relevant to animal behavior (Howe & Loftus, 1996). According to (Daniel S. Nagin, 2001), they also argued that the certainty and severity of punishment were more effective in deterrence than celerity. Matthew Silberman found that depending on the type of crime being committed, the certainty of punishment levels differentiates (Tomlinson, 2016). (Geerken & Gove, 1977) also found that the certainty of punishment was based on the criminal offense (Geerken & Gove, 1977). Individuals who commit “excessive crimes,” more serious offenses, will not be as deterred as offenders who commit “instrumental crimes” (Tomlinson, 2016). The more serious an offense comes to be, the more likely the individual’s perception of being caught is high. Offenders come to the realization that it is quite difficult to avoid the punishment of the criminal acts, whereas more minor offenses may be committed with being caught.

The presence of BWCs is also a deterring mechanism within the deterrence theory. (Stafford & Warr, 1993)), stated that the deterrence theory has an overall deterrent effect on police officers who use BWCs, insinuating that misconduct from officers and ill behaviors will not be tolerated if they know the risk of being caught and the consequences that follow are indeed high. Furthermore, with the use of BWCs, officers are fully aware of being monitored, therefore, they may alter and improve their behavior towards the citizens.

To understand how BWCs can deter police officers from further neglecting the victims in domestic violence, (Stafford & Warr, 1993) reconceptualization of deterrence theory can break down the deterrence effect that BWCs how on domestic violence cases. With the use of body cameras, footage of the incident can increase the chances of showing if the officers attempted to give any legal advice or provide resources to the victim. Secondly, without the presence of body cameras when police are on the scene, they can simply neglect the victims concerns by not listening or providing them with help. Domestic violence incidents occur continuously, sometimes especially with the same victim and suspects because of lack of evidence, noncooperation from the victim for legal proceedings, and officers failing to take the incident serious due to minor issues presented. Therefore, with police officers, they can experience punishment avoidance, in which they believed there’s a chance of them never being caught for not following protocol. Officers with this type of thinking hold misconceptions such as conformation bias in which one believes information that coexist with their own beliefs while refusing to accept information that disproves their beliefs (Stafford & Warr, 1993). With the use of body cameras, footage of the incident can increase the chances of showing if the officers attempted to give any legal advice or provide resources to the victim. Secondly, police officers can use observation selection, without the presence of body cameras when police are on the scene, they can simply separate the families without listening to their concerns or providing help of a domestic violence act. In this instance, this act shows that police officers feel they can do the bare minimum to provide victims with the help they need base off the chances of never being caught.


Numerous amounts of researchers have focused on the effective use of police body worn cameras during police and citizens encounters, such as complaints against officers and police use of force. Still, many have not examined whether BWCs have a deterrence effect on how police officers handle domestic violence incidents. To continue the literature on BWCs and the impact it has on police and citizens incidents, this paper examines the deterrence effect that police body cameras have on police officers when responding to victims of domestic violence Using data from the Tempe (AZ), Police patrol division, Phoenix (AZ) police division (AZ), and Spokane (WA) police division, this study will focus on one area nonexperimental design using surveys to link the deterrence theory to BWCs in domestic violence. Non-experimental research is how the cause-and-effect relationship cannot be demonstrated; researchers can also not manipulate any variables or alter extraneous various instead, they must rely upon observations, surveys, and correlations to conclude. In addition, non-experimental research designs address causality factors by retrospective measures, scenarios, and having no causal relationship. Researchers use a retrospective measure by looking at the start of a previous study, which examines why something had happened for the given outcome. Researchers also use scenarios created to receive input from respondents to determine the cause and effect of a variable. There could be no causal relationship in some cases because if the change of the value of a variable does not affect other variables’ value, there is no correlation. This study will examine if victims feel more supported by police officers who use police body cameras in comparison to officers who do not use them.

Research Question

Do police body cameras help to improve the outcome for domestic violence victims?


1. With the presence of police body cameras, domestic violence arrest increase.

2. With the presence of police body cameras, more victims become aware of resources that can assist them post-victimization.


To test these hypotheses, the methodological standard used in this study will be collected from an experimental research design, which tested the impact of body worn cameras on police responses to domestic violence calls using an experimental group (police officers who wore a BWC) and a nonexperimental group (officers who did not wear a BWC). This research design is more suitable for addressing the hypothesis because it allows the design to examine different time points on multiple variables, which would help establish the causal relationship between police body cameras and resources and support given to victims of domestic violence. It also provides researchers with a straightforward analysis of the causes and effects of the BWCs.

Statistical Analysis

The current study will plan to implement a field test that consists of non-experimental officers using body cameras on the scene while non-experimental do not. For the first condition, experimental police officers who respond to domestic violence calls will follow proper protocol when arriving on the scene and using their BWC. Additionally, once they receive the call, they are instructed to turn on their cameras immediately. Ride-alongs are also in place, to capture victims and officers’ reactions and whether protocol was still followed if a victim requested the camera to be turn off. In the second condition, non-experimental officers did not receive BWC, but still was required to have ride-alongs in order to make observations of how the officers would handle the DV calls.

The current study also included surveys that was administered to victims who called 911 for domestic violence complaints. Victims will receive a survey by text and email. If the victims fail to respond within a 48-to-72-hour time person, they will be contacted by phone to complete the survey. Police officers were also required to submit accurate reports that included how many arrests, they’ve made in a six-month time period for domestic calls.


Victim Ratings

Victims were asked a total of 5 questions about how they felt officers responded to their call when using a body camera. Responses included (1) I felt the officer was attentive to my needs (2) I was able to explain my side of the story (3) I am satisfied as in how the officer analyzed and handled the situation (4) I was treated with respect (5)I felt the officer was showed sympathy and was understanding.

Follow-up Survey Respondents were asked did they receive information about services during the incident. This variable was coded yes or no.

911 calls
Respondents were asked how many 911 calls they’ve made within the last six months. Responses ranged from 1-5, 6-10, or more than 10 calls.


Officers where asked how many arrests they’ve made when responding to domestic calls. Officers had to circle their response. Responses ranged from none, 1-10 or more than 10.
The total amount of arrest made by police officers who are wearing a body camera versus who was not, does not account for the effectiveness of police body cameras, but it could result in police officers making more arrest than normal with the presence of a body camera.

Respondents were asked of their race. The variable was coded Black, White, or other.

Education Outcomes
Respondents were asked which best describes you level of education completed? Responses included (1) high school (2) GED (3) some college (4) Associate Degree (5) Bachelor’s Degree (6) Graduate Degree

Respondents were asked to describe their level of annual income/ Responses included (1) less than 20,000 (2) 20,000-30,000 (3) 30,000-40,000 (4) 40,000-50,000 (5) 50,000-60,000 (6) more than 60,000


Although the current study, examine most of the ways in which BWCs can deter officers from neglecting victims in domestic violence cases, there are still several issues that could be viewed as weaknesses. First, the data used in the study did not include the racial demographics of the police officers. Many studies have done research that considered race as in important factors due to race playing a significant part in the response outcomes from police officers.

Another critical limitation of this study is how gender was not included in the sample. When responding to domestic violence calls, it is important to note who is going to the scene. Males are more dominant which in turn are less sensitive than females when it comes to addressing certain situations. For example, (Johnson, 2007)study shows that the gender of police officers is linked to domestic violence. Victims receive a more positive response when a female officer shows up rather than a male officer. (Johnson, 2007)examined how victims reported female officers to provide information and give them service referral and showed more concern.

Policy Implications

In many ways, police body cameras qualify as a policy itself. Therefore, there are numerous ways in which the current study has a positive effect on how police officers respond to domestic violence cases using body cameras in the near future. Specifically, there is one main direction that can be taken in which the current study and previously related research impacts the use of police body cameras in domestic violence incidents which will ensure that police officers are being deterred from neglecting the victims and providing the necessary tools needed for support. Police departments should incorporate the best responses when dealing with domestic violence. Knowing that police officers use their full discretion in their day-to-day encounters without notion of being monitored, reveals that in some calls they receive they do not take seriously. Therefore, with police body cameras they will be held accountable for providing DV victims with effective services that meet their current needs. This indicates that victims overall will indeed become satisfied with how police officers take initiative to consider how they feel and what they are going through.

In addition, changes should be made to whereas all officers should be required to wear and turn on their cameras when called to any domestic violence incident. This will not only provide sufficient evidence, but it will also show how officers engage in helping the victims by explaining what options and services are available in order to help with the abuse. The present findings indicate that victims were more satisfied with officers who use body worn cameras than ones that did not. Officers provided victims with information about ways in which they could protect themselves from their abusers, victims received information about different shelters, and about any physical injuries either they or their children sustained during the incidents. Victims were highly satisfied knowing the extent to which the officer would take to protect them from any harm or danger. Victims were surprised of the ample amount of resources they’ve received when they knew the police officers were wearing body cameras. With body cameras policies being required and affective across the board, victims need to become a priority, by being heard and felt.

A policy should also be in place for officers to find alternative ways to assist the victims if they have do not wish to be recorded. The same effort officers give when the BWC is turned on is the same effort that needs to be given when it is off. Policies should be incorporated that officers must fill out forms along with police reports that state the type of services given to the victims as well as following up with the victims to ensure they are using their resources and is safe from any harm.


This study examined whether police body cameras make a difference in how police officers respond to domestic violence calls. Victims are almost always given the short of the stick when deciding to call the police for their domestic violence situations. Officers are known to be less sympathetic and understanding towards the victims which causes them to loss confidence in law enforcement. In some cases, instead of listening to the victims, officers use their discretion to decide what needs to be done rather than, seeing what’s best for the victim. With the use of body cameras, police officers are aware that they are being watched in how they how domestic violence calls and follow procedures, therefore they will become more attentive to the needs of the victims and their families. Future research needs to continue to examine ways in which police officers continuously provide helpful resources to victims, along with safeguarding, and their willingness to call involve police officers when they are in need of help.

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    Your money is safe with us. If your plans change, you can get it sent back to your card.

How it works

  1. 1
    You give us the details
    Complete a brief order form to tell us what kind of paper you need.
  2. 2
    We find you a top writer
    One of the best experts in your discipline starts working on your essay.
  3. 3
    You get the paper done
    Enjoy writing that meets your demands and high academic standards!

Samples from our advanced writers

Check out some essay pieces from our best essay writers before your place an order. They will help you better understand what our service can do for you.

  • Analysis (any type)
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Lowering the Voting Age to Thirteen
    Undergrad. (yrs 1-2)
    Political science
  • Coursework
    Undergrad. (yrs 1-2)
    Business Studies
  • Essay (any type)
    Is Pardoning Criminals Acceptable?
    Undergrad. (yrs 1-2)
    Criminal Justice

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Perks of our essay writing service

We offer more than just hand-crafted papers customized for you. Here are more of our greatest perks.

  • Swift delivery
    Our writing service can deliver your short and urgent papers in just 4 hours!
  • Professional touch
    We find you a pro writer who knows all the ins and outs of your subject.
  • Easy order placing/tracking
    Create a new order and check on its progress at any time in your dashboard.
  • Help with any kind of paper
    Need a PhD thesis, research project, or a two-page essay? For you, we can do it all.
  • Experts in 80+ subjects
    Our pro writers can help you with anything, from nursing to business studies.
  • Calculations and code
    We also do math, write code, and solve problems in 30+ STEM disciplines.

Frequently asked questions

Get instant answers to the questions that students ask most often.

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  • Is there a possibility of plagiarism in my completed order?

    We complete each paper from scratch, and in order to make you feel safe regarding its authenticity, we check our content for plagiarism before its delivery. To do that, we use our in-house software, which can find not only copy-pasted fragments, but even paraphrased pieces of text. Unlike popular plagiarism-detection systems, which are used by most universities (e.g., we do not report to any public databases—therefore, such checking is safe.

    We provide a plagiarism-free guarantee that ensures your paper is always checked for its uniqueness. Please note that it is possible for a writing company to guarantee an absence of plagiarism against open Internet sources and a number of certain databases, but there is no technology (except for itself) that could guarantee no plagiarism against all sources that are indexed by turnitin. If you want to be 100% sure of your paper’s originality, we suggest you check it using the WriteCheck service from and send us the report.

  • I received some comments from my teacher. Can you help me with them?

    Yes. You can have a free revision during 7 days after you’ve approved the paper. To apply for a free revision, please press the revision request button on your personal order page. You can also apply for another writer to make a revision of your paper, but in such a case, we can ask you for an additional 12 hours, as we might need some time to find another writer to work on your order.

    After the 7-day period, free revisions become unavailable, and we will be able to propose only the paid option of a minor or major revision of your paper. These options are mentioned on your personal order page.

  • How will I receive a completed paper?

    You will get the first version of your paper in a non-editable PDF format within the deadline. You are welcome to check it and inform us if any changes are needed. If everything is okay, and no amendments are necessary, you can approve the order and download the .doc file. If there are any issues you want to change, you can apply for a free revision and the writer will amend the paper according to your instructions. If there happen to be any problems with downloading your paper, please contact our support team.
  • Where do I upload files?

    When you submit your first order, you get a personal account where you can track all your orders, their statuses, your payments, and discounts. Among other options, you will have a possibility to communicate with your writer via a special messenger. You will be able to upload all information and additional materials on your paper using the “Files” tab on your personal page. Please consider uploading everything you find necessary for our writer to perform at the highest standard.
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