CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY As in chapters 1 and 2, the introduction for chapter 3 is clearly identifiable due to its location as the first element of your chapter, so it does not need a separate title heading. In the introduction, begin with a restatement of the purpose statement to introduce the need for your study. Then, turn to a brief overview of the chapter. This chapter is typically 10-25 pages long. Research Method and Design Appropriateness In this section, you should elaborate on the following points from your discussion in Chapter 1: (a) the rationale for your proposed research method (quantitative, qualitative, or mixed), (b) rational for your proposed research design and appropriateness to your study, (c) why the proposed design will accomplish your study goals, and (d) why the proposed design is the best choice for your specific research. Population, Sampling, Data Collection Procedures and Rationale In this section, you should discuss each of the items in the section head in turn. Specifically, you should elaborate on the population, making sure that your discussion matches the overview you gave in chapter 1. In addition, you should give more details about sampling, such as number of participants, how the sampling number was determined, and characteristics of the sample, again making sure the discussion is consistent with the overview in chapter 1. Be sure to include discussion about the study participants’ informed consent (include informed consent form in separate appendix), measures to maintain confidentiality, and geographic location information. Your discussion of data collection should be an elaboration of the information in chapter 1, reflecting (a) the techniques used and the rationale for the techniques selected, 12 including a comparison to other techniques that could be used, and (b) the kind of data to be collected, the rationale for collecting that kind of data, and the appropriateness of data collected to the research design and dissertation problem. You should also discuss the instrument(s) you will use in your study. Your discussion should include information about selection appropriateness, explaining why you chose this particular instrument over all others and how the chosen instrument is appropriate to the study. In addition, you should discuss the instrument(s) reliability. If the instrument is not validated, discuss the applicable pilot study. Internal and External Validity In this section, discuss both the internal and external validity. Data Analysis Identify the data analyses that will be performed and explain how and why the chosen data analysis techniques are appropriate to your research design. Summary The summary should identify the key points of chapter 3, including supporting citations for each point. The chapter summary should end with a transition discussion to the next chapter. 13

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS The introduction for chapter 4 is clearly identifiable due to its location as the first element of your chapter, so it does not need a separate title heading. In the introduction, begin with a restatement of the problem. Then, turn to a brief overview of the chapter. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the collected data and describe the statistical treatments and data analysis(es) performed. Data Collection and Screening Begin this section by reviewing a description of the sample. Include information such as the sample size, description of participants, exclusions and justification for exclusions from the sample, and procedure for missing data. Describe the data collection process as in chapter 3, noting any variances from the proposed process. Summarize the data collected. Data Analysis Describe the statistical treatments and data analysis(es) you performed in this section. You should describe the analysis used to address each hypothesis and discuss the results for each hypothesis. Include all relevant results, and state whether each null hypothesis was rejected. Discuss with your advisor the level of detail necessary in this chapter for your particular dissertation. For quantitative studies, tables and charts can convey a significant amount of information efficiently. Check that your table titles and figure captions clearly convey content without having to read the accompanying text. For qualitative studies, the results may include quotes from study participants. 14 State the results without any interpretation. Remember the purpose of this chapter is to state the results of data collection and analysis. You will discuss the implications of the data and results in chapter 5. Summary The summary should identify the key points of chapter 4. The chapter summary should end with a transition discussion to the next chapter. 15

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The introduction for chapter 5 is clearly identifiable due to its location as the first element of your chapter, so it does not need a separate title heading. Begin with a restatement of the purpose of the study. Summarize your methods and procedures. Mention your major findings in a summary of your results from chapter 4. Then, turn to a brief overview of this chapter. Discussion of Findings Discuss and interpret your findings. Evaluate your results referring to your hypothesis(es), objectives, and research questions. Assess your findings in light of the literature reviewed in chapter 2, including references to those sources. Ensure that your interpretations are justified and be ready to answer challenges to your speculations. Conclusions The conclusions should represent the contribution to knowledge you have made through your study. As such, they should directly relate to your research questions and objectives and significance of your study. This is the section where you can state your opinion, using the data collected through your study to support that opinion. Discuss the implications of your study for present and future research. Recommendations In this section you may recommend areas for further study, including suggesting research questions or hypotheses for future research. In addition, you may recommend practical applications of your research. Each recommendation should relate directly to one of the conclusions you make above. Summary Summarize the key points of chapter 5.

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