REVISIONS NEEDED URGENTLY 2 HOURS

DUE IN 2 HOUR

ATTACHED

Assignment Instructions

CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM PLAN

Your site supervisor at RCCC wants your help to secure agency funding for a career development program to serve your clients and community. You will design a career development program plan to be reviewed by the administration at the RCCC for funding consideration.

In this assignment, you will identify a diverse population for whom you need to design a career development program.

The following are examples of populations that may be used:

· Specific racial minorities or ethnic groups.

· Individuals from specific religious affiliations.

· Different generations in the workforce.

· Veterans or military families.

· People with a particular disability or mental disorder.

· LGBTQI+ individuals.

· People who were previously incarcerated.

· At-risk youth.

· International refugees/asylees.

· People with limited English proficiency.

Be creative and explore a population about which you know little and/or want to learn more. Your population can be situated in a hypothetical agency, school, or counseling center.

Using the 

Career Development Program Plan Template [DOCX]

, address the following:

· Define the diverse population, its characteristics, and its needs related to career development (one page).

· Career Development Program Planning (one page).

. Program goal: What is the overarching goal of your program?

. Objectives: Write three measurable objectives to meet the needs of your population.

. Address how the program will be delivered (face-to-face or online/group or individual/frequency [how many sessions] and duration [number of days/weeks/etc.] of program).

. Define personnel and budget needs.

. Describe how you will promote the career program to target relevant participants.

· Career Development Program Implementation (1–2 pages).

. Detail the timeline for your program, session topics, and specific strategies/activities.

. Use the table in the provided template to ensure all aspects of program implementation are met.

· Career Development Program Evaluation (0.5 page).

. How will you measure the effectiveness of your career development program?

. Process-oriented data: Include an objective assessment that clients would take to measure progress towards your identified objectives. Utilize information from Week 4 on Assessment. (School counseling learners – ASCA refers to this as perception data.)

. Outcome data: Include how you will measure results on a larger, long-term scale.

Assignment Requirements

Your paper should meet the following requirements:

· Written communication: Written communication is free of grammar, spelling, and format errors that detract from the overall message.

· APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting guidelines. You may reference the Capella Writing Center: 

Evidence and APA

.

· Length of paper: 4–5 typed, double-spaced pages of content, in addition to the references page.

. About one page for defining your chosen diverse population.

. About one page for program planning.

. About one to two pages for program implementation.

. About half a page for program evaluation.

· References: A minimum of three scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.

· Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

· Originality: Use the 

SafeAssign

 Draft option to check your writing and ensure that you have paraphrased, quoted, and cited your sources appropriately. Run a SafeAssign report, saving your paper as a draft. Based on your SafeAssign results, make any necessary changes to your paper before submitting your assignment.

Career Development Program Plan

1

Career Development Program Plan

Your Name

Capella University

COUN

5

2

7

9

: Life Planning and Career Development

Instructor’s Name

Due Date (Month, Date, Year)

Career Development Program Plan

A Career Development plan outlines long-term and short-term goals that are meant to assist current or future employees to do well in the line of duty. This considers a variety of experiences that current or future employees must learn to make it possible for them to achieve the goals they have set for themselves. Career development programs are meant to enhance skills, give insights into the need to strengthen or develop current and future employees, and make it possible for career advancement in a situation where the opportunity arises. This article outlines career development plans for people with limited English proficiency. 

Diverse Population

In the United States, many students have limited English proficiency (LEP). These students are not able to speak, read, or write in English. They are exposed to a communication disadvantage in the country using English on all platforms of life. The LEP originate from non-English speaking cultures and countries. This makes these students different from other students in public and private institutions. Currently, the number of LEP in the United States is approximately 5 million students in public schools. Big numbers of these students are found in cities with a large number at the elementary level of education. The majority number of the LEP speak Spanish but there are those speaking other languages like Arabic, Chinese, and Vietnamese (Rabie, et.al. 2021). This makes it difficult for these groups of students to take instructions given in their classes and can constantly fail to understand what is being taught like the students who understand English. This makes the students feel bad about themselves and tend to be isolated. This makes the LEPs feel embarrassed, lack interactions with their native language speakers, and overthink how to improve their situation. These issues affect LEPs’ self-esteem, become demoralized, disengaged, and end up being misplaced in the elementary academic setting.

The teaching process of these students should embrace cultural diversity using various strategies to assist the LEPs. To develop the English language capabilities of this group efforts should be made through a career development plan. This should consider teaching more about literacy skills, critical reading, writing, grammar, sentence construction, learning skills, and vocabulary. An instructor should focus to enhance pronunciation, essay writing, and vocabulary learning for the LEPs. Administering this career development program can be affected by the fact that many regions have poorly trained and untrained teachers to handle LEPs. The numbers of LEP are in regions with low-performing schools that have poorly trained or untrained teachers. The United States is facing a shortage of teachers to teach the growing number of LEPs in the country. This career development program focuses on language improvement for LEPs at Woodland school of California.

Career Development Program Planning

The career development program planning for LEPs in woodland California should effectively manage language development by applying key learning behaviors. The learning process should focus on the strengths, work style, interests, values and preferences. There should be attention to knowledge development and skills on how to do it. 

Career Development program name

Career development program for students with limited English proficiency in California Woodlands.

Program Goal

The goal of the program is to enable students to develop and comprehend spoken English, increase the ability of students to use English in their daily lives, understand the skills of skimming and scanning, as well as expressing themselves in simple English. This program will ensure that LEPs in Woodlands school are competent in English writing, vocabulary, communication, critical reading, literacy skills, and sentence writing skills.

Objectives

1). Enable English learners in Woodlands to comprehend the spoken form of English by the end of the first year through the implementation of English literacy skills, vocabulary, and communication.

2). Developing the ability of students to be able to apply English in real-life situations at the end of the first learning year through the implementation of advanced literacy skills.

3

). Ensure that students can understand written text and can apply skimming and scanning skills at the end of the first

8

months of learning (Schlaman, 2019). Through the implementation of critical reading and writing career development learning topics.

4

). Ensure students in woodlands develop simple English writing skills to express their ideas by the end of the first year of learning through sentence writing, writing, and vocabulary.

5). Enable students in Woodlands to cope with frustrations in the learning process by teaching life skills like time management, working independently, listening, and critical social skills.

Program Delivery

The programs will focus on developing English proficiency for learners by teaching writing, vocabulary, learning skills, social skills, critical reading, literacy skills, sentencing, and communication. This will offer a structured transition of LEPs to bilingual education in Woodlands school. The program will target English learners from Pre-K to 12 education level. The programs will cultivate culturally responsive relationships. Teaching will be done through planning and consistent messaging to comfort the learner’s emotional and intellectual risks. A creative supportive environment champions diversity. Teaching staff will conduct home visits to engage the student families to learn ways of incorporating particulars like (pets, favorite sports, etc) of students’ life in the learning process. Through these teachers will be able to create culturally competent relationships with stakeholders.

The process of learning will focus on language skills to enable students to acquire rich academic content in all subjects. Students will be exposed to content from other subjects to reinforce the learning process. The program will emphasize productive language by first focusing on listening and reading skills first. This will ensure all reluctant learners are supported. Throughout the program, the teacher will speak slowly and have an increased waiting time. The learning sessions will be recorded for students’ reference as well as a need for teaching adjustments. The teaching process will incorporate the students’ native languages to leverage the native language as a foundation for learning the new language. The program will embrace technology by using helpful tools like Google Translate as a quick way to enable students to translate words. This will be keenly tough to avoid a situation of increased dependency.

The career development program will be delivered in a face-to-face cohort model. The program will be led by a qualified and certified counselor. The cohort will be divided into groups of

6

students who will have a graduate student as a co-leader assisting the counselor. The small groups of 6 will have to meet twice a week and the whole cohort meet after every two weeks. Each session will be 1.5 hours long running for 12 months. The program will also require students to participate in fieldwork sessions for six months. Students will be assigned duties at the institution in various departments as well as duties in a nearby multidimensional center for learning experience in English language application in real life.

Personnel Needs

To administer the program, the following personnel is needed. An elementary teacher (Immediate), Two integrated instructors (noncredit), a Senior vocational instructor, Adjunct English speakers of other languages (ESOL), Part-time faculty – English as a second language teacher with one-year experience in teaching English as a second language, an academic instructor to provide instruction to LEPs.

The total number of personnel needed is seven. The cohort will have six groups at each group will require a graduate student to lead the weekly sessions having two graduate students will work well. There should be a social worker and school counselor to assist in needs outside class work. The administration will all be needed in the process of administering the program. The total number of personnel needed to handle the day-to-day students learning needs is six including the social worker and counselor.

Budget Needs

The budget line will cover the reading, writing, listening, and speaking sessions in various lessons. School supplies like chalk, white erase boards, white erase markers, staplers, permanent markers, name tags, and paper clips. Other requirements include registration forms and application forms. This will require a budget of $600. Curriculum development will require basic textbooks, chats, pictorial dictionaries, and pronunciation contrasts in English. This will require a budget of $500 whole class. There will be snack breaks that should be procured from local bakeries and groceries. A budget of $300. Training expenses will also be included in the teaching staff’s compensation. A budget line of $10000.

Program Promotion

The information about the program will be disseminated by the director of a nearby multi-dimensional center and through the director of special education programs in the district covering all the local public schools in the region (Rabie, et.al. 2021). To ensure all stakeholders understand the program objectives meeting will be held with school staff and parents at local public schools for sensitization.

Career Development Program Implementation

2

Week 6 to week 52

Week 6 to week 52

Emphasize productive language

Session No.

Timeline

Session Topic

Career Strategy

Learning activities

1

First three months of the program.

1st session for all the cohorts

Literacy skills

Teaching language skills

Participants will; identify topics, supporting details, main ideas, and sequences and also answer comprehension questions.

Use common material for references like dictionaries, atlas, and computer search.

Recognition of different purposes of reading.

Monitoring self-reading and comprehension.

2

First 8 weeks of the program

Compute skills

Incorporation of technology and student’s native language

Participants will learn how to us computers. Learn on using web-based tools for English learning like translator.

From week 9 to week 16

Advancing literacy skills

Emphasizing productive language

Use of context clues

Read passages independently

Structural analysis of compound words, affixes, stress, and contradictions.

3

From week 9 to week 24

Critical reading

Speaking slowly and increase waiting time

Learn of drawing conclusions

Express and support opinion in a text.

Detect tone of a passage

Detect emotions of a character

Distinguish between opinions and facts

4

From week 25 to week 35

Advancing in critical reading

Speaking slowly and increase waiting time

Summarizing written stories, articles, songs, and poetry.

Reading critically

Compare and contrast

Evaluating own comprehension – reflection writing (Walqui, & Heritage, 2018).

Identification of writers’ point of view.

5

Week 6 to week 52

Writing

Teaching language skills using the curriculum

Editing

Summarizing main ideas

Personal writing

Descriptive writing, narrative, and exposition paragraphs.

Drawing sessions

6

Skills of writing sentences

Teaching language skills using the curriculum

Identification of simple and compound sentences

Use of simple and compound sentences in paragraphs

Punctuation

Proper use of subject verb agreement (Walqui, & Heritage, 2018).

Use of dictionary as tool for pronunciation.

7

Week 25 to week 35

Learning skills and strategies

Social skills

Emphasize productive language

Time management

Homework assignments

Enhancing learning skills; stress management and problem solving.

Listening skills

Critical thinking

Active participation is class discussions (Walqui, & Heritage, 2018).

Working independently

Identification of personal strengths

Work organization

8

Communication activities

Differentiate and use multiple modalities

Role playing

Debating

Gathering information

Group narrative writing

Giving students the opportunity to deepen the understanding of work.

Speaking session

9

Week 6 to week 15

Vocabulary development

Interview sessions

Role play targeting language areas (Walqui, & Heritage, 2018).

Group reports on instructions that target vocabulary

Career Development Program Evaluation

Process-oriented Data

At the end of the 12 months learning period, 36 young in the English learner’s program will complete all the coursework and a field language practice program. The field training programs that will take students to various departments of the local institutions will depend on participation and maintaining a 75% of advancement in English learning as evaluated by the line program supervisors. The program’s syllabus focusses on key skills and processes for learning English. Teachers will focus on processes learners use to complete their assignments, drafting, revising, takings note, and reporting. Learners will be involved in thinking sessions, organizing, and planning that will guide them to become prolific in English. Teachers will use tools like dictionaries and translators in the classrooms. The use of teaching pathways in speaking, pronunciation, grammar, and using the phonemic chart.

Outcome Data

To assess the goals of the programs like; enabling English learners, to comprehend the spoken form by the end of the first year the program will have tests after every 4 weeks to the program completion. Ensuring that students can understand written text and can apply skimming and scanning skills will be done through group reading sessions on monthly bases (Patil, 2021). The long-term success goal like the ability to apply English in the real-life situation will be measured from the field exercises where students will have to achieve 75% of the grade. 

References

Rabie, S., Visser, M., Naidoo, A., van den Berg, F., & Morgan, B. (2021). Beyond the individual: A group-based career development intervention implemented in resource-constrained schools in South Africa. 
The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 
46(1), 48-61.

https://doi.org/10.1080/01933922.2020.1856252

Schlaman, H. (2019). Designing structures and pathways to support language development and content learning for English learners: Dilemmas facing school leaders. 
International Multilingual Research Journal, 
13(1), 32-50

.

https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2018.1531675

Patil, A. B. (2021). Empowering Strategies for Learners to Improve English Communication and Soft Skills. 
Ilkogretim Online, 
20(1).

Walqui, A., & Heritage, M. (2018). Meaningful Classroom Talk: Supporting English Learners’ Oral Language Development. 
American Educator, 
42(3), 18.

http://www.aft.org/newspubs/periodicals/ae

.

351

14
ADULT CAREER
DEVELOPMENT

Jane Goodman

Traditionally career development was seen as a process in which young people devel-
oped the maturity, knowledge, and understanding to make a career choice—note the

singular word, choice. Today, however, we recognize that career choices take place over the
course of a lifetime, and therefore development is a continuous process. Helping adults
with their career development draws on theories and practices used with young people
but adds elements particular to adults, draws on their life experiences, and employs the
understanding that this is an ongoing, not one-time, process. In this chapter, we will
summarize career theories as they relate to adult career development, discuss theories that
relate specifically to adults, and then focus on the role counselors play in helping adults
make long- and short-term career decisions.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After completing the reading and exercises provided in this chapter, you will be able to:

• describe typical adult career development needs;

• summarize modern theories of career development as they apply to adults;

• demonstrate understanding of adult career development through responses to
cases;

• use career counseling theories, exercises, and activities to meet the needs of a
diverse groups of adults;

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352 Career Development and Counseling

• recognize issues related to the stress of losing employment; and

• be able to describe a variety of retirement scenarios so as to help adults plan for
and carry out the one(s) best suited to them.

TYPICAL ADULT DEVELOPMENT NEEDS
The more we learn about brain development, the more we learn that the brain remains
plastic well into adulthood and even into old age. That means that adults learn, change,
and, yes, develop throughout life. The idea of career maturity as a fixed destination does
not jibe with these new understandings. Rather, career maturity needs to be defined as
the ability to respond to the changing needs of the workplace, changing internal needs,
and the changes necessitated by relationships with others. Theories of career development
and career counseling are elucidated extensively elsewhere in this volume. Here we wish
only to focus on how these need to be adapted to the needs of adults.

Erik Erikson (1950) was one of the first prominent theorists to discuss develop-
ment beyond early adulthood. His tasks include occupational identity, generativity,
productivity, and after age 60, integrity (vs. despair). Super (1980), Havighurst (1972),
Levinson (1986), and others also discussed stages and developmental tasks of adult-
hood. All of these classical theorists, however, considered adulthood a time of consol-
idating and maintaining. The postmodern world, however, does not usually allow for
adulthood to be static in that way. That is either exciting or challenging, depending on
one’s point of view—and for most it is probably sometimes one, sometimes the other,
sometimes both.

JOB LOSS
Often the reason that adults are seeking career assistance is because they have lost their jobs.
Organizations downsize, relocate, change focus, and retool in response to changing market
needs, a changing economy, or changing demographics. Adults who have been performing
successfully may still find themselves out of work as a result of these societal changes. Adults
who have not kept up with technology, or who for other reasons have been not performing
adequately, are even more likely to lose their positions. The experience of job loss can be
profound. Responses have been described as resembling the stages of grief (Kubler-Ross,
1969) and can be troubling to both the adult experiencing them and to those around them.
It is critical for career counselors to recognize these responses and help their clients recog-
nize, understand, and manage them, perhaps even redirecting them. For example, the anger
that is a common aspect of the grief experience is often directed inward. Although often
unrealistic, people may be angry at themselves for somehow not seeing the unemployment
coming, not avoiding the layoff. Counselors can help clients change the direction of that
anger from self-blame to “They can’t keep a good (wo)man down.”

One of the more challenging aspects of career counseling with those who are newly
unemployed is recognizing the need to perhaps stay immobilized while feeling this heavy
grief. Spencer and Adams (1990) provided a compelling metaphor of this part of the grief
process, calling it “the pit.” Each individual has a unique need for time in the pit, and

Tang, M. (2018). Career development and counseling : Theory and practice in a multicultural world. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 353

counselors need to both recognize and allow that, along with providing a helping hand
for the climb out.

ADAPTABILITY
As he got older, Super modified his career development phases to see later adulthood as a
time for flexibility rather than decline. Goodman (1994) discussed Super’s (1980) coining
of the term “career adaptability” to describe the inappropriateness of using the construct
career maturity for adults as they needed to respond to changing internal and external
conditions. Super and Knasel (1981) pointed out that a critical difference between youth
and adults is that adults are engaged in work whereas youth’s awareness is largely antici-
patory. Hall (1986) made the case that mastery of adaptability led to adults seeing them-
selves as active participants rather than passive victims of circumstances. Strategies for
developing adaptability have been suggested by Gelatt (1991, 2014, 2015) and Mitchell,
Levin, and Krumboltz (1999), among others.

HB Gelatt’s Positive Uncertainty
Originally proposed in 1991, the theory of positive uncertainty has found resonance

with adults, who, in my personal experience, feel that it describes their lives and the
struggle to make decisions in the face of a world where the pace of change is accelerating.
Briefly, the theory says that one must decide and be prepared to change. Waiting for cer-
tainty will lead to paralysis; sticking with a decision in the face of change may lead to a
loss of adaptability. Gelatt (2015, March 15) has added to and updated his theory through
a series of blogs. He restated his strategies for adaptability as Top Ten Tactics:

Do different.

• Do different things and do things differently.

• Get off your paradigm—get out of your box, rut.

• See the big picture.

• Use a telescope—take the long view.

• Use a wide-angle lens—look for the larger implications.

Act like a child.

• Do something foolish, spontaneous, child-like.

• Put your imagination in high gear—and soar.

Take the pause that refreshes.

• Reflect—play the muse.

• Don’t do something—just sit there.

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354 Career Development and Counseling

Put on some different spectacles.

• Try rose-colored glasses—try the six thinking hats.

• Change your viewpoint—get a second and third opinion.

Look at past performances.

• Review and revise the past—consider it a set of raw materials.

• Write your future history—think backward.

Rewrite the rules.

• Slay some sacred cows—invent new rules of thumb.

• Eliminate obsolete standard operating procedures.

Seek serendipity.

• Look for surprises—expect the unexpected.

• Listen for the knock of opportunity—then answer.

Stick your neck out.

• Do something risky—play the giraffe.

• Try to fail at something—if you keep succeeding, move the target.

Dream some impossible dreams.

• Dream precisely—stop dreaming vaguely.

• Imagine your ideal future—and ask how.

Gelatt (2014) also suggested that change happens to you and doesn’t wait for you.
Furthermore, he states:

Although the future doesn’t exist, never did and never will, I believe it is present
right behind my eyes. Foresight is defined as “the perception of the significance
and nature of events before they have occurred.” Therefore, my foresight, my
perception of the future, exists in my mind’s eye. My image of the future may be
the most important factor in determining what it will be.

Since the future doesn’t exist, I have two choices: create it or let someone else. The
future is not predetermined, not predictable, but it is persuadable. When it comes
to the future, there are three kinds of people: those who make it happen, those who
let it happen, and those who wonder what happened. I want to be the first kind.

Tang, M. (2018). Career development and counseling : Theory and practice in a multicultural world. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 355

Counselors who are working with adults around career issues can use Gelatt’s ideas to
help their clients be among those who “make it happen.” They can help clients develop
a sense of agency about their career plans, help them be active on their own behalf, and
help them not only develop a vision of their preferred future but also acquire the tools to
make that vision a reality. Those tools include decision-making strategies and implemen-
tation strategies. Implementation strategies may include networking; filling out applica-
tions; designing resumes for online submission as well as printed versions; identifying job
openings; and preparing for telephone, Skype type, or in-person interviews; and follow-up
strategies. These practical components have sometimes been seen as outside the realm of
career counseling, but it is not enough to know where you are going, it is important to
know how to get there.

Planned Happenstance
Mitchell et al. (1999) described adult career life as a series of events, some planned and

some unplanned. They believed that adults who took advantage of the unplanned events
were the ones who prospered. Their theory of planned happenstance described how indi-
viduals capitalized on chance events to create new opportunities. The inventions of such
diverse products as Wite-Out, Velcro, and Penicillin are described rather as discoveries,
deriving from making connections and chance observations. The happenstance part of
the equation is clear. But what of the planned part? People frequently describe career
opportunities as having been “in the right place at the right time.” But few of us are as
lucky as Cinderella, who could just wait for her prince to come. The rest need to live by
being in many places, in hopes one of them will be the “right place.” Mitchell et al. (1999)
suggest five approaches to using chance events to improve the chances of career success:

1. Curiosity: exploring new learning opportunities

2. Persistence: exerting effort despite setbacks

3. Flexibility: changing attitudes and circumstances

4. Optimism: viewing new opportunities as possible and attainable

5. Risk Taking: taking action in the face of uncertain outcomes (p. 118)

Adult career planning, then, needs to add using and creating chance events to its
repertoire of skills. Redefining indecision as open-mindedness has become another hall-
mark of this theory (Krumboltz, 1992). This use of classic reframing encourages adult
career changers to embrace their uncertainty. Rather than thinking they are inadequate
decision makers, they can see themselves as open to opportunity, learning, and growth.
Changing perspective in this way is particularly useful for adults whose first career deci-
sion(s) may have been made more restrictively, by narrow information or following soci-
etal or parental restraints.

Ebberwein, Krieshok, Ulven, and Prosser (2004) also examined the qualities needed
by adults for successful career adaptability. Using qualitative methods, they conducted
extensive interviews with 18 people who were in career transition, nine women and
nine men. They summarized the results of their research into three themes: adaptive

Tang, M. (2018). Career development and counseling : Theory and practice in a multicultural world. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
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356 Career Development and Counseling

responses, contextual challenges, and insights into the transition. Some of the adap-
tive responses included: approaching “job loss with a sense of urgency,” picturing “the
details of [the] next career move—even when no transition is in sight,” getting “ready to
make changes when career transitions seem imminent,” treating “decisions about stop-
gap employment cautiously,” and setting “realistic goals and outlin[ing] steps to achieve
them” (pp. 297-301).

Contextual challenges were described as follows: “Financial resources, or the lack
of them, strongly influence how one copes with job transition.” This was found to be
the most important contextual factor. “Family life significantly interacts with work
life.” “An employer can have a significant impact on the experience of the transi-
tion (beyond getting it started, of course)” (pp. 301-303). Finally, insights into the

Latisha Forbes had been a librarian for the
whole of her working life. Now 55, she had stud-
ied library science directly after completing her
undergraduate degree. Her parents, as well as
she, herself, had seen library work as appro-
priate for a woman. She also felt that she would
be able to combine this work with her hoped-for
roles as wife and mother, and indeed that plan
panned out. She was able to have part-time work
when her children were young and only returned
to full-time employment when the youngest
entered high school.

Suddenly, it seemed to her, things had
changed. The university library where she
worked had embraced technology enthusiasti-
cally, and although she had learned enough to
manage her responsibilities, she found she no
longer enjoyed what she did. Her youngest child
would finish college in a year, she and her hus-
band planned on working another 12 to 15 years
before retirement, and she felt that was too long
to stay in a job where she no longer looked for-
ward to going to work. Latisha decided to see a
career counselor to help in making a decision as
to what to do next.

Her counselor had recently been to a work-
shop about planned happenstance, positive
uncertainty, and open-mindedness, and thought

these would provide a good framework for
Latisha, whose original choices had been con-
strained by perceived necessity, her parents and
advisors, and her own beliefs about appropri-
ate roles for women. After developing rapport
and learning a bit about Latisha’s situation, the
counselor began by explaining to Latisha the
above-mentioned theories. Latisha understood
the ideas but was uncomfortable with not being
able to be certain about her choices. She wanted
to know for sure that she was making a good
decision. Dealing with her discomfort with ambi-
guity became a subtext of their sessions together
as Latisha explored, for the first time in many
ways, her interests, values, temperament, skills,
and hopes for the future.

Discussion Questions

1. What assessment tools might you use to
help Latisha explore her career options?

2. How would you prepare Latisha for the
ageism she might encounter if she decides
to search for another job?

3. How would you help Latisha examine
her transferable skills from her previous
experience?

CASE ILLUSTRATION 14.1
THE CASE OF LATISHA FORBES

Tang, M. (2018). Career development and counseling : Theory and practice in a multicultural world. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 357

transition were summarized thusly: “Needs and responsibilities sometimes conflict
with the ideal occupation. . . . Adults in transition want counselors who attend to the
big picture. . . . Personal transitions are rooted in significant changes in the world of
work itself ” (pp. 303-304).

The conclusions drawn by Ebberwein et al. (2004) are that planfulness pays off, even
when there is not an obvious need in sight, and that the context can influence success in
navigating a transition, for good or ill. We are reminded of the dental model (Goodman
1992). This model is predicated on the idea of the periodic career checkup, even when
things are going well. It also suggests ongoing career maintenance where updating one’s
resume and nourishing a career network are the equivalent of flossing and brushing.
Postmodern society has made it unusual for a person to choose a career and stay in it for
the rest of one’s working life. Adults need to understand this reality, which may be differ-
ent from what they expected when they were younger. Engaging in continuing education,
networking, and staying abreast of developments in one’s career area and related career
areas are all part of this ongoing career maintenance. Career management programs pro-
vided by some organizations often emphasize these skills. But most individuals do not
have these kinds of programs; they need to be self-directed in keeping current with trends
in the employment market as well as keeping their own employability active.

Managing Transitions
Schlossberg (Anderson, Goodman, & Schlossberg, 2012) developed her transition

theory out of recognition, backed by research, that it was the transitions in people’s
lives that were more salient than their age or stage of life. Thus, an individual looking
for a first job faced many of the same challenges and emotional experiences whether
they were 20 or 60. Similarly an individual losing a job experienced many of the same
thoughts and feelings whether a young married person or a worker close to retirement.
She considered nonevents also to belong to the category of transitions. Thus, not
getting a promotion or not getting into graduate school can be treated as transitions,
because they require a redefinition of roles, hopes, and dreams. Counselors can use
transition theory as an assessment process. Identifying where clients are managing
their transitions well and where they need assistance can form the basis of a counsel-
ing plan of action.

Schlossberg found that there were four components, all beginning with an S, to con-
sider when assessing someone’s experience during a transition. These were the character-
istics of the individual’s situation, the psychological self of the individual, the support
obtainable, and the strategies available to be employed. In assessing the situation, one
needs to look at the trigger, timing, source of the transition, who is in control, what role
change happens as a result, and what the person’s previous experience with a similar
transition is. In considering the self, the areas to look at are the individual’s personal
characteristics—for example, mental health or ego strength—and their psychological
resources—that is, the balance of assets and liabilities that support or hinder their psy-
chological well-being. Furthermore, when assessing the self in relation to adult career
issues, it is important to consider the salience of work in individuals’ lives; the balance
among work, family, and community life; and individuals’ resilience in the face of adver-
sity. It is also useful to look at their sense of self-efficacy in regard to this transition and
what meaning they are making out of what they are experiencing.

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358 Career Development and Counseling

Support is the third in Schlossberg’s quartet of coping resources. Support can be
internal, for example, feeling positive about oneself, one’s overall self-esteem; it can be
external, that is; received from other people; or it can be provided by institutions, mem-
ories, or faith or spirituality. People can provide encouragement, information, referrals,
practical help, and love and intimacy. Institutions can provide practical help, also, such
as unemployment insurance, resume assistance, or job leads. One’s spirituality or faith
can provide a sense of comfort, belonging, and hope. From the foregoing it is clear that
having adequate support is an essential component of successful weathering of a work-
related transitions.

Finally, strategies form the fourth leg of Schlossberg’s transition theory. Strategies can
consist of changing the situation, for example, finding a job; changing the meaning of a
situation, for example, not getting the promotion allows me to spend time with my fam-
ily; and/or managing the stress of the transition. Assessing which strategies are already in
the arsenal of the individual and which need to be added can be a critical component of
the career counseling process. For those without good stress management skills, teaching
these is also a useful part of successful service.

LEARNING ACTIVITY 14.1

1. List all the work and career transitions you
can think of. Consider events and nonevents.
For example, losing one’s job, not getting
into graduate school, or having one’s spouse
accept a transfer in a different city. Try to have
at least 15 examples.

2. Consider what counseling interventions
might be helpful for each transition, for

example, grief counseling for the job loser or
dual-career counseling for the spouse of the
transferee.

3. How would the Schlossberg 4S help you to
conceptualize these situations?

Juan Baez is a 48-year-old man who has just lost
the only job he has ever had. Juan was hired by a
small manufacturing company, Tools, Inc., when
he was 19, just out of high school. He worked his
way up to being a shift manager and was making
a good living at this trade. When Tools, Inc. went
bankrupt, Juan was unprepared and had no Plan B.
He began collecting unemployment compensation

and was able to live on that and his wife’s earnings
along with some savings during the time the unem-
ployment compensation lasted. When that ran out,
he was in a near panic, as he had no idea what to
do next. Juan was used to being independent and
in charge of his life. He had worked his whole life
and always felt confident in his ability to support
himself and his family. His wife’s income helped to

CASE ILLUSTRATION 14.2
JUAN BAEZ

Tang, M. (2018). Career development and counseling : Theory and practice in a multicultural world. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 359

Guidelines for Individuals’ Career Mastery
A search of national career development guidelines leads to the National Career

Development Association website (https://ncda.org). There the guidelines are listed by
topic but are not specifically delineated between youth and adults. This is perhaps rec-
ognition that all skills can be required and or mastered at different ages, but it implies
less focus on adults than did the original guidelines, which specifically included an adult
component.

The guidelines include three domains:

1. Personal social

2. Educational achievement and lifelong learning

3. Career management

Each domain includes goals, and each goal follows the structure of Bloom’s taxonomy
(Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956), comprising knowledge acquisition,
application, and reflection competencies. Knowledge acquisition is defined as, “They can
recall, recognize, describe, identify, clarify, discuss, explain, summarize, query, investi-
gate and compile new information about the knowledge.” Application is defined as fol-
lows: “Youth and adults at the application stage apply acquired knowledge to situations
and to self. They seek out ways to use the knowledge. For example, they can demonstrate,

buy luxuries, but he never felt they depended on it
for living expenses. He is a proud man and finds
asking for help to be very difficult.

Juan and his wife have one daughter. She has
just finished college and is working in her first job
as a teacher. She is living at home while she and her
fiancé save money for a down payment on a house.
She and Juan are close, and he says he will miss
her when she gets married next year. Juan has a
brother, who lives 1,000 miles away near his par-
ents, who are elderly and need a lot of help, finan-
cial and instrumental. Juan feels bad that he has
not helped much financially since he lost his job.

During his first months of unemployment,
Juan stayed active in his softball league and
with The Elks, where he was the coordinator of
monthly luncheon programs. After a while, he
let both of these go, telling the counselor he was
embarrassed that he couldn’t afford to be a part
of the activities. His only other leisure activities
were solitary ones, gardening and taking care
of their house. Juan went to the unemployment

office, and they referred him to a job-counseling
center, where he met with a job counselor. She
used the Schlossberg 4S model to assess Juan’s
assets and liabilities. Juan said that he felt he had
no idea what to do next. Seeing a counselor was
a big step for him, as he thought that made him
seem weak, but he was desperate. He had no idea
how to look for work and even less of an idea of
what work he should be looking for. In thinking
about Super’s developmental levels, his coun-
selor thought Juan, despite being an adult, was at
the exploration stage.

Discussion Questions

1. What else does the counselor need to know
to use the 4S model as an assessment tool?

2. What other information would be useful as
she prepares to help Juan?

3. What personal issues do you see
intertwining with Juan’s career issues?

Tang, M. (2018). Career development and counseling : Theory and practice in a multicultural world. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
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360 Career Development and Counseling

employ, perform, illustrate and solve problems related to the knowledge.” Reflection is
described thus, “Youth and adults at the reflection stage analyze, synthesize, judge, assess
and evaluate knowledge in accord with their own goals, values and beliefs. They decide
whether or not to integrate the acquired knowledge into their ongoing response to situa-
tions and adjust their behavior accordingly.”

For example, under the personal social domain an overall goal is to develop under-
standing of self to build and maintain a positive self-concept. Within that goal are
knowledge—to “identify your abilities, strengths, skills and talents”; application—to
“demonstrate use of your abilities, strengths, skills and talents”; and reflection—to
“assess the impact of your abilities, strengths, skills, and talents on your career
development.” Another goal under the personal social domain is to develop posi-
tive interpersonal skills including respect for diversity. The competencies subsumed
under that goal are knowledge—to “recognize that the ability to interact positively
with diverse groups of people is often essential to maintain employment”; appli-
cation—to “explain how the ability to interact positively with diverse groups of
peoples is often essential to maintain employment”; and reflection—to “analyze the
impact of your ability to interact positively with diverse groups of people on your
employment.”

The domain of educational achievement and lifelong learning includes the goal of
attaining a level of educational achievement that is needed to reach one’s goals as well
as participating in lifelong learning to function effectively in a diverse and chang-
ing economy. And the career management domain includes creating and managing a
career plan as well as the skill of using accurate, current, and unbiased information for
career planning.

MULTICULTURAL ISSUES
Effective career counseling requires one to be knowledgeable about one’s own culture
as well as about the cultures of those different from oneself. When working with adults,
these cultural differences are both greater than and less than the differences when
working with young people. The term multicultural is often used to describe race and
ethnicity, but it can be seen to be much broader. Adults typically identify with several
different groups. These may involve race and ethnicity, but they also include gender;
age; religious beliefs (or lack thereof); level of education; urban, suburban, or rural;
family structure; and others that are determined individually. With greater age comes
more opportunities to establish multicultural identities. The United States, for one,
has been described as a land of groups. Consider, for example, people who bowl, or
scrapbook, or play golf, or own a certain breed of dog. All of these differences, whether
central to identity or relatively trivial, affect an adult’s worldview, approach to work,
leisure, civic engagement, or family life. Career counselors working with adults need
not only to understand their own cultural identities but also to have a heightened
awareness of their clients’ cultural identities in order to ensure that they are not inter-
fering with the counseling relationship.

Super and Knasel (1979) proposed the use of the term career adaptability, but
career maturity is still widely used in the profession. Adaptability has been defined as,

Tang, M. (2018). Career development and counseling : Theory and practice in a multicultural world. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 361

“the ability to alter our responses without too much effort to fit into new or changing
circumstances” (Rossier, 2015, p. 334). He stated that adaptability comprises four
resources:

1. The ability to look ahead and be aware of one’s own future (concern)

2. The ability to control one’s career and life trajectories (control)

3. The ability to explore a variety of situations and roles (curiosity)

4. The self-confidence of one’s ability of reaching his or her aspirations (confidence)

The life design framework, discussed in the approaches section that follows, is one
way of facilitating individuals’ adaptability (Savickas, 2012). Income level and social
class are often ignored when diversity discussions are on the table. There has been a
persistent myth that the United States is a classless society, but the disparity in income
and restriction of the opportunity structure make it clear that this is not true. In 2013,
77% of adults from families in the top income quartile earned at least bachelor’s degrees
by the time they turned 24, up from 40% in 1970, according to a new report from the
University of Pennsylvania’s Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy and the Pell
Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education. But 9% of people from the
lowest income bracket did the same in 2013, up from 6% in 1970 (Korn, 2015). Although
a bachelor’s level college degree may not be the best goal for everyone, family income
should not be the determinant of who goes to college and who does not. When helping
adults make career decisions, it is important for counselors to look at past decisions and
determine if they were made freely, with full access to the opportunity structure, or if
they were constrained. Constraints may come from external barriers or from internal
ones. Being the first in one’s family or community to attend college, for example, may be

LEARNING ACTIVITY 14.2

1. List as many of your own cultural identities as
you can. For example, you might be female,
fortyish, single, heterosexual, Guatemalan
born Hispanic, highly educated, urban, and
caretaker of elderly parents.

2. Indicate the influence each of these identities
has on your worldview and your career
selection. For example, you might say as a
city dweller you had a wide range of career
choices; as a single person, you are able
to enter into work that requires travel;
or as a Spanish speaker, you can work in
communities that require one to be bilingual.

On the restrictive side, being caretaker for
your parents may mean that you are not
geographically mobile.

3. For each of the identities listed in number 1,
indicate how that might help or hinder a
relationship with a client. For example,
the motivation it took you to become highly
educated might make it harder to empathize
with someone with less motivation, and being
a caretaker of your parents might make it
easier to understand the challenges faced
by a single mother in managing a work
schedule.

Tang, M. (2018). Career development and counseling : Theory and practice in a multicultural world. SAGE Publications, Incorporated.
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362 Career Development and Counseling

Samuel Chung came to Mary Garcia’s counsel-
ing office one of the evenings that she held open
for working adults. Sam was well dressed, in the
“uniform” of a successful stockbroker: suit, white
shirt, tie, with well-polished shoes and recently
cut hair. He told Mary that he wasn’t exactly sure
why he was there. He had a good job and made
good money, but he just wasn’t sure that this
work was right for him anymore. Mary thought
about Hansen’s (1997) tasks as she listened to
Sam’s story.

Sam told her that he was turning 50 in a few
months. He was fairly recently divorced, and he
had 2 children who had both graduated college
and who had managed to find jobs. He joked that
they both had jobs with health benefits, so he now
felt free to pursue his own interests. His ex-wife
had a good job, they were on decent terms, and
he had no alimony to pay. Sam had never been
a churchgoer, but he had recently joined a local
men’s group that met in a church, and he was
considering joining the choir.

As Mary listened to Sam, she sensed a yearning
to be engaged in work that connected more closely
to the spirituality he was discovering in himself.
She asked Sam to tell her what had drawn him to

finance and being a broker. His reply told her a lot
about the young man he had been. He said that he
had majored in business in college, because his
parents thought it was a good idea. He did well in his
business classes and enjoyed them. He was offered
a job with his present company after interviewing
through the college placement office, and he had
been there ever since. He had been successful, and
he enjoyed the life that his high income allowed.
Now, however, it just didn’t feel like enough. He
also said that the upcoming 50th birthday felt like
an important milestone—kind of like it was his last
chance to do something he wanted for himself. He
just didn’t know what it was.

Discussion Questions

1. What else would you like to know about
Sam to help him with his current dilemma?

2. How would you apply the theories of adult
development you have read about thus far,
that is, how would you conceptualize his
issues?

3. What would be your treatment plan for
helping Sam?

CASE ILLUSTRATION 14.3
THE CASE OF SAMUEL CHUNG

both external—no funds or for people in rural areas no access—or it may be internal—
no one I know has ever done this, why do I think I can? When past career constraints
have been identified, it is incumbent on the career counselor to look at remediation,
advocacy, and other empowering activities to provide an adult client with opportunities
that may have been missed when they were younger.

MODERN THEORIES OF CAREER
DEVELOPMENT APPLIED TO ADULTS
Although there are suggestions for how to proceed with career counseling in the previous
sections, the focus has been on how to understand clients and their career issues. In this
section of the chapter, we will focus on ways counselors can work with clients to manage

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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 363

their careers, make decisions as necessary, and understand the role that work has in their
lives. It is important to keep in mind throughout this section that a critical difference
between adults and young people is that adults are able to look back on their experiences
to inform future decisions, that is, to be retrospective, whereas young people can only
look ahead to an imagined future, that is, to be prospective.

Life Design
Savickas (2012) proposed linking constructionism and narrative approaches into a

system called life design. In that system there is a process of assisting clients to clarify
their identities through telling stories, often small or micro stories. Using these, the client
and the counselor can construct the client’s identity. They can then deconstruct, recon-
struct, and coconstruct a new identity that is congruent with a new career identity. Let us
look at each of these in turn as Savickas does.

Construction
Building on the work of Cochran (1997), Savickas (2003) suggests that counselors

assist clients in telling their stories. Some of the questions that can be used to elicit these
stories include the following:

1. Whom do you admire? Whom would you pattern your life after? Whom did you
admire growing up? How are you like this person? How are you different from
this person?

2. Do you read any magazines regularly? Which ones? Do you watch any TV shows
regularly? Which ones?

3. What do you like to do in your free time?

4. Do you have a favorite saying or motto?

5. What is your earliest recollection?

These stories may then be used to help individuals understand their career history
from a thematic perspective, understanding that can then lead to considering what next
steps will work within, or as appropriate, counter to, these themes.

Deconstruction
Many adults have grown up with narrow ideas as to their possible career areas.

These self-limiting ideas may come from parental dictates, teachers’ comments, or
cultural messages from the media or the community. Taking apart stories to uncover
these biases is a way of freeing adults from inappropriate constraints. For example, a
woman may have been told that physical labor is “not for girls,” or a Hispanic man
may have been told that he was not “college material.” Even more positive stereotypes
may be hindering as, for example, an individual may have been expected to go to a
four-year college and become a professional, when his or her passion was for fixing
cars or fine carpentry.

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364 Career Development and Counseling

Reconstruction
As its name implies, putting stories back together to form a more complete and accu-

rate narrative is the next task of the career counselor following Savickas’s structure. The
French term for construction, bricolage, often cited by Peavy (1997), one of the early
proponents of constructionism, provides English speakers with an image of brick by brick
building of a new narrative. The counselor’s role is to identify themes, an overarching
plot, and an explanatory macronarrative that can then help an individual make decisions
from a knowledgeable, adult perspective, free of inappropriate constraints and informed
by adult understanding.

Coconstruction
This stage of the work of the career counselor involves joining with the client to cre-

ate a new narrative, one which paves the way for effective career choices that solve the
problem presented by the client who has come to counseling. Savickas (2005) has said
that that career selection offers us a chance to “actively master what we passively suffer.”

Integrative Life Planning
Hansen (1997) formulated an approach to adult career counseling that she termed

integrative life planning. She proposed a six-step process, described in detail in Chapter 5.
Her six propositions foster a counseling process that looks at career in context—context of
social life, personal life, and community life. Seeing these as steps to a satisfying life, rather
than simply a satisfying career, leads the adult client to a broader view of career decision
making, one that includes family and social responsibility. Let us look at each of these
in turn.

Finding Work That Needs Doing
Entrepreneurship is said to be the fastest growing segment of the economy. Even

within organizations, so called intrapreneurship, innovation, leadership, and the ability
to be self-directed are prized attributes. For an adult choosing or needing to change
jobs, the idea of creating work may be foreign or daunting. Counselors who can con-
nect adult clients with programs to help them explore these options are doing their
clients an important service. Many small businesses fail, usually because of lack of a
meaningful business plan or because of undercapitalization. Expert advice can help
adults make meaningful plans and explore if this is a good option for them. Free advice
can often be obtained through SCORE (https://www.score.org). They describe them-
selves as follows:

The SCORE Association “Counselors to America’s Small Business” is a nonprofit
association comprised of 13,000+ volunteer business counselors throughout
the U.S. and its territories. SCORE members are trained to serve as counselors,
advisors, and mentors to aspiring entrepreneurs and business owners. These
services are offered at no fee, as a community service.” (retrieved from https://
www.sba.gov, August 21, 2015)

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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 365

Many local educational institutions have low-cost classes on starting small businesses.
The important message from Hansen’s task is not just to look for job openings but also to
see where a community’s needs are and to look for a way that using one’s skills can meet
that these needs.

Weaving Our Lives Into a Meaningful Whole
Holistic thinking about life has been eloquently presented by Myers, Sweeney, and

Wittmer (2000), who developed the Wheel of Wellness, a holistic model with 16 charac-
teristics of healthy functioning. The researchers emphasized the characteristics of healthy
functioning as a major component of wellness and outlined five major life tasks that
can be identified with each component of the Wheel of Wellness. Somewhat parallel
to Hansen’s (1997) tasks, they identify five components of wellness: spirituality, self-
direction, work and leisure, friendship, and love.

Connecting Family and Work
The decisions that adults make regarding work are usually more complex than

younger people because they often have partners and children. They usually have recur-
ring expenses such as mortgages and childcare or educational expenses for their children.
They may have aging parents who need their help, instrumental or financial. Their part-
ner may have work that needs to be considered when, for example, deciding about a trans-
fer or new job in another location. Career counselors often offer dual-career counseling
for couples who wish to have help in sorting out priorities and plans.

Another aspect of connecting family and work is that of having time for family while
meeting demands of a work milieu that increasingly expects 24/7 involvement. A cur-
rent car ad shows a man leaving the office at 5:00. It states, “When did it become an act
of courage to leave work on time?” Technological accessibility, leaner workforces, fewer
unionized workplaces, and a high unemployment rate have all contributed to many peo-
ple working long hours and taking fewer vacation days. All of these issues contribute to
creating a challenge for workers in balancing work and family life. Career counselors can
help clients include balance issues in their decision-making process.

Valuing Pluralism and Inclusivity
Hansen’s fourth task is more of a statement of values than a task. It reminds us that

having a social conscience and a concern for other people and the world are an import-
ant component of life planning, and yes, career development. Expanding this idea to
other areas of social justice, Peter Plant (2014) made the case that most career theories
focus on a Western, middle-class view of career development as based on individual
decision making and achieving autonomy. Sharma (2005) categorized life goals devel-
opmentally as, “achieving personal satisfaction, self-realization, and serving others.”
Plant (2014) exhorted us to define career choice “in terms of ecology rather than just
economy” (p. 313).

The idea that adults consider the societal impact of their career choices may be rad-
ical, but it fits within a developmental perspective, acknowledging that life choices are

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366 Career Development and Counseling

not made in a vacuum, and that adults as they mature are more likely to look outward
toward a communitarian point of view.

Managing Personal Transitions and Organizational Change
Personal transitions have been discussed at length in earlier sections, so let us now

address organizational change. For many adults, a visit to a career counselor is not about
wanting or needing to change jobs but more about how to handle the current job, as it
morphs into something different. That the pace of change has accelerated is a cliché,
but it is true nonetheless. Some large organizations have career centers or areas within
human resources where employees may receive assistance in planning their careers or in
managing the job they have. These programs may include individual counseling, group
meetings, mentorship programs, tuition assistance, and the like.

Unions also provide career programs for represented workers, and there have been
some joint union management programs, such as the programs supported by the so-called
nickel an hour funds that provided educational assistance, and in some cases, counseling
to represented workers. The unions supported these funds as they provided opportunities
for their workers to achieve and perhaps advance; management supported them because
they resulted in a better-trained workforce, one with the flexibility to meet the demands
of technologically advanced manufacturing.

Exploring Spirituality and Life Purpose
Spirituality was mentioned in the section under holistic living; here is the focus

of a life-planning task. Although young people certainly are interested in finding life
purpose, the need for purpose and meaning seems to grow with adulthood. There is
an old joke about why an elderly grandmother was reading the bible so much. Answer:
“I’m studying for my finals.” The recognition that life is finite seems to peak in late
middle age, prompting many to consider their contribution or legacy. As lives develop,
many people begin looking for ways to make a difference within their work life or
outside of it. Jimmy Carter is often held up as a model of a past president, whose
work on behalf of Habitat for Humanity and The Carter Center is almost universally
respected and garnered him a Nobel Peace prize in 2002. Although we believe that it is
cruel to always expect the newly unemployed to “make lemonade out of lemons,” there
can be an opportunity for meaning making after the grief and anger have subsided.
Reflecting back on our discussion of Schlossberg’s (Anderson et al., 2012) third S, the
support dimension, we can see that although support can come externally, from people
and other entities, it can also come internally, through spirituality, meaning making,
and faith.

Chaos Theory
Bright and Pryor’s (2008) work on applying chaos theory to transitions is particu-

larly appropriate to adults as they navigate both transitions and the rapidly changing
world of work. Focusing on the uncertainties of the future, they look at the skills needed
for adults to manage this environment. They coined the term shiftwork to encapsulate
all of the activities needed for adults to continually reinvent themselves, capitalize on

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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 367

chance opportunities, and find meaning in their occupational pursuits. They suggest that
counselors work with clients to find patterns in complex situations, be open to chang-
ing circumstances, and accept with hope and optimism that unpredictability is part of
the human condition. They support using stories—narrative—to tease out these pat-
terns and develop an attitude of expected mastery of the complicated and ever-changing
decision-making ground. We can see the connections to positive uncertainty, happen-
stance, and transition theory described earlier, but chaos theory adds an important com-
ponent. It recognizes that it may not be possible to move with certainty through the
decisions that adults will find necessary in a world of constant change. There is comfort
in knowing that this uncertainty is real, not solely a psychological state, and that there are
strategies for working within the uncertainty, although one cannot eliminate it.

Identity Renegotiation
The transitions discussed in all of the foregoing assume an individual is making

choices in an autonomous fashion, responding to the vicissitudes of the world at large
but largely independent from its influences. Blume’s (2002, 2010) theory of identity
renegotiation is based on situating identity within one’s cultural milieu. He stated that
all identities are based on an interaction with others, that is relationships, and that
these are moderated, for better or worse, by one’s cultural setting, that is, the context
in which one operates. The implications of Blume’s point of view for career counsel-
ors are profound. They lead us directly into multicultural considerations and require
expanding the career counseling process from one of simply working with an individ-
ual toward making good choices—tentative or at least temporarily fixed. Instead, this
concept requires counselors to learn about a client’s context—social, cultural, ethnic,
and so forth—in order to understand how this context mediates the client’s identity.
Because career transitions usually require a change of work identity, and often a change
of many other aspects of identity, this understanding is critical. As we have discussed
earlier, although identity was once seen as fixed, current thinking sees it as more fluid,
mutable, and open to influence. Career counselors, then, must help their clients exam-
ine not only their own interests, values, goals, and so forth but also look at the world
in which they express these values, including their family, their community, and the
increasingly global society at large.

RETIREMENT
Atchley (2000) described several phases of retirement. Meant to be a broad brush, these
stages are not always followed in sequence, nor is each of them always a part of an indi-
vidual’s experience. Nonetheless, they provide a schema that can be useful in helping
a client plan for and navigate the retirement transition. Whether a client is looking for
preretirement planning or looking for help in managing a retirement already in existence,
career counseling is an appropriate intervention. Occasionally, individuals describe them-
selves as retired when in actuality they have lost their jobs. Job loss after a certain age—
individually defined—can be more easily stomached and more easily explained to others
as retirement. Atchley’s phases are described in more detail in the following:

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368 Career Development and Counseling

Phase 1: Preretirement
During this time, adults contemplate what they will do during retirement, often

focusing on the financial aspects as well as planning how and when to disengage from
their current paid work. Increasingly, out of desire or necessity, individuals are return-
ing to paid work after retirement from a primary occupation. They may still describe
themselves as retired, may be collecting a pension and/or social security, but have not
completely disengaged from the workforce. When adults seek career counseling prere-
tirement, it is important to check if they have a spouse or partner and if they have made
joint retirement plans. The so-called out of sync career commitment curve (Goodman
& Waters, 1985) describes what happens when two members of a couple are on differ-
ent career trajectories, with one ready to wind down and one still planning on staying
involved in work. It is also important to investigate visions of retirement and how they
mesh or do not mesh. One person’s vision of a cabin in the woods may not fit with the
other member of the couple’s vision of driving an RV across the country. One person’s
fantasy of volunteering at the local zoo may not fit with the other’s plans to spend half of
the year visiting family out of state.

Phase 2: Retirement
Atchley (2000) describes three types of retirement:

1. The honeymoon path, characterized by leisure activities, often including
travel

2. Immediate retirement routine, characterized by continuing the active and
involved nonwork activities established before retirement

3. The rest and relaxation path, characterized by very low activity—sometimes
called the “rocking chair” phenomenon

Schlossberg (2004) describes six retirement paths:

1. Continuers—more of the same, but different

2. Adventurers—something new

3. Searchers—looking for your niche

4. Easy gliders—content to go with the flow

5. Retreaters—giving up

6. Combination paths

Each of these paths come from a different set of needs, possibilities, and plans, as well
as all of the usual aspects of a career decision such as looking at interests, values, temper-
ament, and so forth.

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Chapter 14 ■ Adult Career Development 369

Phase 3: Disenchantment
For some, the end of the honeymoon period leads to a sense of disenchantment. This

may be when the reality sets in that one is not on an extended vacation but that this is
one’s permanent reality. There can be a loss of status, of feeling productive, of identity,
of a structure to one’s day, of all of the aspects of a working life discussed in the section
on job loss. Western, and particularly American, individuals often define themselves by
what they do. “Who are you?” is usually answered by a job title or descriptor. After retire-
ment people may say, or feel internally, “I know who I was, I don’t know who I am now.”
Schlossberg (2009) adds the word mattering to this discussion, describing the status of
feeling that what one does makes a difference to oneself, others, and the community. The
state that Atchley describes as disorienting may lead individuals toward the next stage,
reorientation, or may lead to prolonged dissatisfaction and even depression. Counselors
are advised to consider the missing career aspects in the lives of depressed older adults.

Phase 4: Reorientation and Phase 5: Retirement Routine
Individuals at this stage are in a place to realign their needs and priorities and to make

decisions about how to spend what may be as many as 20 to 30 years. They may decide to
become involved in their communities through volunteer work, serving on local boards,
becoming active in their faith community, and so forth. Successful retirees work this out
and have satisfying retirement years. People who are not successful at reorientation may
stay in the disenchantment phase and may be very unhappy. Career counseling can be an
important component of successful reorientation.

Phase 6: Termination of Retirement
This seems like a logically impossible stage. Termination may come at death, but it

may also come with disability or illness, leading to a need to focus on taking care of self
rather than on activities related to an active retirement.

Summary: Challenges and Opportunities

Virtually all adults work, for much or all of their
preretirement lives. The old structure of learn,
then work, then play (c.f., Bolles, 1981) has given
way to continuous change. This new way of liv-
ing in relation to work creates challenges and
opportunities for career counselors. Learning
has become an ongoing necessity—many occu-
pations even require continuing education
to maintain a license or certificate. Times of
unemployment may be interspersed with times

of work, and older adults may continue employ-
ment or find new forms of work—paid or unpaid.

An interesting example of the vicissitudes
of a career was provided by Bruni (2015). Bruni
described the career arc of a successful political
pollster and strategist, Joel Benenson. His first
career? The stage. He credits Shakespeare with
giving him “an understanding of the rhythm and
nuance of language,” invaluable in political strat-
egy. He then co-owned a beer distributorship,

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370 Career Development and Counseling

during which, he said, he came in contact with
people who lived paycheck to paycheck, an
important understanding for a political strate-
gist. Journalism occupied more of his career exis-
tence before he headed into politics. Benenson’s
message is as follows:

Don’t think about what you want to do
for the rest of your life. Think about
what you want to do next. Maybe you
have a big goal out there and pursue
it, but along the way, that line from A
to B is not a continuum. The key will

be identifying what you are passionate
about in each of those steps along the
way. (Bruni, 2015, p. 3)

The dental model (Goodman, 1992) has
become even more the mode, and career coun-
selors may find themselves working with adults
in all aspects of career decision making at any
age. The information in this chapter has been
provided to offer some assistance in facing
those challenges and being of the most possi-
ble help to adults who seek career counseling
services.

Keystones

• Adult career development needs are not
static as previously perceived; instead, these
needs are varied and changing depending on
both individuals and contextual factors.

• The modern theories of career development
applicable to adults have common features of
flexibility, adaptability, and active creativity.

• Counselors can help their adult clients
develop a sense of agency about their
career plans, help them be active on their
own behalf, and help them not only develop
a vision of their preferred future but also
acquire the tools to make that vision a reality.

• Adult career planning, then, needs to add
using and creating chance events to its

repertoire of skills, self-directed in keeping
current with trends in the employment
market as well as keeping their own
employability active.

• Counselors can use Schlossberg’s transition
theory to identify where clients stand in
managing their transitions and form the basis
of a counseling plan of action.

• It is important to recognize the intense stress
of losing employment to adults and impacts
on individuals, family, and career trajectory.

• Understanding and navigating pre- and
postretirement scenarios would help adults
plan for and carry out the one(s) best suited
to themselves.

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1

Career Development Program Plan

Your Name

Capella University

COUN 5

2

79: Life Planning and Career Development

Instructor’s Name

Due Date (Month, Date, Year)

Abstract

Here you are to summarize the contents of this paper. This summary should be one short paragraph that includes the purpose of this assignment, and the list of this assignment’s components in narrative (not list) form.

Career Development Program Plan

Start writing your introduction here (1 paragraph). An effective introduction prepares the reader by identifying the purpose of the paper and providing the organization of the paper. Please double-space and remember to indent all paragraphs throughout your paper (not block form). Aim to keep your writing objective using third person. Unless required for the specific assignment, please do not include a table of contents, as it is not APA style. Review paper guidelines on page requirements and the number of sources required. Unless citing a classic work, aim to cite research articles and texts published within the past five years. Please use the following headings throughout your paper that are consistent with the paper’s scoring guide (that way you ensure you are adequately addressing all required areas.).

Diverse Population

Define the diverse population. Provide a detailed understanding of the general issues and how they vary from the majority population (e.g., characteristics of this particular population, the number/ percentage of people estimated in this population, overall strengths and challenges with life, age/ethnic/gender/regional/educational/SES makeup if applicable)

Describe the population’s needs related to career development that may differ from the majority population (e.g., financial, education, training, skills, availability), prevalence of the issues within the population, and scope (e.g., #s, %, etc.).

Utilize scholarly literature to support your response. Review the evaluation categories in the scoring guide should you wish to address the “distinguished” category for all sections of your paper.

Career Development Program Planning

(This section does not need to be in paragraph form. Use the following headings to organize this section.)

Career Development Program Name

(Example: C-YA Program: Career Transitions for Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities)

Program Goal

One sentence, overarching mission of the program

(Example: Improve the career transition from high school to adult life for young adults with intellectual disabilities.

Objectives

1. Include three measurable objectives that meet the needs of your population that you identified in the preceding section.

2. (
Example: By the end of year one, 20 young adults in the C-YA program will complete an internship experience with a local employer.)

3. If you do not feel confident writing measurable objectives, please search for resources on the Internet.

Program Delivery

Address how the program will be delivered. This section can include the format (face-to-face, online, etc.), modality (individual, small group, classroom, cohort, etc.), how many sessions will you hold and how will they be scheduled?

(Example: The C-YA program will be delivered in a face-to-face, cohort model. A certified counselor and graduate student will co-lead a small group of approximately 8-10 young adults. The small group will meet approximately twice a week for one hour for 12 months. The C-YA program also requires an internship that participants will begin in month 6. The participant will also receive weekly on-site job coaching from their counselor or graduate student from months 6-12.)

Personnel Needs

Describe basic staffing needs.

Budget Needs

Provide a basic budget. I do not expect this to be accurate. You are counselors-in-training, not accountants or human resource managers!

Program Promotion

Provide a brief description of how you will recruit individuals to participate in your career development program.

(Example: The Director of Special Education in nearby school districts will disseminate information about the C-YA program to the special education staff at local high schools. Additionally, the C-YA staff will hold a number of informational sessions for school staff and parents at local high schools.)

Career Development Program Implementation

(Use a chart to organize this section. The example below is abbreviated. Make sure the number of sessions you mention in your program delivery in the preceding paragraph are included. Based on current research, it is recommended that you include at least 8 sessions. Ensure that your counseling activities and strategies are aligned to the program objectives.)

Session Number

Topic

Counseling Activity or Strategy

1

Who Am I?

Personal Awareness

Participants will share their “About Me” poster that was developed in collaboration with their person-centered planning team members before the small group started.

2

What are my Strengths?

Personal Awareness

Group interpretation of Assessment Scale for Positive Character Traits – Developmental Disabilities (ASPeCT-DD; Woodard, 2009)

*Note this is an abbreviated table. Include the number of sessions you listed in your program delivery.

Career Development Program Evaluation

(In this section, describe how you will assess the effectiveness of your career development program.)

Process-oriented Data

Identify an objective assessment that is related to your program objectives. Process-oriented data is collected directly from participants regarding knowledge gained or attitudes or beliefs held. This information is usually discovered through the use of surveys and evaluations in pretest/posttest format. (School counseling learners: ASCA refers to this type of data as perception data.)

(
Example:
Objective 2:
By the end of year one, 20 young adults in the C-YA program will complete an internship experience with a local employer. Internship completion in the C-YA program is dependent on the participant maintaining a 70% on their monthly Employability Skills Checklist when evaluated by their supervisor and job coach during months 6-12.)

Outcome Data

Identify how you will measure results on a larger, long-term scale. Outcome data is related to your program goals.

(
Example: In order to assess the program goal (Improve the career transition from high school to adult life for young adults with intellectual disabilities), the program will conduct bi-yearly employment checks on former participants for up to 5 years after program completion. Long-term success will be measured by a career attainment rate of 65% for C-YA alumni.)

Conclusion

Please provide a conclusion that summarizes the main ideas of your paper. When you finish writing your paper, re-read it to check for errors and make sure your ideas flow well. A helpful tip is to read your paper aloud to yourself. If it does not sound right to your ear, it is not working on paper! Please submit your papers to SafeAssign (linked in the course) to check for plagiarism. Also, remember as a Capella learner you have free access through Campus to personal tutoring services with Smarthinking.com.

References

Begin your references on a separate page with the heading above. For this paper, you are to have a minimum of at least three references including your text.

You must have a reference for each source cited in your paper. Do
not list a reference that was not cited in your paper. Consult your APA manual for proper examples on citing and referencing APA style. The Capella University Writing Center also has helpful tutorials.

What You Need to Know

Readings

Use your
 

Career Development and Counseling: Theory and Practice in a Multicultural World

 text to read about career development intervention programs:

· Chapter 14, “Adult Career Development.” pages 351–372.

Multimedia

View this video on chaos theory of careers (start at minute 3:10) to understand how it can be applied to adult clients:

· GradLeaders. (2019, July 29). 

Chaos theory of careers
 [Video]

 | 

Transcript

. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iGorz_vSmUk

Riverbend City Counseling Center

Learn more about the challenges faced by the clients at Riverbend City Counseling Center (RCCC) by reviewing the “Week 6 – Adult Issues” tab.

·

Riverbend City: Career Counseling

.

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