The group assignment provides


Objective: The group assignment provides you with the opportunity to collaborate with

others to explore a defined area of Human Reproductive Biology at an in-depth level. The

assignment is for your own enjoyment and will provide a valuable resource for you and

your fellow students (who will see a presentation of your topic). Through the assignment

you will develop your literature search skills, the ability to select and critically examine

information and to present it logically in written, graphical and electronic forms. You will

demonstrate your ability to work as part of a team and to show leadership where


The best judge of the value of your assignment is yourself and your group; if you could

enjoy reading it in two years’ time and derive some useful information from it, and a better

understanding of some area of Human Reproductive Biology, then it is a good assignment.


The Challenge: Develop a proposal for a novel

assisted reproductive technology (ART).


Context: The development and ongoing progression of ART has been pivotal to

overcoming limitations of reduced or impaired fertility status, but significant and

insurmountable barriers persist. Many individuals who wish to reproduce but do not have

the capabilities to conceive are not afforded the luxury of family planning and/or ART. In

non-heteronormative relationships, the desire of a couple to reproduce and bear a child

may be eclipsed by the inability to achieve fusion of gametes. Individuals who are childless

or infecund often face severe social stigma and mental health issues, especially for

marginalised people and in developing nations. Other individuals may have medical

conditions or undergo procedures which render them infecund.


A number of circumstances exist where individuals and/or couples are unable to conceive:


• Homosexual, intersex and other LGBTIQ2+A relationships

• Male-to-female/female-to-male individuals

• Surgical procedures (eg. Hysterectomy, bilateral orchiectomy)




ANHB2216 Unit Outline 2023


• Primary Amenorrhea and maturation arrest of spermatogenesis

• Chronic conditions (eg. Endometriosis, PCOS, Metabolic syndrome-associated prostatitis)

• STI-induced infecundity (eg. Bilateral tubal occlusion, HPV-related cervical cancer, acute chlamydial epididymitis)

• Chromosomal disorders (Eg. Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome)

• Congenital disorders (Eg. Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, Androgen insensitivity syndrome, Pure gonadal dysgenesis)

• Childhood cancer survivors


Currently, the prevailing options for these individuals are limited to: donor conception,

surrogacy, fostering/adoption or childlessness. In many of these circumstances, there are

no treatments, therapies or technologies which overcome reproductive barriers. There can

also be profound cultural and religious beliefs or “justifications” which allege why some

individuals shouldn’t be able to reproduce. Without appropriate acknowledgement, further

ART development, and medical advances; the under-representation, marginalisation, and

social isolation of these individuals in society is exacerbated.


There is no doubt that established ARTs can already overcome significant reproductive

barriers (eg. ICSI for individuals with Klinefelter disease). However, as all individuals are

diverse, so too are the reproductive barriers they face. The MRKH syndrome, for example,

permits oogenesis in affected individuals, but they are often born with only a partial uterus

or without a uterus entirely. Similarly, a hysterectomy may be required for cervical cancer

patients whilst still within optimal reproductive age, and for many young adults with cancer

most chemotherapy treatments render them infertile. There are options for storing sperm

(expensive) and for taking sections of ovarian tissue for storage and later implantation, but

the latter is still somewhat experimental, and available only in 1st world countries. The

ethical implications of collecting gametes from minors undergoing cancer therapy is also

an important consideration.


In other instances, individuals who have undergone complete surgery for male-to-female

transition ordinarily have a vagina and vulva, but have no uterus and all gonadal tissue is

removed. Additionally, individuals afflicted by androgen insensitivity syndrome and primary

amenorrhea may produce immature germ line cells, but cannot ejaculate or ovulate.

Despite these unique and formidable limitations, scientific advances such as gene therapy,

transdifferentiation and artificial womb technologies may provide solutions.




ANHB2216 Unit Outline 2023



Your task as a group, is to think about these issues and develop a proposal for a novel

ART. For this assignment you need to:


1. Demonstrate understanding of why there is still a need for the development of new ARTs to support individuals unable to conceive or reproduce.

2. Clearly explain the specific demographic for your novel ART and the reasoning for their need.

3. Describe how your ART is tailored to work for your target.

4. Possible societal implications of your ART device.


To get you thinking, access some of these publications:






Submission dates: the assignment topic has several components with separate

submission dates.

Component % of unit Format Due date:

Infographic 25% One infographic and accompanying information per student. Submitted in LMS.

11:59pm 6th October

Electronic poster presentation

15% One PowerPoint presentation per group. Submitted to LMS after presentation

During class Weeks 11 or 12

There will be a penalty for late submission unless an extension has been prior approved

by a University Special Consideration. Penalty is a deduction of 5% (of the value of the

component) per day for the first 7 days (including weekends and public holidays) after

which the assigned work is not accepted. Each 24-hour block is recorded from the time to

assignment is due. Where there are a number of tasks within an assessment item, the late

penalty may be applied holistically to the assessment item after all tasks have been




ANHB2216 Unit Outline 2023


completed. Note: for group components all members of the group will be penalised for late



Infographic (25% of unit value)

Each group member will prepare an individual infographic on the novel ART proposed by

the group. We have chosen this as an assessment due to feedback from prospective

employers that Infographic design is a desired skill, and it’s something you may use in

your future employment. Your infographic should be 600px x 1800px and be tailored to

communicate to the potential user of your ART. Canva or PowerPoint can be used to

make the Infographic. In the Infographic, inform your potential user on the benefits of your

novel ART, describe how it works, and let them know of any limitations.


With the infographic submission, you must include two additional paragraphs with in-text

citations (maximum 500 words in total). The first paragraph describes how your ART

works. The second paragraph should describe your target user and how you have tailored

your infographic to communicate to them. You will also include a list of references correctly

formatted (APA style). Your assignment should be one document. Use a page break to

separate your infographic from the paragraphs and Reference list. If you use images that

are not from Creative Commons or you didn’t draw them yourself, please provide a source

for them. This can be done underneath the References using the subheading “Image


You should be tailoring the infographic so it is directly communicating to your target user

who needs the ART (not a medical professional or scientist). You should assume high

school science knowledge level so you will need to clearly communicate (through images

and text) the anatomical / hormonal / reproductive biology terms. Do not assume technical

knowledge. With an assessment like this, it’s always handy to run it past a friend or family

member with limited science background to see if they understand it. If there’s bits they

don’t get, then that is a useful indicator that you need to develop things better.

A key component of an infographic is using visual elements to communicate your ideas – if

it is text heavy it will be an ineffective infographic communication. The infographic

workshop in LMS will help you with this.




ANHB2216 Unit Outline 2023


The accompanying paragraphs are for your marker to assess your depth of understanding.

So, you can assume a high level of scientific understanding. This is your opportunity to

explain in depth the need for the ART, how the ART works (explain clearly the

reproductive biology), plus an understanding of your target user. The communication style

should be formal and scientific with every factual sentence referenced. It is best practice to

ensure you write acronyms in full the first time you introduce them.

As infographics are an important style of science communication that many of you will not

be familiar with, we have dedicated a Workshop@Home session to this. On LMS you will

find a section dedicated to developing an Infographic. There are resources available to get

you thinking about how to communicate with your target audience as well as how to

develop an Infographic. Students should also consult the marking rubric on the unit LMS.

Assignments should be submitted online to Turnitin via the LMS by 11:59pm on the

due date (see timetable).

References: You are expected to research journal articles – it is very unlikely you will find

all the information you need in a book. Evidence of consulting and critically assessing

original research articles will be viewed favourably. The library has online access to many

thousands of journals through databases such as Medline, Biol Abstracts and PsychInfo

(see the library website).

Using ‘Google’ searches as a source of information is NOT RECOMMENDED. Marks will

be deducted for infographics based on information gleaned from unreliable websites. That

said, however, there are some websites that provide very valuable information, for

example the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the World Health Organization to name a

few, and you should not be discouraged from using these if appropriate to your topic. If in

doubt about the quality of a website, talk to your tutor or a librarian.

How to Reference: correct referencing is fundamental to scientific writing – it allows the

reader the opportunity to locate and check the source of information if required. As a rule

avoid verbatim quotation of others (even if referenced), rather paraphrase the information

in YOUR OWN WORDS. Please use the APA 7th ed. style of referencing. The library

website has excellent information on how to reference.





ANHB2216 Unit Outline 2023



Electronic poster presentation: (15% of unit value)

In addition to the Infographic each group will prepare an electronic poster, which covers

the key issues of the group’s novel ART, to be displayed at a poster forum during the last

laboratory sessions. Electronic posters are PowerPoint presentations suitable for display

at a “kiosk” and viewable by small groups of individuals. This format is used at some

scientific conferences, for example the Fertility Society of Australia and New Zealand.

Through the presentation you will demonstrate your ability to clearly communicate key

issues in an organised manner to a scientific audience.


• Maximum of 9 PowerPoint slides per group including title page and reference slide

at end. You are also welcome to use Prezi or Powtoon to construct your slides.

• Font size must be legible on a 17 inch screen when displayed in landscape format

and viewed from a distance of one metre.

• Slides and animations must change automatically – ensure you allow enough time

for individuals to read each slide. Maximum time allowed is 6 minutes.

• No speaking during the presentation. The PowerPoint should speak for itself; it

should be coherent, integrated and visually attractive.

• Four minute question time will follow each presentation.

We will be using the computers in G.03. It is your responsibility to ensure that your

presentation is loaded and working in time for the start of the session. The

computer that will be used for the presentation is a PC. Ensure that if you have used

a Mac to construct your presentation you check on a PC that formatting and

animation timing is correct.

The presentation will be marked on the following criteria:

Overview (20%): introduction of topic and main lines of argument Information (20%): balanced coverage of key issues. Rationale (20%): logical arguments supported with evidence. Conclusion (20%): conclusion draws lines of argument together and is based on the evidence provided. Presentation (10%): attractive and balanced layout; legible font with not too much text; appropriate use of graphics; well-timed animation etc. Team roles (10%): balanced contribution from each member, engagement in discussion with audience. Format: On the allocated day, each group will present their poster on the main lecture screen in G03. They will then answer questions from the audience.




ANHB2216 Unit Outline 2023



Plagiarism is “the taking and using as one’s own of the thoughts, writings or inventions of

another”1. These thoughts or writings could be, for example, from a book, the internet or

from the work of another student.

Like the scientific process, assessment of students at university relies upon the integrity of

the participants. The School expects that any piece of work submitted by a student for

assessment will be essentially their own work, and that the contributions of others to that

work will be appropriately acknowledged. In essence, all students are expected to write

their own essays and assignments, just as they are expected to sit the exams themselves.

Students should generally avoid verbatim copying of published work, even when the work

is cited. They are strongly encouraged to express their knowledge and thoughts in their

own words, rather than those of others, because this greatly assists the learning process.

However, it is acknowledged that in some circumstances it is desirable to quote directly

from a published work.

Plagiarism is a very serious offence that carries substantial penalties. If a student is found

to have committed plagiarism, the student may receive a failing grade for the work in

question and the School may recommend the matter be dealt with under University Statute

17 (Misconduct). The student may be excluded from the unit.

These guidelines are not intended, in any sense, to discourage students from

discussing their views with other students, staff or others outside the university.

Indeed this is strongly encouraged as it is one of the very best ways of learning.

Any student who does not fully understand these guidelines or who experiences difficulties

in following them should consult their tutor or unit co-ordinator.

1 Little W, Fowler HW, Coulson J & Onions CT. (1964) The Shorter Oxford English

dictionary on historical principles. Clarendon Press, Oxford. p1513.






ANHB2216 Unit Outline 2023



Information and figures used within this practical book are derived from the following texts.

Material within this practical manual has been reproduced on behalf of The University of

Western Australia pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). Material within

this practical manual may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction

or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under

the Act.

Saladin K.S. and Gan C.A. Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function

(8th Edition), Mc-Graw Hill Education.

Johnson, M.H. and Everitt, B.J. (1995) Essential Reproduction. 4th edn, Blackwell


Heffner, L.J. (2001) Human Reproduction at a Glance. Blackwell Science.

Ross, M.H., Romrell L.J. and Kaye, G.I. (1995) Histology: A Text and Atlas. 3rd edn.

Williams and Wilkins.

Carlson, B.M. (1994) Human Embryology and Developmental Biology. Mosby:


Moore, K.L. (1989) Before We Are Born. Basic Embryology and Birth Defects. 3rd

edn W.B.Saunders, Philadelphia.

Austin, C.R. and Short, R.V. (1972) Reproduction in Mammals: Books 1 to 5

Cambridge University Press.

Knobil, E. and Neill, J.D. (1988) The Physiology of Reproduction. Raven Press, New


Junqueira, L.C. and Carneiro, J. (1980) Basic Histology. 3rd edn. Lange: Los Altos.




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